Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
Evangelist portraits are a specific type of miniature included in ancient and mediaeval illuminated manuscript Gospel Books, in Bibles and other books, as well as other media. Each Gospel of the Four Evangelists, the books of Matthew, Mark and John, may be prefaced by a portrait of the Evangelist occupying a full page, their symbols may be shown with them, or separately. They are the only figurative illumination in the manuscript, they are a common feature in larger Gospel Books from the earliest examples in the 6th century until the decline of that format for illustrated books in the High Middle Ages, by which time their conventions were being used for portraits of other authors. They originate in the classical secular tradition of the author portrait, the only illustration in a classical manuscript used as a frontispiece. A few examples of Late Antique secular author portraits survive, rather more copies; some examples draw on the conventions of the Late Antique consular portrait, much used for the Emperors, who were consuls.
Examples of these, copied from the original, can be seen in the Chronography of 354. The Evangelist may be holding a book, but is not writing in it, he faces the front on a large throne, surrounded by an elaborate frame domed or pedimented; these frameworks are thought to draw from the style of the Scaenae frons, or elaborate proscenium structures of Roman theatres. The traditional symbols of the Evangelists were included in the images, or in the Insular tradition, either given their own additional images on a separate page, or used instead of an evangelist portrait; the symbols are: the Lion of Mark, the Eagle of John, the Ox or Calf of Luke and the Angel or Man of Matthew. All are shown with wings, as in the familiar winged lion used in the coat of arms of Venice, whose patron saint was Mark. Sometimes, as in the example from Lorsch, the symbols are shown dictating the text to the evangelist. Late Antique evangelist portraits show standing figures, as in the ivory panels of the Throne of Maximianus in Milan, but from the Insular art of the 7th to 10th centuries, evangelist portraits in manuscripts nearly always followed the seated classical models, showing the Evangelists at full-length, either looking out at the viewer or writing at a table or desk and seen at an oblique angle.
These were derived from unknown classical prototypes, similar to those in the Codex Amiatinus and Saint Augustine Gospels, though both of these types are rather different from the general types. A setting is provided for the figure. Details of the classical models, such as anachronistic scrolls and scroll-boxes, a small writing-stand with a single dolphin-shaped support, survive well into the Middle Ages, sometimes misunderstood by the artists concerned; because of the secular origins of the typology, haloes are less to be worn than in other types of image. The level of detail shown in the furniture and fittings is unusual for Early Medieval art. An arch behind the author with curtains hanging across it, in some examples close to the classical models is turned into a decorative framing device for the whole scene. Early Gospel Books had a elaborate and costly treasure binding or cover in metalwork with jewels and ivories; these most featured a central panel with Christ in Majesty including the Evangelists and/or their symbols in the corners.
Versions of the same composition appear in all media used for Early Medieval religious art, including wall paintings. The Tassilo Chalice is an 8th-century example of pure metalwork with five oval medallion portraits of Christ and the Evangelists round the cup; the early artists of the Insular period show evangelists from the front who appear to be standing, although a chair is drawn behind them. Insular depictions seem to show figures without chairs, who are standing. Most of Europe continued to use the seated model however seen in a three-quarters on view, with a cushion behind. Sometimes all four evangelists were combined on a page, sometimes around a Christ in Majesty. Standing portraits were usual, for wall and panel paintings with the Evangelists treated as, mixed with, other saints; the Gospel book as a medium for illustrated manuscripts declined in the West from the Romanesque period, with it the use of the Evangelist portrait. In the Eastern Orthodox world, the Gospel Book remained a primary focus for illumination, Evangelist portraits, derived from contemporary Byzantine versions, are represented among the earliest illuminations from the new Slav national traditions, such as the 11th-century Ostromir Gospels and the Khitrovo Gospels of about 1390 from Muscovy.
