De Naald, Heemstede
De Naald is a monument in Heemstede, erected in 1817 by the city council to commemorate two battles on the Manpad road running next to the site. The site is at the corner of the Manpad, Herenweg, on property belonging to the estate'Huis te Manpad'. De Naald is the name. The'needle' has been mistaken for the border mark between Heemstede and Bennebroek, but in fact the border is further south. Nl:David Jacob van Lennep, who lived in the'Huis te Manpad' behind the monument, was a Dutch poet and professor of classical languages in Amsterdam, his son, Jacob van Lennep, 15 at the time of the monument's placement wrote a song commemorating'Witte van Haemstede', one of the heroes mentioned on the monument. Historians have questioned whether these events did in fact take place, whether the location is correct; the Manpad was a generic name for the North-South route along the Dune ridge running from the Hague to Alkmaar. In most towns the road took on the name of Hoofdweg, the equivalent of'Main Street'.
This particular stretch of Manpad runs East-West, crossing the Leidsevaart from one sand ridge to another. The battles, if they took place, could have taken place anywhere along the Manpad, it is unlikely that Witte van Haemstede would reach Haarlem via the Manpad from Zandvoort, as the legend has it. The most direct route to Haarlem from Zandvoort is via the Visserspad. On this 1687 map, the Manpad is the main east-west route connecting Vogelenzang to Heemstede; this little map is a detail of a larger map showing the entire route of the Leidsevaart from Leiden to Haarlem. This piece of the old Manpad is the only piece with that name on the map. To the right of the Herenweg the Manpad continues east through what is now Groenendaal park towards the old center of Heemstede and the Haarlem lake; this footpath in the park still exists, though the east side of the park has changed quite a bit since the Haarlemmermeer was pumped dry in 1853
Charles Frederic Ulrich
Charles Frederic Ulrich was an American Realist painter who spent most of his career in Germany. He is best known for his genre scenes of working-class people, his father, was from Germany. He began his art studies at the National Academy of the Cooper Union. In 1875, after completing his work there, he took his first trip to Germany, his primary instructors were Wilhelm von Lindenschmit. He became friends with John Henry Twachtman and joined the circle of American-born artists who associated with Frank Duveneck in Munich and the Bavarian town of Polling. Between 1879 and 1881, he was back in the United States, where he made a study of the methods used by artists during the Golden Age of Dutch painting. In 1883, he was named an Associate Member of his alma mater, the National Academy, a full member of the Society of American Artists, he soon became one of the few artists of that period to deal with the depiction of social issues. A notable work from this time was In the Land of Promise, showing an immigrant in the reception station at Castle Garden.
This attracted the attention of Thomas B. Clarke, a lace and linen manufacturer, a collector of contemporary art, he painted Clarke's portrait and Clarke promoted his career, awarding him the first Thomas B. Clarke Prize for "Best American Figure Composition". In the summer of 1884, he returned to Europe, they visited the Netherlands. He and Blum shared an apartment in Haarlem, they were together for much of the next three years. Blum concentrated on scenes from everyday life, while Ulrich continued to focus on social commentary. Europe became his home; the year 1886 found him living in Venice, followed by the Netherlands in 1890. He visited Venice after 1890 and, from 1899 to 1902, lived in Rome. In 1888 and 1892, he organized exhibits of American art in Munich. He, exhibited at the London Royal Academy of Arts and the Glaspalast and, in 1893, joined the Berlin Secession at the Große Berliner Kunstausstellung. In 1897, he married daughter of the banker, Hugo Oppenheim. In 1906, his name appears on the membership list of the Deutscher Künstlerbund, making him one of its earliest members.
Ulrich died of pneumonia in Berlin in 1908. In the Land of Promise at the Corcoran Charles Frederic Ulrich on Artnet
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Johann Fust or Faust was an early German printer. Fust was born to burgher family of Mainz. Members of the family held many religious offices; the name was written "Fust" until 1506, when Peter Schöffer, in dedicating the German translation of Livy to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, called his grandfather "Faust." Thenceforward the family assumed this name. The Fausts of Aschaffenburg, an old and quite distinct family, placed Johann Fust in their pedigree. Johann's brother Jacob, a goldsmith, was one of the burgomasters in 1462, when Mainz was stormed and sacked by the troops of Count Adolf II of Nassau, in the course of which he seems to have been killed. There is no evidence for the theory that Johann Fust was a goldsmith, but he appears to have been a money-lender or banker; because of his connection with Johann Gutenberg, he has been called the inventor of printing, the instructor as well as the partner of Gutenberg. Some see him as a patron and benefactor who saw the value of Gutenberg's discovery and supplied him with means to carry it out, whereas others portray him as a speculator who took advantage of Gutenberg's necessity and robbed him of the profits of his invention.
