click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Laurent-Désiré Kabila

Laurent-Désiré Kabila, or Laurent Kabila, was a Congolese revolutionary and politician who served as the third President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 17, 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko, until his assassination by one of his bodyguards on January 16, 2001. He was succeeded eight days by his 29-year-old son Joseph. Kabila was born to a member of the Luba people in Baudouinville, Katanga Province, in the Belgian Congo, his father was a Luba and his mother was a Lunda. It is claimed that he studied abroad but no proof has been found or provided. Shortly after the Congo achieved independence in 1960, Katanga seceded under the leadership of Moïse Tshombe. Kabila organised the Baluba in an anti-secessionist rebellion in Manono. In September 1962 a new province, North Katanga, was established, he became a member of the provincial assembly and served as chief of cabinet for Minister of Information Ferdinand Tumba. In September 1963 he and other young members of the assembly were forced to resign, facing allegations of communist sympathies.

Kabila established himself as a supporter of hard-line Lumumbist Prosper Mwamba Ilunga. When the Lumumbists formed the Conseil National de Libération, he was sent to eastern Congo to help organize a revolution, in particular in the Kivu and North Katanga provinces; this revolution was part of the larger Simba rebellions happening in the provinces at the time. In 1965, Kabila set up a cross-border rebel operation from Kigoma, across Lake Tanganyika. Che Guevara assisted Kabila for a short time in 1965. Guevara had appeared in the Congo with 100 men who planned to bring about a Cuban-style revolution. Guevara judged Kabila as "not the man of the hour" he had alluded being too distracted. This, in Guevara's opinion, accounted for Kabila showing up days late at times to provide supplies, aid, or backup to Guevara's men; the lack of cooperation between Kabila and Guevara contributed to the suppression of the revolt that same year. In Guevara's view, of all of the people he met during his campaign in Congo, only Kabila had "genuine qualities of a mass leader".

After the failure of the rebellion, Kabila turned to smuggling timber on Lake Tanganyika. He ran a bar and brothel in Tanzania. In 1967, Kabila and his remnant of supporters moved their operation into the mountainous Fizi – Baraka area of South Kivu in the Congo, founded the People's Revolutionary Party. With the support of the People's Republic of China, the PRP created a secessionist Marxist state in South Kivu province, west of Lake Tanganyika; the PRP state came to an end in 1988 and Kabila disappeared and was believed to be dead. While in Kampala, Kabila met Yoweri Museveni, the future president of Uganda. Museveni and former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere introduced Kabila to Paul Kagame, who would become president of Rwanda; these personal contacts became vital in mid-1990s, when Uganda and Rwanda sought a Congolese face for their intervention in Zaire. Kabila returned in October 1996, leading ethnic Tutsis from South Kivu against Hutu forces, marking the beginning of the First Congo War.

With support from Uganda and Burundi, Kabila pushed his forces into a full-scale rebellion against Mobutu as the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire. By mid-1997, the ADFL had completely overrun the country and the remains of Mobutu's army. Only the country's decrepit infrastructure slowed Kabila's forces down. Following failed peace talks held on board of the South African ship SAS Outeniqua, Mobutu fled into exile on 16 May; the next day, from his base in Lubumbashi, Kabila proclaimed himself president. Kabila suspended the Constitution, changed the name of the country from Zaire to the Democratic Republic of the Congo—the country's official name from 1964 to 1971, he made his grand entrance into Kinshasa on 20 May and was sworn in on 31 May commencing his term as president. Kabila had been a committed Marxist. Declared that elections would not be held for two years, since it would take him at least that long to restore order. While some in the West hailed Kabila as representing a "new breed" of African leadership, critics charged that Kabila's policies differed little from his predecessor's, being characterised by authoritarianism and human rights abuses.