In the West the portraits continued to be found in Bibles, more as the picture within a historiated initial at the start of each Gospel. Other books sometimes contained them as well. Similar compositions began to be used for other saint-authors for St Jerome, shown in a book-lined study with his symbol, a lion, dozing at his feet. St Gregory the Great may be shown with a dove, representing his inspiration from the Holy Spirit, whispering in his ear. Calkins, Robert G. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1983. Nordenfalk, Carl. Cetic and Anglo-Saxon Painting: Book illumina
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century, the direct ancestors of the majority of the modern British people. They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were established; the term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more called Old English.
The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity. It developed from divergent groups in association with the people's adoption of Christianity, was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and military occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established; the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties; the elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms. Above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed, "local and extended kin groups remained...the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period." The effects persist in the 21st century as, according to a study published in March 2015, the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period.
Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent. Catherine Hills summarised the views of many modern scholars in her observation that attitudes towards Anglo-Saxons, hence the interpretation of their culture and history, have been "more contingent on contemporary political and religious theology as on any kind of evidence." The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum and Gildas calls Saxones. Anglo-Saxon is a term, used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more a local or tribal name such as Mierce, Gewisse, Westseaxe, or Norþanhymbre. The use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders,'Saxones' who attacked the shores of Britain and Gaul in the 3rd century AD. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons; the term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in continental writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean "English" Saxons; the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people; the first use of the term Anglo-Saxon amongst the insular sources is in the titles for Athelstan: Angelsaxonum Denorumque gloriosissimus rex and rex Angulsexna and Norþhymbra imperator paganorum gubernator Brittanorumque propugnator. At other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex; the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred. King Cnut in 1021 was the first to refer to the land and not the people with this term: ealles Englalandes cyningc.
These titles express the sense that the Anglo-Saxons were a Christian people with a king anointed by God. The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or Saeson. Catherine Hills suggests that it is no accident, "that the English call themselves by the name sanctified by the Church, as that of a people chosen by God, whereas their enemies use the name applied to piratical raiders"; the early Anglo-Saxon period covers the history of medieval Britain that starts from the end of Roman rul
Bertha of Kent
Saint Bertha or Saint Aldeberge was the queen of Kent whose influence led to the Christianization of Anglo-Saxon England. She was canonized as a saint for her role in its establishment during that period of English history. Bertha was a Frankish princess, the daughter of Charibert I and his wife Ingoberga, granddaughter of the reigning King Chlothar I and great-granddaughter of Clovis I and Saint Clotilde, her father died in 567, her mother in 589. Bertha had been raised near Tours, her marriage to the pagan Æthelberht of Kent, in 580 AD, was on condition that she be allowed to practice her religion. She brought her chaplain, with her to England. A former Roman church was restored for Bertha just outside the City of Canterbury, dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours, it was the private chapel of Queen Bertha. The present St Martin's Church continues on the same site, incorporating Roman walling of the original church in the chancel, it is acknowledged by UNESCO as the oldest church in the English-speaking world where Christian worship has taken place continuously since 580 AD.
St Martin's make up Canterbury's UNESCO World Heritage site. Pope Gregory the Great sent a Mission led by Augustine of Canterbury, to restore Christianity to England in 596; the Mission's favourable reception upon arrival in 597 AD owed much to the influence of Bertha. Without her support and Æthelberht's good will, monastic settlements and the cathedral would have been developed elsewhere. In 601, Pope Gregory addressed a letter to Bertha, in which he complimented her on her faith and knowledge of letters. Anglo-Saxon records indicate that Saint Bertha had two children: Eadbald of Kent, Æthelburg of Kent, she is named in the genealogies of various of the medieval accounts of the'Kentish Royal Legend'. The date of her death is disputed; the city of Canterbury celebrates Queen Bertha in many ways. The Bertha trail, consisting of 14 bronze plaques set in pavements, runs from the Buttermarket to St Martin's church via Lady Wootton's Green. In 2006, bronze statues of Bertha and Ethelbert were installed on Lady Wootton's Green as part of the Canterbury Commemoration Society's "Ethelbert and Bertha" project.