Whatever the truth, the Helmasperger document of November 6, 1455, shows that Fust advanced money to Gutenberg to carry on his work, that Fust, in 1455, brought a suit against Gutenberg to recover the money he had lent, claiming 2026 guilders for principal and interest. It appears that he had not paid in the 300 guilders a year which he had undertaken to furnish for expenses, etc. and, according to Gutenberg, had said that he had no intention of claiming interest. The suit was decided in Fust's favour, November 6, 1455, in the refectory of the Barefooted Friars of Mainz, when Fust swore that he himself had borrowed 1550 guilders and given them to Gutenberg. There is no evidence that Fust, as is supposed, removed the portion of the printing materials covered by his mortgage to his own house, carried on printing there with the aid of Peter Schöffer of Gernsheim, who in about 1455 married Fust's only daughter Christina, their first publication was the Psalter, August 14, 1457, a folio of 350 pages, the first printed book with a complete date, remarkable for the beauty of the large initials printed each in two colours and blue, from types made in two pieces.
New editions of the Psalter were with the same type in 1459, 1490, 1502 and 1516. Fust and Schöffer's other works include: Guillaume Durand, Rationale divinorum officiorum, folio, 160 leaves the Clementine Constitutions, with the gloss of Johannes Andreae, 51 leaves Biblia Sacra Latina, folio 2 vols. 242 and 239 leaves, 48 lines to a full page the Sixth Book of Decretals, with Andreae's gloss, December 17, 1465, folio 141 leaves Cicero. De officiis, 88 leaves. Johann Fust and Peter Schöffer carried on a partnership after Fust sued and won a case against Johann Gutenberg in 1455 for the right to take back his loans that he offered Gutenberg years earlier. Many rumors came to light about why Fust turned his back on Gutenberg a year before the 42-Line Bible was to be completed. Many people believe that Fust turned on Gutenberg because he wanted to take the spotlight and tell people that the 42-Line Bible was his own work. Peter Schöffer was an associate of Fust that worked as an apprentice to Gutenberg during the making of the 42-Line Bible.
Schöffer took Fust's side when the court case was presented to Gutenberg and subsequently had his name join Fust's on the completed copies of the Bible. The twist is that Schöffer ended up marrying Fust’s only daughter, years later; this presents a whole new theory that suggests Schöffer and Fust were closer than many may think and Schöffer was sent to work with Gutenberg by Fust in an effort to claim "insider" knowledge about the printing press before Fust and Schöffer would leave Gutenberg high and dry. There are facts to say that Fust and Schöffer had this planned all along before the loans were handed over to Gutenberg; this theory states Gutenberg was, in fact, doomed from the start, never to have a chance at the 42-Line Bible to be advertised as his own work. He seems to have fallen victim to a partnership that did not come about as a spur of the moment decision thanks to a court case, but instead as a well thought-out ruse in order to claim fame and power, it is to be noted that Johann Fust was not much of a printer but more of a businessman and a salesman.
Fust loaned 800 guilders to Johannes Gutenberg with. Another large sum of money was handed over from Fust to Gutenberg. At this point, Fust felt as if he needed to be included as a partner on the project since he had now invested so much into it. There were all but three Bibles left to be completed. On November 6, 1455, Fust demanded 2,026 guilders from Gutenberg, he revealed in court that he had to borrow the money he gave to finance Gutenberg at 6% in order to give the loan. All in all Gutenberg ended up having to pay 1,200 guilders to Fust along with all of the completed Bibles, unfinished books, his workshop. From that point on Gutenberg was hardly heard from again and Fust went into partnership with Peter Schöffer. Schöffer had learned all the fine skills of printing from Gutenberg; this meant that Schöffer would be able
Martin Holtzhey, was an 18th-century German medallist and mint master, active in the Netherlands. He was the father of the medallist Johann Georg Holtzhey, he worked in the Hague, Amsterdam and Middelburg. In 1722 he joined the Lutheran church of Amsterdam and he married there in 1725, the same year that he entered the silversmith's guild; the next year his son Johann Georg was born, in 1636 his youngest son Martin Jr. was born. He started striking medals for special occasions and made a name for himself among collectors in this way, making medals for major events, to mark an anniversary, or to herald in a new year. Examples are his 1736 medal in honor of the 200th anniversary of Menno Simons leaving the Catholic faith, his 1740 medal in celebration of the 300th anniversary of Laurens Janszoon Coster's discovery of moveable type; when Holtzhey struck such "historical medals", he included a paper explaining the symbolism he used on them, a tradition, continued by his son Johann Georg. His medals were popular with wealthy followers of the enlightenment, such as Pieter Teyler van der Hulst.
The medals in his collection are among the few items collected by Teyler himself that are still part of the inventory of Teylers Museum today, such as his 1736 medal struck for completing the Lutheran church of Rotterdam. In 1749 he handed his Amsterdam workshop over to his son Johann Georg when he moved to Harderwijk to become mint master of Gelderland, he commemorated this with a medal in his own honor. In 1755 he commemorated himself again on the occasion of his 25th anniversary of striking historical medals, he published a catalog of them for his collectors, assisted by his son Johann Georg called Catalogus der medailles of gedenkpenningen betrekking hebbende op de voornaamste historien der Vereenigde Nederlanden. In 1754 he became mint master of Zeeland in Middelburg; this is the same year that a strange penny piece was coined in Middelburg known as the "Ementor duit". It was a joke played by Holtzhey's assistant, his son Martin jr. who assisted his father until he took over his position as mint master.
