"The Lebanon" is a song by the British synthpop group The Human League, released as a single in April 1984. Written jointly by lead singer Philip Oakey and keyboard player and guitarist Jo Callis, it was the first single from the band's fourth album Hysteria, was recorded at AIR Studios between 1983-1984; the song was conceived and recorded at a time when the band was under considerable pressure to follow up the enormous international success of their previous album, Dare. The band had taken up residence in the £1000 a day AIR Studios. With its heavy use of bass and rock guitars, "The Lebanon" was a radical departure from the established synthpop sound of the Human League. Though the song does employ some keyboards, the use of guitars by the band was not lost on music critics who brought up the "no guitars rule" that the band had publicly adopted in 1981; the lyrics were an attempt to make a statement on the Lebanese civil war, exacerbated by the Israeli invasion of southern Lebanon in 1982.
In a television interview, band member Philip Adrian Wright commented that Oakey's politically-charged lyrics were written about the Sabra and Shatila massacre. Singer Susan Ann Sulley said of the song that the band "wanted to speak up for the little people" and say something about the situation in Lebanon at the time, that the band was not trying to be political for the sake of it; the band were criticised at the time for being banal and "out of their depth", but in a retrospective review, AllMusic journalist Andy Kellman wrote that the song "looks atrocious on paper but sounds fantastic".."The Lebanon" was released as a UK single in April 1984. It failed to replicate the Top 3 success of the band's previous singles " Fascination" and "Mirror Man", only reaching number 11 in the UK Singles chart and number 64 in the Billboard Hot 100, becoming their lowest-charting single in the United States; the track is nearly always played by the band live. The music video for the song was filmed in the Theatre Royal, London in March 1984.
The video at first sight appears to be filmed at a Human League concert with the band playing live on stage. The concert was in fact was filmed in takes as the band mimed to playback; the audience were invited. This is noticeable when the camera pans onto the audience where certain extras try to play up for their'shot at fame'. Though it was a faux concert, the band's appearance on stage is notable for its layout and behaviour; the three vocalists are in a straight line at the front of the stage, a energetic Susan Sulley on the left, a serious Philip Oakey in the centre and a cool, laid back, sashaying Joanne Catherall on the right, with the instrumentalists to the rear. This arrangement and performance style is still used when the band plays live
Ruth Carolyn Ziolkowski was an American executive and CEO of the Crazy Horse Memorial, a South Dakota monument dedicated to Crazy Horse, designed by her late husband, Korczak Ziolkowski. Ruth Ziolkowski took over the responsibility for the construction of the monument following the death of her husband in 1982. Korczak Ziolkowski had been focusing on the completion of Crazy Horse's horse at the time of his death. Ruth Ziolkowski changed course, she hoped that the monument would become a tourist magnet once his 87.5-foot face was finished, providing needed funding for the project. Her prediction proved correct upon the face's completion in 1998 and the statue became one of South Dakota's top tourist attractions, she oversaw the growth and progress at the Crazy Horse Memorial from the 1980s to the 2010s. She was born Ruth Ross to Lydia Ross on June 26, 1926 in West Hartford, Connecticut, she first met Polish American sculptor and artist Korczak Ziolkowski, when she was 13 years old in their native West Hartford.
She and a friend showed up at his house to get an autograph from a film actor, visiting him. Ross was among a group of student volunteers who helped Ziolkowski create a sculpture of Noah Webster, the creator of the Webster's Dictionary and former resident of West Hartford, over the course of two years; the Webster statue now stands at the West Hartford Library. Korczak helped with the completion of Mount Rushmore during the 1930s, he had been approached by Chief Henry Standing Bear of the Lakota approached him about a potential project. Ziolkowski designed a huge statue of Crazy Horse, an Oglala Lakota chief who helped defeat George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876, he acquired Thunderhead Mountain in the Black Hills, located just 17 miles from Mount Rushmore, from the U. S. federal government, as the site for his monument. He arrived at the site on May 3, 1947 and commenced construction of the Crazy Horse Memorial in 1948. Ruth Ross arrived at the Crazy Horse Memorial in 1948 with a group of Connecticut youths who had volunteered to help Ziolkowski with the project during his pre-planning stages.
A professional, as well as a personal, relationship soon developed. Ziolkowski and Ross married on November 1950, on Thanksgiving, he was 42 years old. The marriage produced ten children. While Korczak focused on the creation of Crazy Horse from the 1940s to the 1980s, Ruth handled much of the day-to-day operations of the Crazy Horse site from her office in the family's cabin. Ruth and her husband jointly compiled three books of material containing measurements and plans for the statue, she handled bookkeeping. She handled press inquires, staffed their visitors center, acquired the equipment and materials needed to carve the sculpture, she handled these tasks while raising ten children. Korczak Ziolkowski declined financial support from the U. S. federal government, believing. In order to raise money during the early years of the project, Ruth Ziolkowski operated a timber mill and a dairy farm, she served as the chairman of the board and chief executive officer for the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation board of directors.
Korczak Ziolkowski died on October 20, 1982, 34 years after beginning work on the Crazy Horse Memorial. He was buried at the base of Thunderhead Mountain. Ruth sought to keep on the project on task in collaboration with her children and the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation, she utilized the three books of instructions and measurements, which she and her husband had compiled, to continue construction of the Crazy Horse Monument, took charge of the staff, who included seven of their ten children. Ruth Ziolkowski oversaw all work on the sculpture from the 1980s until her death in 2014, she decided that Crazy Horse's face should be completed first, rather than the horse, as her husband had intended. Ruth Ziolkowski reasoned that Crazy Horse's face would increase tourism and provide an increased source of income to continue carving the mountain; the face was completed in 1998. She sought to expand the 1,000-acre complex's public facilities and increase its outreach to the Native American community, she has been credited with expanding the Indian Museum of North America, located on the grounds of the memorial, as well as establishing the Indian University of North America, founded in 2009.
The Indian University was set to host thirty-two students during the summer of 2014. Work commenced on the horse's head after two years of planning and measurements. Ruth Ziolkowski explained some of the challenges of carving the horse head at the time, "The first hurdle was one of logistics – we have taken considerable time to measure and calculate the best approach to what will be an extraordinary and lengthy undertaking. We've been mindful of Korczak's good advice to'Go so you do it right' as well as the old adage about the wisdom of measuring something six times before you cut it once."Ruth Ziolkowski could not provide an exact deadline for the projected completion date, noting the complexities of weather and labor needed for the sculpture. She believed that the sculpture the horse's head, could take decades to complete, she believed that her late husband would be "absolutely thrilled" with the progress on the sculpture from the 1980s to the 2010s. Ruth Ziolkowski was diagnosed with cancer in March 2014.