There is a wooden statue of Bertha inside St Martin's church. Bertha 1 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
St Augustine's Abbey
St Augustine's Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Canterbury, England. The abbey was founded in 598 and functioned as a monastery until its dissolution in 1538 during the English Reformation. After the abbey's dissolution, it underwent dismantlement until 1848. Since 1848, part of the site has been used for educational purposes and the abbey ruins have been preserved for their historical value. In 597, Augustine arrived in Anglo-Saxon England, having been sent by the missionary-minded Pope Gregory I to convert the Anglo-Saxons; the King of Kent at this time was Ethelbert. Although he worshipped in a pagan temple just outside the walls of Canterbury to the east of the city, Ethelbert was married to a Christian, Bertha. According to tradition, the king not only gave his temple and its precincts to St Augustine for a church and monastery, he ordered that the church to be erected be of "becoming splendour, dedicated to the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, endowed it with a variety of gifts." One purpose of the foundation was to provide a residence for his brother monks.
As another, both King Ethelbert and Augustine foresaw the abbey as a burial place for abbots and kings of Kent. William Thorne, the 14th century chronicler of the abbey, records 598 as the year of the foundation; the monastic buildings were most wooden in the manner of Saxon construction, so they could be built. However, building a church of solid masonry, like the churches Augustine had known in Rome, took longer; the church was completed and consecrated in 613. Ca. 624 a short distance to the east, Eadbald and successor of Ethelbert, founded a second church, dedicated to Saint Mary which buried Kentish royalty. The abbey became known as St Augustine's after the founder's death. For two centuries after its founding, St Augustine's was the only important religious house in the kingdom of Kent; the historian G. F. Maclear characterized St Augustine's as being a "missionary school" where "classical knowledge and English learning flourished." Over time, St Augustine's Abbey acquired an extensive library that included both religious and secular holdings.
In addition, it had a scriptorium for producing manuscripts. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury from 959 to 988, influenced a reorganisation of the abbey to conform to Benedictine rule. Buildings were enlarged and the church rebuilt. Dunstan revised the dedication of the abbey, from the original Saints Peter and Paul, by adding Saint Augustine in 978. Since the abbey has been known as St Augustine's; the invading Danes not only spared St Augustine's, but in 1027 King Cnut made over all the possessions of Minster-in-Thanet to St Augustine's. These possessions included the preserved body of Saint Mildred. Belief in the miraculous power of this relic had spread throughout Europe, it brought many pilgrims to St Augustine's, whose gifts enriched the abbey. Following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, William the Conqueror confiscated landed estates, but he respected Church property. At St Augustine's Abbey, the Anglo-Saxon buildings were reconstructed in the form of a typical Norman Benedictine monastery.
By 1100, all the original buildings had disappeared under a Romanesque edifice. There was further rebuilding as a result of the great fire in 1168; the fire's destruction accounts for the paucity of historical records for the preceding period. From about 1250 onwards was a period of wealth in which "building succeeded building." Boggis' history calls this period a time of "worldly magnificence," marked by "lavish expenditures" on new buildings, royal visits, banquets with thousands of guests. In addition, the papacy imposed many levies on the abbey; the large debt, incurred by these expenditures might have swamped the abbey had it not been for generous benefactors who came to the rescue. The cloister and kitchen were rebuilt. A new abbot's lodging and a great hall were added. In the early 14th century, land was acquired for a cellarer's range, a brewhouse, a bakehouse, a new walled vineyard. A Lady chapel was built to the east of the church; the abbey gatehouse was rebuilt from 1301 to 1309 by Abbot Fyndon.
It has since been known as the Great Gate. The chamber above the entrance was the state bed-chamber of the Monastery. In 1625, Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria slept in this chamber, following their marriage in Canterbury Cathedral. In 1660, after the Restoration, Charles II and his brothers, the Dukes of York and Gloucester, stayed in the gatehouse on their way to London. Fyndon's gate suffered such damage by German bombs during the Second World War that it had to be rebuilt; the gate faces a small square known since the reign of Charles I as Lady Wootton's Green, after the widow of Edward, Lord Wootton of Marley who lived in the palace until her death in 1658. Statues of Æthelberht of Kent and Queen Bertha stand on the green. Boggis describes the early 16th century leading up to the Dissolution of the Monasteries as "days of decadence". Although the abbey owned estates throughout Kent amounting to 19,862 acres, Boggis holds that "historical evidence proves conclusively that if Henry VIII had never dissolved them, the English monasteries were doomed."