As early as late 1997, Kabila was being denounced as "another Mobutu". By 1998, Kabila's former allies in Uganda and Rwanda had turned against him and backed a new rebellion of the Rally for Congolese Democracy, the Second Congo War. Kabila found new allies in Angola and Zimbabwe, managed to hold on in the south and west of the country and by July 1999, peace talks led to the withdrawal of most foreign forces. Kabila was shot and killed in his office on 16 January 2001; the DRC's authorities managed to keep power, despite Kabila's assassination. The exact circumstances are still disputed. Kabila died on the spot, according to DRC's health minister Leonard Mashako Mamba, in the next door office when Kabila was shot and arrived after the assassination; the government claimed that Kabila was still alive, when he was flown to a hospital in Zimbabwe after he was shot so that DRC authorities could organize the tense succession. The Congolese government announced th

Aeronautical Information Publication

In aviation, an Aeronautical Information Publication is defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization as a publication issued by or with the authority of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. It is designed to be a manual containing thorough details of regulations and other information pertinent to flying aircraft in the particular country to which it relates, it is issued by or on behalf of the respective civil aviation administration. The structure and contents of AIPs are standardized by international agreement through ICAO. AIPs have three parts – GEN, ENR and AD; the document contains many charts. AIPs are kept up-to-date by regular revision on a fixed cycle. For operationally significant changes in information, the cycle known as the AIRAC cycle is used: revisions are produced every 56 days or every 28 days; these changes are received well in advance so that users of the aeronautical data can update their flight management systems.

For insignificant changes, the published calendar dates are used. In some countries the AIP is informally known as the Air Pilot. EUROCONTROL has published a specification for an electronic AIP; the eAIP Specification aims to harmonise the presentation of AIPs for digital media. In this respect, a digital AIP is a digital version of the paper AIP available in PDF format, while an electronic AIP is available in PDF as well as other formats, more suitable for reading on the screen and for electronic data exchange. Many countries around the world provide digital AIPs either on a Web site; the external links section below lists AIPs. The current AIRAC cycle is 2003. Note: * = leap year containing 29 Feb National aviation authority Air navigation service provider List of CANSO members "ICAO Annex 15: Aeronautical Information Services". ICAO. Retrieved 7 January 2014. "AIRAC Adherence and AIRAC Calendar 2010–2020". EUROCONTROL Aeronautical Information Management. Retrieved 7 January 2014. Eurocontrol AIRAC calendar until 2022 FAA International Flight Information Manager DISCONTINUED 2014 – Data Links still good State AIPs on the Internet EUROCONTROL: Countries publishing Electronic AIPs

Kinnevik AB

Kinnevik AB is a Swedish investment company, founded in 1936 by the Stenbeck and von Horn families. Kinnevik is an active and long-term owner investing in digital consumer brands. Current CEO, Georgi Ganev, was appointed in 2018. Kinnevik holds significant stakes in about 30 companies operating across five continents in more than 80 countries, with a particular focus on growth markets; the largest holdings are Zalando, Tele2, Global Fashion Group, Babylon Health and Livongo. Kinnevik was founded as an investment company in 1936 by Robert von Horn, Wilhelm Klingspor and Hugo Stenbeck; the most important holdings when the company started were Mellersta Sveriges Lantbruks AB, Lidköpings Konfektyr Industri AB and Korsnäs Sågverks AB. The company grew through share purchases and acquisitions of companies that included chocolate manufacturers Nordiska Suchard and Halmstads Järnverk; the company's aggressive acquisition strategy of Swedish industrial companies continued during Kinnevik's first decades.

The ownership structure of the investment company changed as Hugo Stenbeck increased his holdings. Kinnevik became a listed company and obtained additional capital in a new share issue in 1954; the first shares in Sandvikens Järnverk were purchased a few years after entering the stock market. Hugo Stenbeck replaced Wilhelm Klingspor as chairman of Kinnevik in the early 1960s. Shortly thereafter, Hugo Stenbeck's oldest son, Hugo Stenbeck Jr, became managing director of the company. Hugo Stenbeck Jr died in 1976 and his younger brother, Jan Hugo Stenbeck, joined Kinnevik's management team. Hugo Stenbeck Sr died in 1977; the shareholding in Sandvik AB increased during the late 1970s, while Kinnevik increased its position in Fagersta AB. A major holding in the insurance company Atlantica was acquired in 1978. Several auto companies were acquired in 1980 and were gathered under the name Svenska Motor AB; this included the import and sales of Toyota vehicles. In the early 1980s, Comvik AB launched a new mobile telephony system and after a number of legal battles with state-owned Televerket, gained a favourable ruling by The Supreme Administrative Court.

