Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory of New France by the United States from France in 1803. The U. S. paid fifty million francs and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs. The Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U. S. states and two Canadian provinces. The territory contained land that forms Arkansas, Iowa, Oklahoma and Nebraska, its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants. The Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. In 1800, Napoleon the First Consul of the French Republic, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, regained ownership of Louisiana. However, France's failure to put down the revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States to fund his military; the Americans sought to purchase only the port city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands, but accepted the bargain.
The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition. Jefferson agreed that the U. S. Constitution did not contain explicit provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, Louisiana was a pawn on the chessboard of European politics, it was controlled by the French, who had a few small settlements along the Mississippi and other main rivers. France ceded the territory to Spain in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau. Following French defeat in the Seven Years' War, Spain gained control of the territory west of the Mississippi and the British the territory to the east of the river. Following the establishment of the United States, the Americans controlled the area east of the Mississippi and north of New Orleans; the main issue for the Americans was free transit of the Mississippi to the sea.
As the lands were being settled by a few American migrants, many Americans, including Jefferson, assumed that the territory would be acquired "piece by piece." The risk of another power taking it from a weakened Spain made a "profound reconsideration" of this policy necessary. New Orleans was important for shipping agricultural goods to and from the areas of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains. Pinckney's Treaty, signed with Spain on October 27, 1795, gave American merchants "right of deposit" in New Orleans, granting them use of the port to store goods for export. Americans used this right to transport products such as flour, pork, lard, cider and cheese; the treaty recognized American rights to navigate the entire Mississippi, which had become vital to the growing trade of the western territories. In 1798, Spain revoked the treaty allowing American use of New Orleans upsetting Americans. In 1801, Spanish Governor Don Juan Manuel de Salcedo took over from the Marquess of Casa Calvo, restored the American right to deposit goods.
However, in 1800 Spain had ceded the Louisiana territory back to France as part of Napoleon's secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. The territory nominally remained under Spanish control, until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the formal cession of the territory to the United States on December 20, 1803. A further ceremony was held in Upper Louisiana regarding the New Orleans formalities; the March 9–10, 1804 event is remembered as Three Flags Day. James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston had traveled to Paris to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans in January 1803, their instructions were to purchase control of New Orleans and its environs. The Louisiana Purchase was by far the largest territorial gain in U. S. history. Stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, the purchase doubled the size of the United States. Before 1803, Louisiana had been under Spanish control for forty years. Although Spain aided the rebels in the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish didn't want the Americans to settle in their territory.
Although the purchase was thought of by some as unjust and unconstitutional, Jefferson determined that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties allowed the purchase of what became fifteen states. In hindsight, the Louisiana Purchase could be considered one of his greatest contributions to the United States. On April 18, 1802, Jefferson penned a letter to United States Ambassador to France Robert Livingston, it was an intentional exhortation to make this mild diplomat warn the French of their perilous course. The letter began: The cession of Louisiana and the Floridas by Spain to France works most sorely on the U. S. On this subject the Secretary of State has written to you fully, yet I cannot forbear recurring to it s
Lake Nipigon is the largest lake within the boundaries of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is part of the Great Lake drainage basin. Lying 260 metres above sea level, the lake drains into the Nipigon River and thence into Nipigon Bay of Lake Superior; the lake and river are the largest tributaries of Lake Superior. It lies about 120 kilometres northeast of the city of Ontario. Lake Nipigon has a total area of 4,848 square kilometres, compared to 3,150 square kilometres for Lake of the Woods; the largest islands are Caribou Island, Geikie Island, Katatota Island, Kelvin Island, Logan Island, Murchison Island, Murray Island, Shakespeare Island. Maximum depth is 165 metres; the lake is noted for its towering cliffs and unusual green-black sand beaches composed of the fine particles of a dark green mineral known as pyroxene. The lake basin provides an important habitat for woodland caribou. Abstract mafic rocks at Lake Nipigon give evidence of rift-related continental basaltic magmatism during the Midcontinent Rift System event, estimated at 1,109 million years ago.