The coat of arms of Zeeland include a lion half under water. The motto is'Luctor et Emergo', or "I struggle and emerge". In the year 1754 the new duits were coined with'Luctor et Ementor', or "I struggle and go under", which would imply the lion is drowning rather than emerging from the floods. New Year's medal by Martin Holtzhey in 1746] in the Nederlands Gevangenismuseum via the Geheugen van Nederland]
Teylers Museum is an art, natural history, science museum in Haarlem, Netherlands. Established in 1778, Teylers Museum was founded as a centre for contemporary science; the historic centre of the museum is the neoclassical Oval Room, built behind the house of Pieter Teyler van der Hulst, the so-called Fundatiehuis. Pieter Teyler was a wealthy cloth merchant and banker of Scottish descent, who bequeathed his fortune for the advancement of religion and science, he was a follower of the Scottish Enlightenment. In his will, Pieter Teyler stipulated that his collection and part of his fortune should be used to establish a foundation for their promotion: Teylers Stichting; the Teyler legacy to the city of Haarlem was split into two societies: Teylers First or Theological Society, intended for the study of religion and Teylers Second Society, to concern itself with physics, history and numismatics. The executors of Teyler's will, the first directors of Teylers Stichting, decided to establish a centre for study and education.
Under a single roof, it would house all manner of suitable artifacts, such as books, scientific instruments, drawings and minerals. The concept was based on a revolutionary ideal derived from the Enlightenment: that people could discover the world independently, without coercion by church or state; the example that guided the founders in establishing Teylers Museum was the Mouseion of classical antiquity: a “temple for the muses of the arts and sciences” that could serve as a meeting place for scholars and the venue for various collections. In 1779, Leendert Viervant started on the design of an "art and book room" behind Teyler’s residence; this neoclassical room, whose shape led it to be called the Oval Room, was designed for research and study. The Oval room was opened with the scientist Martin van Marum as its first director. A showcase in the centre displays a mineralogical collection from the 18th century and the showcases around hold 18th-century scientific instruments; the upper gallery, designed to let in the maximum amount of light for viewing purposes, has 12 built-in bookcases containing period encyclopaedias and periodicals.
Over the ensuing centuries, the museum was extended. The arrangement of each new part was consistent with the insights of the day. In the 19th century, the museum was expanded with two painting galleries: Teylers First Painting Gallery in 1838 and Paintings Gallery II in 1892. In 1878, to mark the first centenary, a new entrance on the Spaarne was designed by the Viennese architect Christian Ulrich, it opened in 1885. The rooms behind it – the Instrument Room, Fossil Room I and, behind it, Fossil Room II – were designed by the Haarlem architect A. van der Steur. At the same time, the library was extended and a 150-seat auditorium was added. Over a century in 1996, a large new wing was added. In 2002, an adjoining property was added to the museum to serve as the museum shop and multimedia room. Teylers Museum holdings include fossils, scientific instruments, medals and paintings; the museum’s first director, Martinus van Marum contributed to and used the facilities at Teylers Museum to research static electricity.
To study fossils, he purchased fossil material such as the Mosasaurus. To demonstrate the principles of hydraulics, he commissioned models of cranes. To disseminate natural and cultural knowledge, public experiments were conducted, such as those with van Marum’s large electrostatic generator built in 1784 by John Cuthbertson in Amsterdam. Lectures were given and scientific literature published; the collection of Teylers Museum holdings include works by Michelangelo, Raphael and Claude Lorrain. The museum contains graphic work of Adriaen van Ostade; the Painting Galleries show a collection of works from the Dutch Romantic School and the Hague and Amsterdam Schools, including major works by Barend Cornelis Koekkoek, Andreas Schelfhout, Cornelis Springer, Hendrik Willem Mesdag, Jan Willem Pieneman, Anton Mauve, Jacob Maris, Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch, George Hendrik Breitner, Jozef Israëls, Isaac Israëls. In 2007, the works of John James Audubon were displayed; the original mission of the second society included research, as well as education.
After the death of van Marum, Teylers continued to attract scientists of high standing as caretakers. The theoretical physicist and Nobel Prize winner Hendrik Lorentz was appointed Curator of Teylers Physics Cabinet in 1910, a position he held until his death in 1928. At the time of his appointment, Lorentz was at the height of his scientific career and was a central figure in the international community of physicists. Under his leadership, the Teylers Museum conducted scientific research in such diverse fields as optics, radio waves, atom physics. Lorentz was succeeded by musician Adriaan Fokker. Physicist Wander Johannes de Haas served as conservator in the 1920s; the museum’s entire archives have survived intact. They include the complete series of accounts for all acquisitions, extensions and day-to-day purchases since 1778, the complete series of visitors’ books since 1789, the minutes of all meetings of the museum board since 1778; the museum is open