In 1985, a satellite system for television distribution was completed and during the late 1980s the battle intensified with the state-owned monopolies in telecommunications and radio. TV3 sent its premier broadcast from London on New Year's Eve 1987. Comvik obtained authorisation to start a new mobile telephony network in 1989. Millicom International Cellular was formed the following year; the first Kinnevik-run radio broadcasts began in 1991. During the same year, Kinnevik became the largest owner in newly established TV4 with a 20 percent shareholding; the free newspaper Metro International was launched in 1995 and the concept spread throughout the world. Tele2 s was founded in 1993 and listed on the Stockholm stock exchange in 1996. In 1995, MTG was incorporated as a subsidiary of Kinnevik, having been a business area. MTG was listed in Stockholm and New York. Jan Hugo Stenbeck was replaced by Edvard von Horn as chairman. Pehr G. Gyllenhammar became chairman in 2004 and was replaced three years by Cristina Stenbeck.

In March 2016, Cristina Stenbeck announced her intention to step down as Chairman of Kinnevik and was replaced at the 2016 AGM by Tom Boardman. Cristina Stenbeck remains a board director of Kinnevik. Between 2005 and 2010, there was a major shift in the shareholdings in which ownership in Millicom increased and forestry shares decreased. At this time, the foundation was laid for investments in a number of internet businesses e-commerce companies; this profile was strengthened after 2010 with major investments in Rocket Internet, Zalando and Global Fashion Group, among others. In 2013, Kinnevik sold all its remaining shares in BillerudKorsnäs. Zalando and Rocket Internet, two Kinnevik-backed companies, made their Initial Public Offerings on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in 2014. In October 2015, Avito was sold to the South African media conglomerate Naspers. In 2017, Kinnevik sold its remaining shareholding in Rocket Internet. Georgi Ganev was appointed CEO of Kinnevik in January 2018. Dame Amelia Fawcett was appointed Chairman of Kinnevik at the Annual General Meeting 2018.

Kinnevik operates in four sectors. In 2018 Kinnevik expressed its support for the merger between Tele2 and Com Hem the same year Kinnevik distributed its shares in MTG to its shareholders. In 2018 Kinnevik increased its investment in Livongo and invested in Kolonial.no, BudBee, Deposit Solutions and Monese. Kinnevik defines sustainability as creating long-term shareholder and social value by building well governed companies that contribute positively to society. Kinnevik's work with sustainability includes building sound governance, risk management and compliance structures in their investee companies, as well as promoting healthy social and economic systems. Material aspects for Kinneviks's sustainability work • Active ownership • Sound governance and business practices • Sustainable economic performance • Team and well-being • Environmental impact Kinnevik's Corporate Responsibility Policy draws reference from international guidelines such as the UN Global Compact and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

Per 30 September 2019, Kinnevik's Net Asset Value amounted to SEK 92.0 billion. The largest holdings are

Husain ibn Kharmil

Izz al-Din Husain ibn Kharmil al-Ghuri known after his father as Ibn Kharmil, was an Iranian military leader of the Ghurid dynasty, the semi-independent ruler of Herat and its surrounding regions. Husain was a native of Gurziwan in Guzgan, was the son of Kharmil, a military officer of the Ghurids who played an important role during Ala al-Din Husayn's war against the Ghaznavid ruler Bahram-Shah. Husain is first mentioned in sources as one of the leaders of the Ghurid incursions into India. In 1185/6, Sultan Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad appointed Husain as the governor of Sialkot, a city in northern Punjab. In 1194, along with another Ghurid general named Qutb-ud-din Aibak, were the leaders of a raid in the eastern part of the Indus-Gangetic Plain. During the raid, they decisively defeated the Narayan ruler. In ca. 1198, along with the Ghurid prince Nasir al-Din Muhammad Kharnak, ambushed a Kara-Khitan army, which had plundered the northern part of the Ghurid Empire. In 1202, Mu'izz's brother and co-ruler, the Ghurid supreme leader Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, died of illness, was succeeded by his Mu'izz as the leader of the Ghurid dynasty.