Great sills up to 150 to 200 metres thick are related with the rifting event, forming cliffs hundreds of meters high. The mafic and ultramafic intrusions centered on Lake Nipigon represent a failed arm of the main rift called the Nipigon Embayment; as the last Ice Age was ending, Lake Nipigon was, at times, part of the drainage path for Lake Agassiz. The French Jesuit Claude Allouez celebrated the first mass beside the Nipigon River May 29, 1667, he visited the village of the Nipissing Indians who had fled there during the Iroquois onslaught of 1649-50. In the Jesuit Relations the lake is called lac Alimibeg, was subsequently known as Alemipigon or Alepigon. In the 19th century it was spelled as Lake Nepigon; this may have originated from the Ojibwe word Animbiigoong, meaning'at continuous water' or'at waters that extends.' Though some sources claim the name may be translated as'deep, clear water,' this description is for Lake Temagami. Today, the Ojibwa bands call Lake Nipigon Animbiigoo-zaaga'igan.
The 1778 Il Paese de' Selvaggi Outauacesi, e Kilistinesi Intorno al Lago Superiore map by John Mitchell identifies the lake as Lago Nepigon and its outlet as F. Nempissaki. In the 1807 map A New Map of Upper & Lower Canada by John Cary, the lake was called Lake St Ann or Winnimpig, while the outflowing river as Red Stone R. Today, the Red Rock First Nation located along the Nipigon River still bears the "Red Stone" name. In the 1827 map Partie de la Nouvelle Bretagne. By Philippe Vandermaelen, the lake was called L. Ste Anne, while the outflowing river as R. Nipigeon. In the 1832 map North America sheet IV. Lake Superior. By the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the lake was called St Ann or Red L. while the outflowing river as Neepigeon and the heights near the outlet of the Gull River as Neepigon Ho. By 1883, maps such as Statistical & General Map of Canada by Letts, Son & Co. began identify the lake as Lake Nipigon. In 1683 Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut established a fur trading post on Lake Nipigon named Fort la Tourette after his brother, Claude Greysolon, Sieur de la Tourette.
The Alexis Hubert Jaillot map of 1685 suggests that this fort was somewhere in Ombabika Bay at the northeast end of the lake where the Ombabika River and Little Jackfish River empty. This post, like most of the western French posts, was closed in 1696 by order of the king, due to a surplus of beaver belts, the system of trading permits established in 1681 was abolished. On 17 April 1744, the Count of Maurepas, Minister of the Marine, informed the Canadian officials that Jean de La Porte was to be given the "fur ferme" of Lac Alemipigon from that year forward as a reward for his services in New France. After the Treaty of Paris, the area passed into the hands of the British, the Hudson's Bay Company expanded its trading area to include the Lake. Although it was considered to be within British North America, it was not until 1850 that the watershed draining into Lake Superior was ceded formally by the Ojibwe Indians to the Province of Canada. A four square mile reservation was set aside on Gull River near Lake Nipigon on both sides of the river for the Chief Mishe-muckqua.
In 1871 Lake Nipigon was included in Ontario. The Township of Nipigon was incorporated in 1908; the Municipality of Greenstone was incorporated in 2001 and includes Orient Bay, MacDiarmid, Nakina, Caramat and Geraldton. In 1943 Canada and the United States agreed to the Ogoki diversion which diverts water into Lake Superior that would flow into James Bay and thence into Hudson Bay; the diversion connects the upper portion of the Ogoki River to Lake Nipigon. This water was diverted to support three hydroelectric plants on the Nipigon River; the diversion is governed by the International Lake Superior Board of Control, established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission. Lake Nipigon Provincial Park is located on the east side of Lake Nipigon. In 1999 the park boundary was amended to reduce the park area from 14.58 to 9.18 square kilometres. The area was deregulated and transferred to the Government of Canada for a reserve for the Sand Point First Nation. Douglas, R. ed. Nipigon to Winnipeg: a canoe voyage through Western Ontario by Edward Umfreville in 178
A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent such that the drainage basin on one side of the divide feeds into one ocean or sea, the basin on the other side either feeds into a different ocean or sea, or else is endorheic, not connected to the open sea. Every continent on earth except Antarctica which has no free-flowing water has at least one continental drainage divide; the endpoints of a continental divide may be coastlines of gulfs, seas or oceans, the boundary of an endorheic basin, or another continental divide. One case, the Great Basin Divide, is a closed loop around an endoreic basin; the endpoints where a continental divide meets the coast are not always definite since the exact border between adjacent bodies of water is not defined. The International Hydrographic Organization's publication Limits of Oceans and Seas defines exact boundaries of oceans, but it is not universally recognized. Where a continental divide meets an endorheic basin, such as the Great Divide Basin of Wyoming, the continental divide splits and encircles the basin.
