Henri Van Assche
Henri Van Assche was a Belgian painter. Van Assche was born in Brussels, showed from his earliest years a predilection for painting, received from his father, a distinguished amateur artist, the first principles of design and perspective, he was afterwards placed with Deroy of Brussels, from whom he received further instructions in painting. Journeys in Switzerland and Italy contributed to develop his talent as a landscape painter, his great partiality for representing waterfalls, mountain streams, mills gained for him the name of'The Painter of Waterfalls.' Several pictures by him may be seen in public and private collections of Brussels, Ghent and Haarlem, some of which are enriched with figures and animals by Balthasar Paul Ommeganck. He died in Brussels in 1841, his niece Isabelle Catherine van Assche, was a pupil. Her sister, Amélie van Assche, was a miniaturist; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Michael. "Assche, Henri van". In Graves, Robert Edmund.
Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons. Media related to Henri Van Assche at Wikimedia Commons
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Hendrik Frans Verbrugghen
Hendrik Frans Verbrugghen or Hendrik Frans Verbruggen was a Flemish sculptor and draftsman, best known for his Baroque church furniture in various Belgian churches. He was born into a family from which in the 17th and 18th century a number of prominent sculptors emerged who were active in Antwerp, his father, the sculptor Pieter Verbrugghen I, was one of the principal representatives of Flemish high baroque sculpture. The father had been a pupil of Erasmus Quellinus I, himself the founder of a prominent family of artists; the father married the daughter of his master Erasmus Quellinus. From this marriage Hendrik Frans Verbruggen was born, his brother Pieter Verbrugghen II was a sculptor and worked in the workshop of his father. Hendrik Frans Verbruggen was trained by his father. Nonetheless, he did not start his career as a sculptor but as a draughtsman working with the illuminator Jan Ruyselinck, it can not be ruled out that like his brother Pieter, he made a trip to Italy after completing his training.
This trip has not been documented. The obvious influence of the Italian sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini on his work could be explained by Hendrik Frans Verbruggen drawing inspiration from the drawings after the works of Bernini and antique sculptures that his brother made in Rome, he became a master sculptor at the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1682. That year he married Susanna Verhulst, he became dean of the Guild of Saint Luke in 1689. In 1713 he went bankrupt but this did not prevent him from completing ongoing commissions, he was the master of Marcus de Cock. Hendrik Frans Verbruggen was active during the Baroque period when the Catholic Church was the main sponsor of artists in the Southern Netherlands, he therefore worked principally on religious commissions and became one of the leading sculptors of the late Baroque church furniture. This furniture has more depth than the high baroque altars of his brother; the three-dimensional altars are designed to allow the placing of a sculpture although sometimes they served to hang a painting.
The latter is the case in the St. Augustine Church in Antwerp, where a painting by Rubens has been placed in the altar. Hendrik Frans Verbruggen was one of the founders of the so-called naturalistic pulpits; these appear as a single grand sculpture. Examples are the pulpit in St. Augustine Church in Antwerp and the pulpit designed for the Church of Saint Michael in Leuven. In the pulpit of the St. Augustine Church in Antwerp he used the grain of the wood to depict the wrinkles of the face of St. Augustine and the texture of his clothes. In 1684 he created two limewood side altars for the Chapel of the Church of Our Lady of Good Will in Duffel. Through this work he introduced into the Southern Netherlands a new motif derived from the work of Bernini, consisting of an oval painting supported by two flying angels, his altar rails for the St. Walburga Church in Bruges from 1695 are a highlight of Flemish baroque; because of the virtuoso treatment of the marble they appear to be modeled in wax. In the Baroque worldview, art was expected to educate the faithful and encourage them in their faith.
The motifs of Hendrik Frans Verbruggen reflect this didactic purpose. An example is the late-Baroque pulpit in the St. Peter and Paul Church in Mechelen date 1700; the pulpit allegorically represents the four continents sitting on a globe accompanied by their symbolic animals. They carry a tub in which the attributes of the evangelists and four medallions with Jesuit saints are chiseled. Two angels blowing trumpets support the sound board depicting the Holy Spirit; the didactic theme is obvious: faith is spreading across the world thanks to the Jesuits inspired by the Holy Spirit. Many of his drawings have been preserved. 1676: Epitaph for Bishop Capello, Antwerp Cathedral 1680: Confessionals in St. Catherina Church in Sinaai, Sint-Niklaas 1686: Altar rails in the Sacrament Chapel of the Antwerp Cathedral 1694: Western outer portal of the St. James' Church Church in Antwerp 1695: White marble altar rails in the St. Walburga in Bruges 1696: Pulpit, Cathedral of Brussels 1697: Pulpit in the St Augustine Church in Antwerp 1700: Pulpit and altar rails in Church of St Peter and St Paul in Mechelen 1705–1709: high altar in the Saint Bavo Cathedral in Ghent 1720: Saint Servatius Altar in the Basilica of Saint Servatius in Grimbergen Hendrik Frans Verbruggen on Artnet
Francis Bird was one of the leading English sculptors of his time. He is remembered for sculptures in Westminster Abbey and St Paul's Cathedral, he carved a tomb for the dramatist William Congreve in Westminster Abbey and sculptures of the apostles and evangelists on the exterior of St Paul's, as well as the statue of Henry VI in School Yard, Eton College. Despite his success in life Bird did little sculpting, he had set up a marble import business. Francis Bird was born in the parish of St. James's, Westminster in 1667. At about eleven years old he was sent to Flanders, he went on to Rome and worked in the studio of Le Gros. He returned home about 1689, he had been so long abroad he found. In London he worked under Grinling Gibbons and C. G. Cibber, but after a few years went back to Rome for a further nine months study under Le Gros. Bird is best known for his work at St. Paul's Cathedral. In March 1706 he was paid £329 for the panel over the west door and in December of that year £650 for carving the "Conversion of St. Paul", 64' long and 17' high for the great pediment.