The "extortionate exactions" of the Papacy would lead to bankruptcy. However, the English Reformation accompanied by the Dissolution of the Monasteries happened before bankruptcy; the Reformation replaced the Pope with a Monarch. Actions by the Parliament's House of Commons strengthened the power of the laity versus the power of the clergy; these actions were part of the English Reformation’s "great transfer" of
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion. Founded in 1867 in London, the communion has 85 million members within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion; the traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles. The Archbishop of Canterbury in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter pares, but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England; the Anglican Communion was founded at the Lambeth Conference in 1867 in London, under the leadership of Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury. The churches of the Anglican Communion consider themselves to be part of the one, holy and apostolic church, to be both catholic and reformed. Although aligned with the Church of England, the communion has a multitude of beliefs and practices, including evangelical and Anglo-Catholic; each retain their own legislative process and episcopal polity under the leadership of local primates.
For some adherents, Anglicanism represents a non-papal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism though without guiding figure such as Luther, Calvin, Zwingli or Wesley, or for yet others a combination of the two. Most of its 85 million members live in the Anglosphere of former British territories. Full participation in the sacramental life of each church is available to all communicant members. Due to their historical link to England, some of the member churches are known as "Anglican", such as the Anglican Church of Canada. Others, for example the Church of Ireland, the Scottish and American Episcopal churches have official names which do not include "Anglican"; the Anglican Communion has no official legal existence nor any governing structure which might exercise authority over the member churches. There is an Anglican Communion Office in London, under the aegis of the Archbishop of Canterbury, but it only serves in a supporting and organisational role; the communion is held together by a shared history, expressed in its ecclesiology and ethos and by participation in international consultative bodies.
Three elements have been important in holding the communion together: first, the shared ecclesial structure of the component churches, manifested in an episcopal polity maintained through the apostolic succession of bishops and synodical government. The Church of England was self-contained and relied for its unity and identity on its own history, its traditional legal and episcopal structure and its status as an established church of the state; as such Anglicanism was, from the outset, a movement with an explicitly episcopal polity, a characteristic, vital in maintaining the unity of the communion by conveying the episcopate's role in manifesting visible catholicity and ecumenism. Early in its development, Anglicanism developed a vernacular prayer book, called the Book of Common Prayer. Unlike other traditions, Anglicanism has never been governed by a magisterium nor by appeal to one founding theologian, nor by an extra-credal summary of doctrine. Instead, Anglicans have appealed to the Book of Common Prayer and its offshoots as a guide to Anglican theology and practise.
This had the effect of inculcating the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi as the foundation of Anglican identity and confession. Protracted conflict through the 17th century with radical Protestants on the one hand and Catholics who recognised the primacy of the Pope on the other, resulted in an association of churches that were both deliberately vague about doctrinal principles, yet bold in developing parameters of acceptable deviation; these parameters were most articulated in the various rubrics of the successive prayer books, as well as the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion. These articles have shaped and continue to direct the ethos of the communion, an ethos reinforced by their interpretation and expansion by such influential early theologians such as Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes and John Cosin. With the expansion of the British Empire, hence the growth of Anglicanism outside Great Britain and Ireland, the communion sought to establish new vehicles of unity; the first major expression of this were the Lambeth Conferences of the communion's bishops, first convened in 1867 by Charles Longley, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
From the beginning, these were not intended to displace the autonomy of the emerging provinces of the communion, but to "discuss matters of practical interest, pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action." One of the enduringly influential early resolutions of the conference was the so-called Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888. Its intent was to provide the basis for discussions of reunion with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, but it had the ancillary effect of establishing parameters of Anglican identity, it establishes four principles with these words: That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion: The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. The Apostles'
Pope Clement I
Pope Clement I known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99. He is considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church, one of the three chief ones together with Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch. Few details are known about Clement's life. Clement was said to have been consecrated by Saint Peter, he is known to have been a leading member of the church in Rome in the late 1st century. Early church lists place him as the third bishop of Rome after Saint Peter; the Liber Pontificalis states that Clement died in Greece in the third year of Emperor Trajan's reign, or 101 AD. Clement's only genuine extant writing is his letter to the church at Corinth in response to a dispute in which certain presbyters of the Corinthian church had been deposed, he asserted the authority of the presbyters as rulers of the church on the ground that the Apostles had appointed such. His letter, one of the oldest extant Christian documents outside the New Testament, was read in church, along with other epistles, some of which became part of the Christian canon.
