Anderson County, South Carolina
Anderson County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 187,126, its county seat is Anderson. Named for Revolutionary War leader Robert Anderson, the county is located in northwestern South Carolina, along the Georgia border. Anderson County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Anderson County contains 55,950-acre Lake Hartwell, a U. S. Army Corps of Engineers lake with nearly 1,000 miles of shoreline for residential and recreational use; the area is a growing industrial and tourist center. It is the home of Anderson University, a private, selective comprehensive university of 3,000 undergraduate and graduate students. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 757 square miles, of which 715 square miles is land and 42 square miles is water. Anderson County is in the Saluda River basin. Pickens County – north Greenville County – northeast Laurens County – east Abbeville County – south Elbert County, Georgia – southwest Hart County, Georgia – west Oconee County – northwest I-85 US 29 US 76 US 178 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 187,126 people, 73,829 households, 51,922 families residing in the county.
The population density was 261.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 84,774 housing units at an average density of 118.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 80.1% white, 16.0% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.3% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 15.9% were American, 13.6% were Irish, 10.8% were English, 10.2% were German. Of the 73,829 households, 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families, 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 39.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,871 and the median income for a family was $53,229. Males had a median income of $41,885 versus $30,920 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $22,117. About 12.4% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.0% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. Anderson County has a Council-Administrator form of government under South Carolina law. County Council members are elected from seven single-member districts for two-year terms. All seven council seats are open for election every two years. Anderson County Councilmen are: District 1: Craig Wooten District 2: Gracie Floyd District 3: Ray Graham District 4: Tom Allen District 5: Tommy Dunn District 6: Ken Waters District 7: M. Cindy Wilson The Anderson County Administrator is Rusty Burns. Anderson County has ten divisions: Administration Parks, Recreation & Tourism Central Services Economic Development Emergency Services EMS & Special Operations Environmental Services Finance Planning Transportation Early industry in the county was textile mills, processing southern cotton. In the 21st century, industry has diversified with more than 230 manufacturers, including 22 international companies.
The top major industries in Anderson include manufacturers of automotive products, metal products, industrial machinery, plastics and textiles. Two industries that many times interconnect are automotive sectors. There are more than 27 BMW suppliers in the upstate, recognized internationally as an automotive supplier hub; the plastic industry has a strong presence in the upstate, with 244 plastic companies located within the 10 counties of the northwest corner of SC. Anderson County has 11 automotive suppliers and is a major player in the plastic industry, with 27 plastic companies located within its borders. Anderson Belton Clemson Easley Honea Path Iva Pelzer Pendleton Starr West Pelzer Williamston Centerville Fair Play Homeland Park Northlake Piedmont Powdersville Aaron Craytonville La France Sandy Springs Townville Cheddar Piercetown National Register of Historic Places listings in Anderson County, South Carolina Anderson County Website Anderson County Convention Bureau Anderson University Anderson County Library Tri-County Technical College Geographic data related to Anderson County, South Carolina at OpenStreetMap Anderson County history and images
Interstate 385 is an Interstate Highway located in the Upstate region of South Carolina. I-385 is a spur route of Interstate 85; the highway provides a connection between Columbia. After exit 42, Interstate 385 turns into a Business Spur and becomes East North Street and — for northbound motorists only — Beattie Place; the spur promptly ends at US 29 near the Bon Secours Wellness Arena in downtown Greenville. The explosive economic growth of southern Greenville county is attributed to I-385 and its connection to the city of Greenville and the major cities of Atlanta and Charlotte; this area is known by locals as the "Golden Strip". I-385 features a rather unusual rest area in the median strip near Laurens, that serves both directions of traffic, it was completed as part of the original design of the U. S. 276 expressway in 1958, modeled after the type of single median-located rest areas shared by both north and southbound traffic. The design is similar to many of those built on turnpikes; the general idea — but none of the specifics — of I-385 were present on the 1955 Yellow Book map of the Greenville area.
Of note is that Interstate 85 would have used the US 29 corridor from Greenville east towards Spartanburg based on the diagram. The portion of I-385 that replaced US 276 was the first phase built of an SC DOT plan that predated the Interstate System to upgrade and bypass existing through routes, the goal of forming a single limited-access highway from Greenville to the port of Charleston via the State Capital of Columbia; this plan was scrapped as soon as the future I-26 was added to the act of Congress that set into motion the Interstate System. As a result, I-26 was one of the first Interstates in the south to open in significant mileage. Prior to 1985, I-385 was only signed as such from downtown Greenville to I-85; the portion of the freeway from US 276 in Mauldin to the southern terminus at I-26 was signed as US 276. When the connecting portion was completed, the entire freeway was signed as I-385. For seven months ending July 23, 2010, northbound traffic could not use a 15-mile section of I-385 in Laurens County due to a $60.9 million project to pave the portion extending from South Carolina Highway 101 to the I-385-I-26 interchange near Clinton, SC in concrete.