This contained "eight large figures” six whereof on horseback and several of them "two and a half feet imbost". In 1711 he carved the statue of Queen Anne with four other figures, erected in St Paul's Cathedral yard in 1712; this statue was saved from demolition in December 1886 when it was replaced by the present statue executed by Richard Belt. This original Queen Anne statue is now in the grounds of St Mary's School, The Ridge, Hastings. East Sussex. Between 1712 and 1713 he executed the two panels over the west portico for £339, but it was not until 1721 that he carved the statues of various apostles and evangelists for the west front and south side of the Cathedral. For these he received a total sum of £2,040
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Peter Scheemakers or Pieter Scheemaeckers II or the Younger was a Flemish sculptor who worked for most of his life in London, Great Britain where his public and church sculptures in a classicist style had an important influence on the development of sculpture. Scheemakers is best known for executing the William Kent-designed memorial to William Shakespeare, erected in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey in 1740 as well as that to John Dryden in the same church, he learned his art from the Antwerp sculptor Pieter Scheemaeckers. He visited Denmark, he walked to Rome where he and Delvaux studied both classical and baroque styles of sculpture before settling in London in 1716. He and Delvaux worked there with another Flemish sculptor Pieter-Denis Plumier on a funeral monument to John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, which they delivered in 1722 after the death of Plumier. Scheemakers and Delvaux entered into a formal partnership and set up a workshop in Millbank, Westminster, in 1723, their workshop produced many sober classical monuments and garden statuary after the Antique.
The partners sold their stock in the partnership and travelled to Rome in 1728. Scheemakers stayed here for two years to study recent masterpieces. Upon his return to England in 1730 Scheemakers restarted the Milbank workshop on his own. His'ideal' classical sculptures became popular with the landowning class and the city merchants, he moved his workshop a few times: first to Old Palace Yard in 1736 and to Vine Street in 1740 where he was active until his retirement in 1771. He returned to Antwerp where he died at the old age of 90, he worked for a time with Francis Bird, was the teacher of Henry Cheere and Charles Cope Trubshaw, amongst others. Joseph Nollekens joined his studio in 1747 and served his apprenticeship here, before leaving for Rome in 1762. Scheemakers' brother, Henry Scheemakers, his son, Thomas Scheemakers, were both sculptors. Fifteen of Scheemakers' works – monuments and busts – are in Westminster Abbey, he is best known by his monument to Shakespeare, but as this work was designed by Kent the responsibility must not all be laid to Scheemakers' account.
In addition to these, there are the monuments to Admiral Sir Charles Wager, Vice-Admiral Watson, Lieut.-General Percy Kirk, George Lord Viscount Howe, General Monck, Sir Henry Belasye. His busts of John Dryden and Dr Richard Mead in the Abbey, are noted examples of his smaller works. Works outside of Westminster Abbey are memorials to the 1st and 2nd Dukes of Ancaster at Edenham, Lincolnshire. Another example of his work is the memorial to Topham Foote in the parish church of St John the Baptist, Windsor; this burial monument, which includes the young man's bust and the Foote family crest, greets visitors in the main High Street entrance, just 300 feet from the Henry VIII gate to Windsor Castle. He sculpted a memorial for the Petty family, marking the family burial place in All Saints' Parish Church, High Wycombe, which depicts the family in Roman dress, designed the gilded equestrian statue of King William III erected at Kingston upon Hull. In 1743, Mary Coghill erected the parish church of Clonturk in memory of her brother Marmaduke Coghill, placed in it a statue of her brother by Peter Scheemakers.
He was the sculptor who did fourteen of the busts in the Long Room of the Trinity College Library in Dublin, including Homer and Socrates. Between 1970 and 1993, an image of Scheemakers's Shakespeare statue appeared on the reverse of Series D £20 notes issued by the Bank of England. Alongside the statue was an engraving of the balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet. Shugborough inscription