These works were the first to affirm the apostolic authority of the clergy. A second epistle, 2 Clement, was attributed to Clement, although recent scholarship suggests it to be a homily by another author. In the legendary Clementine Literature, Clement is the intermediary through whom the apostles teach the church. According to tradition, Clement was imprisoned under the Emperor Trajan. Thereafter he was executed by being thrown into the sea. Clement is recognized as a saint in many Christian churches and is considered a patron saint of mariners, he is commemorated on 23 November in the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Church. In Eastern Orthodox Christianity his feast is kept on 25 November; the Liber Pontificalis presents a list that makes Pope Linus the second in the line of bishops of Rome, with Peter as first. Tertullian considered Clement to be the immediate successor of Peter. In one of his works, Jerome listed Clement as "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter", added that "most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the apostle".
Clement is put after Linus and Cletus/Anacletus in the earliest account, that of Irenaeus, followed by Eusebius of Caesarea. Early succession lists name Clement as the first, third successor of Saint Peter. However, the meaning of his inclusion in these lists has been controversial; some believe there were presbyter-bishops as early as the 1st century, but that there is no evidence for a monarchical episcopacy in Rome at such an early date. There is however, no evidence of a change occurring in ecclesiastical organization in the latter half of the 2nd century, which would indicate that a new or newly-monarchical episcopacy was establishing itself. Dionysius of Corinth and Irenaeus of Lyon both viewed Clement as a monarchial bishop who intervened in the dispute in the church of Corinth. Starting in the 3rd and 4th century, tradition has identified him as the Clement that Paul mentioned in Philippians 4:3, a fellow laborer in Christ. While in the mid-19th century it was customary to identify him as a freedman of Titus Flavius Clemens, consul with his cousin, the Emperor Domitian, this identification, which no ancient sources suggest, afterwards lost support.
The 2nd-century Shepherd of Hermas mentions a Clement whose office it was to communicate with other churches. A large congregation existed in Rome c. 58, when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans. Paul arrived in Rome c. 60. His Captivity Epistles, as well as Mark, Acts, 1 Peter were written here, according to many scholars. Paul and Peter were said to have been martyred there. Nero persecuted Roman Christians after Rome burned in 64, the congregation may have suffered further persecution under Domitian. Clement was the first of early Rome's most notable bishops; the Liber Pontificalis, which documents the reigns of popes, states that Clement had known Saint Peter. Clement is known for his epistle to the church in Corinth, in which he asserts the apostolic authority of the bishops/presbyters as rulers of the church; the epistle mentions episkopoi or presbyteroi as the upper class of minister, served by the deacons, since it does not mention himself, it gives no indication of the title or titles used for Clement in Rome.
According to apocryphal acta dating to the 4th century at earliest, Clement was banished from Rome to the Chersonesus during the reign of the Emperor Trajan and was set to work in a stone quarry. Finding on his arrival that the prisoners were suffering from lack of water, he knelt down in prayer. Looking up, he saw a lamb on a hill, went to where the lamb had stood and struck the ground with his pickaxe, releasing a gushing stream of clear water; this miracle resulted in the conversion of large numbers of the local pagans and his fellow prisoners to Christianity. As punishment, Saint Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown from a boat into the Black Sea; the legend recounts that every year a miraculous ebbing of the sea revealed a divinely built shrine containing his bones. However, the oldest sources on Clement's life and Jerome, note nothing