Shortly after Ghiyath's death, the Khwarazmian-shah Muhammad II invaded the Ghurid Empire, besieged Herat. Mu'izz, along with Husain managed to Muhammad from Herat and pursued him to Khwarezm, where the Ghurid army besieged the Khwarazmian capital of Gurganj. However, Muhammad out of despair requested aid from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, who sent an army to aid Muhammad. Mu'izz, because of harassment from the Kara-Khitans, was forced to relieve the siege and retreat his army back to Ghur, his homeland. However, the Ghurid army was ambushed by the Khwarazmians, was defeated at Andkhud in 1204. Although many of the Ghurid troops were killed during the battle, Mu'izz managed to escape, Husain, along with his 5,000 private soldiers managed to escape. Husain was appointed as the governor of Herat and Talaqan. After the death of Mu'izz in 1206, the Ghurid Empire declined. During the same period, Husain declared independence from the Ghurids, began strengthening the defenses of Herat. However, in 1208, Muhammad re-invaded the Ghurid Empire, forced Husain to acknowledge Khwarazmian suzerainty.

However, while Muhammad was penetrating deeper into Ghurid territory, he was defeated and captured by the Kara-Khitans, which gave Husain the opportunity to secretly negotiate with the Ghurid ruler Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud. However, the negotiation turned fruitless, Ghiyath sent an army against Husain, was, defeated. Meanwhile, who distrusted Husain, sent Izz al-Din Jaldik to supervise Herat, but secretly ordered Jaldik to have Husain executed. Jaldik threatened Khwaja al-Sahib by killing Husain if he did not stop the resistance. Khwaja, kept resisting Jaldik, who shortly had Husain killed. Bosworth, C. E.. "The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World". In Frye, R. N.. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5: The Saljuq and Mongol periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 1–202. ISBN 0-521-06936-X. Richards, D. S.. The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi'l-Ta'rikh. Part 3. Ashgate Publishing. Pp. 1–344. ISBN 9780754669524. Bosworth, C. Edmund. "EBN ḴARMĪL".

Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 3. London et al.: C. Edmund Bosworth. P. 37. Richards, D. S.. The Chronicle of Ibn Al-Athīr for the Crusading Period from Al-Kāmil Fīʼl-taʼrīkh: The years 541-589. Ashgate Publishing. Pp. 1–437. ISBN 9780754640783. Maddison, Francis. Science, Tools & Magic: Body and spirit, mapping the universe; the Nour Foundation, Azimuth Editions & Oxford University Press. Pp. 1–422

Derek Schouman

Derek Schouman is a former professional athlete in the NFL. He was drafted by the Buffalo Bills in the seventh round of the 2007 NFL Draft, he played college football at Boise State. He has played for the St. Louis Rams. Schouman attended Eagle High School in Eagle and was a student and a letterman in football. In football, he was a two-year starter as a tight end; as a Junior, he was an impact player for the State Championship team. As a senior, he was a first team All-Southern Idaho Conference selection and as a junior, he was a second team All-Southern Idaho Conference selection. Schouman was a four-year starter at Boise State, his greatest claim to fame was catching a fourth-down touchdown pass in overtime of the Broncos' win over Oklahoma in the 2007 Fiesta Bowl which set up the now-famous Jared Zabransky-to-Ian Johnson Statue of Liberty play for the winning two-point conversion. Schouman recorded 3 receptions for 19 yards as an H-Back before suffering a season-ending sprained ankle against the Cincinnati Bengals in 2007.

He started fourteen games in 2008 and 2009 before being placed on injured reserve early in 2009 with a knee injury. The Bills placed him on injured reserve again in 2010 and waived him on September 8, 2010. Schouman was signed by the St. Louis Rams on November 17, 2010. On August 10, 2011, Schouman signed with the Washington Redskins, he was released by the team on September 3, 2011. Schouman now works as a REALTOR® for Amherst Madison in Boise, ID

Lu Blue

Luzerne Atwell "Lu" Blue was an American professional baseball first baseman. He played in Major League Baseball for the Detroit Tigers, St. Louis Browns, Chicago White Sox, Brooklyn Dodgers between 1921 and 1933. A native of Washington, D. C. Blue played professional baseball, principally as a first baseman, for 18 years from 1916 to 1933, including 13 years in Major League Baseball for the Detroit Tigers from 1921 to 1932, the St. Louis Browns from 1928 to 1930, the Chicago White Sox in 1931 and 1932, the Brooklyn Dodgers for one game in 1933. Blue was a switch-hitter who had a career on-base percentage of.402 and was one of the best fielding first basemen of his era. He interrupted his baseball career for military service in World War I and was honored with burial at Arlington National Cemetery. In 2001, baseball historian Bill James ranked Blue as the 77th best first baseman of all time. Blue was born in Washington, D. C. in 1897. He was one of two sons born to Charles H. Blue, a New Jersey native born in 1852, Ida Mae Blue, a Pennsylvania native born in 1856.