Where two divides intersect, they form a triple divide. Whether a divide is considered a continental divide distinguished from other secondary drainage divides may depend on whether the associated gulfs, seas, or oceans are considered separate. For example, the Gulf of Mexico is considered separate from the Atlantic Ocean, so the Eastern Continental Divide separates their respective watersheds, but the Sea of Cortez is not considered separate from the Pacific Ocean, so the divide between the Colorado River watershed which drains to the Sea of Cortez, Columbia River Watershed which drains to the Pacific Ocean, is not considered to be a continental divide. Together, continental divides demarcate a set of drainage basins or watersheds, each of which drains to a specific ocean, sea or gulf, such as the North American Atlantic seaboard watershed, demarcated by the Eastern Continental Divide and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Divide. A'continent' for the purpose of water divides may not correspond to a geopolitical or geophysical continent.
In Africa, the most significant continental divide is the Congo-Nile Divide between the watersheds of the Nile and the Congo, passing through the area of the African Great Lakes. Between the Congo and the Sahara, a vast area drains into the endorheic Lake Chad, puncturing the Atlantic–Mediterranean divide; the Mediterranean–Indian Ocean divide is punctured in East Africa by the endorheic lake systems of the East African Rift. Antarctica is not considered to have a continental divide; the interior of Antarctica receives little precipitation, that in the form of snow, the continent is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. The Transantarctic Mountains divide the ice streams draining West Antarctica into the Ronne Ice Shelf, toward the Pacific and into the Ross Ice Shelf, from those draining East Antarctica toward the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Arabian Peninsula In Australia the Great Dividing Range separates those rivers flowing to the eastern seaboard and the Pacific Ocean from those flowing westward to the Murray–Darling Basin and to the Southern Ocean.
However, Australia has fewer distinct ocean boundaries and fewer prominent mountain ranges, which makes it hard to and define any one divide. Much of the interior of the continent drains into the endorheic Lake Eyre Basin. Scottish watershed Eurasia has various divides, depending on the definition of "ocean". Examples include: Asia: Himachal Pradesh: Arabian Sea Lake Baikal: Kara Sea, Laptev Sea Perm Krai/Urals: Caspian Sea, Arctic Sea Tibetan Plateau: Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean Uttarakhand: Bay of Bengal Europe-Asia: Don-Volga: Black Sea, Caspian Sea Europe: the European Watershed with the triple divide of North Sea, Black Sea and Mediterranean Adriatic Sea at Lunghin Pass in the Central Eastern Alps; the Arctic Divide or Northern Divide in northern and western Canada, separates the Arctic Ocean watershed from the Hudson Bay watershed. The Arctic Divide runs from Snow Dome Mountain, on the edge of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park on the eastern border of British Columbia, northeasterly across Alberta, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut to northern Baffin Island runs southeast along the spine of the island to the tip of Meta Incognita Peninsula.
The hamlet of Kimmirut to the northwest on Hudson Strait is the nearest inhabited place. This divide was a barrier to transportation until the Methye Portage in northwestern Saskatchewan was discovered in 1778, which opened up the Arctic rivers to the fur traders and became part of a transcontinental trade route from Atlantic to Pacific, it was of significance in Canadian history because it marked the northern boundary of Rupert's Land, the trading monopoly area of the Hudson's Bay Company. The Continental Divide called the Great Divide, in Alaska, the Pacific-Arctic Divide, separates the watersheds of the Pacific Ocean from those of the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, it runs from the western tip of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska, through western Canada along the crest of the Rocky Mountains, including through Glacier National Park, Yellow
The Labrador Sea is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between the Labrador Peninsula and Greenland. The sea is flanked by continental shelves to the southwest and northeast, it connects to the north with Baffin Bay through the Davis Strait. It has been described as a marginal sea of the Atlantic; the sea formed upon separation of the North American Plate and Greenland Plate that started about 60 million years ago and stopped about 40 million years ago. It contains one of the world's largest turbidity current channel systems, the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel, that runs for thousands of kilometers along the sea bottom toward the Atlantic Ocean; the Labrador Sea is a major source of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a cold water mass that flows at great depth along the western edge of the North Atlantic, spreading out to form the largest identifiable water mass in the World Ocean. The Labrador Sea formed upon separation of the North American Plate and Greenland Plate that started about 60 million years ago and stopped about 40 million years ago.