The closing of a major highway generated controversy. Closing the interstate for construction saved $34 million. Between 2002 and 2012, I-385 was widened from 2 to 3 lanes in each direction from just north of exit 24 near Fountain Inn to just south of Woodruff Rd/SC 146, with the portion between exits 31 and 35 resurfaced in concrete. Beginning in February 2016 and expected to continue through 2020, the I-385/I-85 interchange is being reconstructed to decrease congestion and related accidents. Interstate 385 Business is an unsigned boulevard grade business spur of I-385 along North Street, between Stone Avenue and Church Street, it connected to US 123 and SC 183 MLC. Signage existed for this spur route, but by 2007 has been removed. Media related to Interstate 385 at Wikimedia Commons Mapmikey's South Carolina Highways Page: I-385
South Carolina's 3rd congressional district
The 3rd Congressional District of South Carolina is a congressional district in western South Carolina bordering both Georgia and North Carolina. It includes all of Abbeville, Edgefield, Laurens, McCormick, Oconee and Saluda counties and portions of Greenville and Newberry counties; the district is rural, but much of the economy revolves around the manufacturing centers of Anderson and Greenwood. The district was a Democratic stronghold, Democrats continued to hold most local offices well into the 1990s. However, most residents share the conservative views of their counterparts in the 4th district and the district has elected Republicans since 1994. Republicans now dominate the district's politics at all levels scoring margins rivaling those in the 4th. Indeed, no Democrat has cleared the 40 percent mark in the district in a quarter-century. South Carolina's senior Senator, Lindsey Graham, held this seat from 1995 to 2003, he was succeeded by J. Gresham Barrett. State Rep. Jeff Duncan won the seat in 2010.
From 2003 to 2013 the district included all of Abbeville, Edgefield, Greenwood, McCormick, Oconee and Saluda counties and most of Aiken and Laurens counties. South Carolina's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Henry Laurens was an American merchant, slave trader, rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. A delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Laurens succeeded John Hancock as President of the Congress, he was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and President of the Continental Congress when the Articles were passed on November 15, 1777. Laurens had earned great wealth as a partner in the largest slave-trading house in North America and Laurens. In the 1750s alone, this Charleston firm oversaw the sale of more than 8,000 enslaved Africans. Laurens served for a time as Vice-President of South Carolina, as the United States Minister to the Netherlands during the Revolutionary War, he was captured at sea by the British, imprisoned for several years in the Tower of London. His oldest son, John Laurens, was an aide-de-camp to George Washington and a colonel in the Continental Army. Henry Laurens' forebears were Huguenots who fled France after the Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685.
Henry's grandfather Andre Laurens left earlier, in 1682, made his way to America, settling first in New York City and Charleston, South Carolina. Andre's son John married Hester Grasset a Huguenot refugee. Henry was their third eldest son. John Laurens became a saddler, his business grew to be the largest of its kind in the colonies. In 1744 John Laurens sent Henry to London to augment the young man's business training; this took place in the company of Richard Oswald. John Laurens died in 1747, he married Eleanor Ball of a South Carolina rice planter family, on June 25, 1750. They had thirteen children, many of whom died in childhood. Eleanor died in 1770, one month after giving birth to their last child. Laurens took their three sons to England for their education, encouraging their oldest, John Laurens, to study law. Instead of completing his studies, John Laurens returned to the United States in 1776, to serve in the American Revolutionary War. Henry Laurens served in the militia, he rose to the rank of Lt. Colonel in the campaigns against the Cherokee Indians in 1757–1761, during the French and Indian War.
1757 marked the first year he was elected to the colonial assembly. Laurens was elected again every year but one until the Revolution replaced the assembly with a state Convention as an interim government; the year he missed. He declined both times. In 1772 he joined the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, carried on extensive correspondence with other members; as the American Revolution neared, Laurens was at first inclined to support reconciliation with the British Crown. But as conditions deteriorated, he came to support the American position; when Carolina began to create a revolutionary government, Laurens was elected to the Provincial Congress, which first met on January 9, 1775. He was president of the Committee of Safety, presiding officer of that congress from June until March 1776; when South Carolina installed a independent government, he served as the Vice President of South Carolina from March 1776 to June 27, 1777. Henry Laurens was first named a delegate to the Continental Congress on January 10, 1777.
He served in the Congress from until 1780. He was the President of the Continental Congress from November 1, 1777 to December 9, 1778. In the fall of 1779, the Congress named Laurens their minister to the Netherlands. In early 1780 he took up that post and negotiated Dutch support for the war, but on his return voyage to Amsterdam that fall, the British frigate Vestal intercepted his ship, the continental packet Mercury, off the banks of Newfoundland. Although his dispatches were tossed in the water, they were retrieved by the British, who discovered the draft of a possible U. S.-Dutch treaty prepared in Aix-la-Chapelle in 1778 by William Lee and the Amsterdam banker Jean de Neufville. This prompted Britain to declare war on the Dutch Republic, it becoming known as the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War; the British charged Laurens with treason, transported him to England, imprisoned him in the Tower of London. His imprisonment was protested by the Americans. In the field, most captives were regarded as prisoners of war, while conditions were appalling, prisoner exchanges and mail privileges were accepted practice.
During his imprisonment, Laurens was assisted by Richard Oswald, his former business partner and the principal owner of Bunce Island. Oswald argued on Laurens' behalf to the British government. On December 31, 1781 he was released in exchange for General Lord Cornwallis and completed his voyage to Amsterdam, he helped raise funds for the American effort. Laurens' oldest son, Colonel John Laurens, was killed in 1782 in the Battle of the Combahee River, as one of the last casualties of the Revolutionary War, he had supported enlisting and freeing slaves for the war effort, suggested to his father that he begin with the 40 he stood to inherit. He had urged his father to free the family's slaves, but although conflicted, Henry Laurens never manumitted his 260 slaves. In 1783 Laurens was sent to Paris as one of the Peace Commissioners for the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Paris. While he was not a signatory of the primary treaty, he was instrumental in reaching the secondary accords that resolved issues related to the Netherlands and Spain.
Richard Oswald, a fo
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website