His parents divorced. Blue grew up a fan of the Washington Senators. Despite discouragement from his family, who thought baseball was a waste of time, Blue was determined to play baseball, he attended Briarly Hall Military School in Poolesville, where his play for the school's baseball team drew the attention of professional scouts. Blue began playing Martinsburg Blue Sox of the Blue Ridge League, he compiled a disappointing.216 batting average in 1916, but his average jumped to.319 with a.517 slugging percentage in 1917. A switch-hitter, Blue hit grand slams from both sides of the plate in the same game during the 1917 season; the Detroit Tigers purchased Blue's contract in the fall of 1917. He did not make the team in 1918 and was drafted into the U. S. Army, serving at Camp Lee in Virginia during World War I. After the war, the Tigers assigned Blue to the Portland Beavers in the Pacific Coast League. Blue compiled a. 281 batting average. The following year, he compiled a. 291 average. In 1921, with Ty Cobb as the Tigers' new player-manager, Blue made it to the big leagues at age 24.

He became the Tigers' regular first baseman, starting 152 games at the position in 1921, compiling a.308 batting average and a.416 on-base percentage. Blue gave credit to Cobb for helping him to improve his performance as a hitter. Blue remained entrenched as the Tigers' starting first baseman for seven seasons, from 1921 to 1927. Blue was a reliable hitter in his years at Detroit, hitting above.300 four times, including a.311 season in 1924. He finished among the leaders in the voting for the American League Most Valuable Player award three times for the Tigers: 10th in 1922, 19th in 1924, 12th in 1925. In addition to hitting for average, Blue had a talent for drawing walks, he was among the league leaders in bases on balls ten times in his career. He finished. Driven by his ability to draw walks, Blue was among the league leaders in on-base percentage four times, including a career-high.430 on-base percentage in 1931 – second best in the American League. Blue's career on-base percentage was.402 – 115 points above his.287 career batting average.

With his ability to get on base, Blue was a top run scorer, with 1,151 runs scored in his career, including six seasons with 100 or more runs and a career-high 131 runs as the leadoff hitter for the 1921 Detroit Tigers. Blue was an excellent fielding first baseman. In 1,571 games at first base, Blue had 15,644 putouts and a career range factor of 10.60 – 3.00 full points above the league average of 7.64 for first basemen in his era. In 1922, his range factor was 11.2 – more than 4.20 points higher than the league average of 6.94. He had 1,506 putouts in 1922 and led American League first basemen in putouts in 1929 and 1931, he led American League first basemen in assists in 1928 and double plays. Among the league leaders in fielding percentage, Blue would get to balls other first baseman could not touch. On September 8, 1922, Blue had two unassisted double plays in a single game. On June 19, 1923, Blue was knocked unconscious after being hit in the head by a ball during fielding practice. Blue went to bat in the first inning and hit a single to right field.

Blue was woozy from the pre-game blow and made it to first base. The Yankees agreed to allow a courtesy runner, Blue returned to finish the game. In 1927, Blue clashed with George Moriarty. Moriarty moved Blue from the leadoff spot to the seventh spot in the batting order. Blue's relationship with Moriarty deteriorated through the season, with Blue announcing at the end of the season that he would never play another game for the Tigers. On December 13, 1927, the Tigers traded Blue and Heinie Manush to the St. Louis Browns in exchange for Harry Rice, Elam Vangilder and a player to be named later. Blue and Manush both became stars for the Browns. In 1928, Blue appeared in 154 games, all at first base, compiled a.281 batting average and 80 RBIs. He ranked among the American League's leaders in 1928 with 105 bases on balls, 116 runs scored, 14 home runs, 263 times on base, 57 extra base hits, a 4.7 wins above replacement rating, 250 total bases. He led the American League's first basemen with 107 assists and 121 double plays turned.

With former Tigers Blue and Manush in the lineup, the Browns compiled an 82-72 record and finished third in the Ame