A sedimentary basin, now buried under the continental shelves, formed during the Cretaceous. Onset of magmatic sea-floor spreading was accompanied by volcanic eruptions of picrites and basalts in the Paleocene at the Davis Strait and Baffin Bay. Between about 500 BC and 1300 AD, the southern coast of the sea contained Dorset and Inuit settlements; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Labrador Sea as follows: On the North: the South limit of Davis Strait. On the East: a line from Cape St. Francis 47°45′N 52°27′W to Cape Farewell. On the West: the East Coast of Labrador and Newfoundland and the Northeast limit of the Gulf of St. Lawrence – a line running from Cape Bauld to the East extreme of Belle Isle and on to the Northeast Ledge. Thence a line joining this ledge with the East extreme of Cape St. Charles in Labrador; the Labrador Sea is 1,000 km wide where it joins the Atlantic Ocean. It becomes shallower, to less than 700 m towards Baffin Bay and passes into the 300 km wide Davis Strait.
A 100–200 m deep turbidity current channel system, about 2–5 km wide and 3,800 km long, runs on the bottom of the sea, near its center from the Hudson Strait into the Atlantic. It is called the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel and is one of the world's longest drainage systems of Pleistocene age, it appears as a submarine river bed with numerous tributaries and is maintained by high-density turbidity currents flowing within the levees. The water temperature varies between − 1 °C in 5 -- 6 °C in summer; the salinity is low, at 31–34.9 parts per thousand. Two-thirds of the sea is covered in ice in winter. Tides are semi-diurnal. There is an anticlockwise water circulation in the sea, it is initiated by the East Greenland Current and continued by the West Greenland Current, which brings warmer, more saline waters northwards, along the Greenland coasts up to the Baffin Bay. The Baffin Island Current and Labrador Current transport cold and less saline water southward along the Canadian coast; these currents carry numerous icebergs and therefore hinder navigation and exploration of the gas fields beneath the sea bed.
The speed of the Labrador current is 0.3–0.5 m/s, but can reach 1 m/s in some areas, whereas the Baffin Current is somewhat slower at about 0.2 m/s. The Labrador Current maintains the water temperature at 0 °C and salinity between 30 and 34 parts per thousand; the sea provides a significant part of the North Atlantic Deep Water – a cold water mass that flows at great depth along the western edge of the North Atlantic, spreading out to form the largest identifiable water mass in the World Ocean. The NADW consists of three parts of different origin and salinity, the top one, the Labrador Sea Water, is formed in the Labrador Sea; this part occurs at a medium depth and has a low salinity, low temperature and high oxygen content compared to the layers above and below it. LSW has a low vorticity, i.e. the tendency to form vortices, than any other water in North Atlantic that reflects its high homogeneity. It has a potential density of 27.76–27.78 mg/cm3 to the surface layers, meaning it is denser, thus sinks under the surface and remains homogeneous and unaffected by the surface fluctuations.
The northern and western parts of the Labrador Sea are covered in ice between June. The drift ice serves as a breeding ground for seals in early spring; the sea is a feeding ground for Atlantic salmon and several marine mammal species. Shrimp fisheries intensified toward 2000, as well as cod fishing. However, the cod fishing depleted the fish population in the 1990s near the Labrador and West Greenland banks and was therefore halted in 1992. Other fishery targets include haddock, Atlantic herring and several species of flatfish and pelagic fish such as sand lance and capelin, they are most abundant in the southern parts of the sea. Beluga whales, while abundant to the north, in the Baffin Bay, where their population reaches 20,000, are rare in the Labrador Sea s