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Laurentian Library

The Laurentian Library is a historic library in Florence, containing more than 11,000 manuscripts and 4,500 early printed books. Built in a cloister of the Medicean Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze under the patronage of the Medici pope Clement VII, the library was built to emphasize that the Medici were no longer merchants but members of intelligent and ecclesiastical society, it contains the books belonging to the private library of the Medici family. The library is renowned for its architecture, designed by Michelangelo, is an example of Mannerism. A Codex Laurentianus identifies any of the book-bound manuscripts in the library; the Laurentian Library was commissioned in 1523 and construction began in 1525. It was continued by Tribolo and Ammannati based on plans and verbal instructions from Michelangelo; the library opened by 1571. In this way, the library integrates parts executed by Michelangelo with others built much in an interpretation of his instructions; the Laurentian Library is one of Michelangelo's most important architectural achievements.

Michelangelo's contemporaries realized that the innovations and use of space in the Laurentian Library were revolutionary. The admirable distribution of the windows, the construction of the ceiling, the fine entrance of the Vestibule can never be sufficiently extolled. Boldness and grace are conspicuous in the work as a whole, in every part. – Giorgio Vasari. The two-story quattrocento cloister remained unchanged by the addition of the library; because of this, certain features of Michelangelo’s plan, such as length and width, were determined. Therefore, new walls were built on pre-existing cloisters; because the walls were built on pre-existing walls, recessing the columns into the walls was a structural necessity. This led to pattern that Michelangelo took advantage of; the vestibule known as the ricetto, is 10.50 m long, 10.50 m wide, 14.6 m tall. It was built above existing monastic quarters on the east range of the cloister, with an entrance from the upper level of the cloisters. Michelangelo planned for a skylight, but Clement VII believed that it would cause the roof to leak, so clerestory windows were incorporated into the west wall.

Blank tapering windows––framed in pietra serena, surmounted by either triangular or segmental pediments, separated by paired columns set into the wall––circumscribe the interior of the vestibule. Lit by windows in bays that are articulated by pilasters corresponding to the beams of the ceiling, with a tall constricted vestibule, filled with a stair that flows up to the entrance to the reading room, the library is mentioned as a prototype of Mannerism in architecture; the plan of the stairs changed in the design phase. In the first design in 1524, two flights of stairs were placed against the side walls and formed a bridge in front of the reading room door. A year the stairway was moved to the middle of the vestibule. Tribolo attempted to carry out this plan in 1550 but nothing was built. Ammannati took on the challenge of interpreting Michelangelo’s ideas to the best of his abilities using a small clay model, scanty material, Michelangelo’s instructions; the staircase takes up half of the floor of the vestibule.

The treads of the centre flights vary in width, while the outer flights are straight. The three lowest steps of the central flight are wider and higher than the others like concentric oval slabs; as the stairway descends, it divides into three flights. The reading room is 46.20 m. long, 10.50 m. wide, 8.4 m. high. There are two blocks of seats separated by a centre aisle with the backs of each serving as desks for the benches behind them; the desks are lit by the evenly spaced windows along the wall. The windows are framed by pilasters, forming a system of bays which articulate the layout of the ceiling and floor; because the reading room was built upon an existing story, Michelangelo had to reduce the weight of the reading-room walls. The system of frames and layers in the walls’ articulation reduced the volume and weight of the bays between the pilasters. Beneath the current wooden floor of the library in the Reading Room is a series of 15 rectangular red and white terra cotta floor panels; these panels, measuring 8-foot-6-inch on a side, when viewed in sequence demonstrate basic principles of geometry.

It is believed. In the ricetto, critics have noted that the recessed columns in the vestibule make the walls look like taut skin stretched between vertical supports; this caused the room to appear as if it mimics the human body, which at the time of the Italian Renaissance was believed to be the ideal form. The columns of the building appear to be supported on corbels so that the weight seems to be carried on weak elements; because of the seeming instability of the structure, the viewer cannot discern whether the roof is supported by the columns or the walls. This sense of ambiguity is heightened by the unorthodox forms of the windows and by the compressed quality of

St. Thomas More Preparatory

St. Thomas More Academy is a private Roman Catholic high school in Magnolia, Delaware, it is a parish run school in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Wilmington. In 1952 Holy Cross Parish opened Holy Cross Elementary School, the first Catholic School in Kent County, Delaware. In 1957, the parish opened Holy Cross High School. HCHS was operated as a parish school by the Felician Sisters. In the 1980s, HCHS experienced problems with finance; the Felician Sisters left the parish, their convent became the parish rectory. In 1987 HCHS was closed; the former HCHS building was renamed the Donohoe Center and became the Junior High School building of Holy Cross Elementary School, which it remains to this day. After the closing of HCHS in 1987, a group of laymen and women formulated plans for a new Catholic high school in Kent County, their effort saw to the establishment of Thomas More Academy, Incorporated. When, after some years, a gift of land provided the site for the school, the group commissioned a feasibility study and embarked upon a fundraising campaign.

More than $1.6 million was raised for the first of St. Thomas More Academy's buildings; the project of opening a high school of quality required resources beyond those available to the founders of Thomas More Academy, Incorporated. A delegation met with the Bishop of the Diocese of Most. Rev. Michael Saltarelli, presented a report on the state of the school; the Diocese took on the school. In 1998 the school opened its doors. In 2001, STM had its first graduating class. A major building project, with the support of the Diocese, saw the expansion of STMA in 2003. In 2011, the school dedicated all of the various halls and wings of the school to patron saints of the many area parishes represented by students at the school; the school gymnasium was dedicated as the Bishop Michael A. Saltarelli Gymnasium. In the 2012-13 school year STMA celebrated its 15th anniversary. STMA provides an example of collaboration between his flock. Acknowledging the work done by the followers of the Academy, Bishop Saltarelli said, "I am grateful for the great gift they have made to the Church, making it possible for us to continue our holy mission to teach the Good News in such an important way."

The school opened in 1998 and expanded its facilities in 2003. The name was changed from "Academy" to "Preparatory" in 2007. In 2011, the name was changed back to its founding name, "Saint Thomas More Academy". In January 2017, it was announced by agreement of Fr. James Lentini, Pastor of Holy Cross Parish and Most. Rev. W. Francis Malooly, Bishop of Wilmington, that effective July 1, 2017, the Diocese of Wilmington would relinquish control of the STMA to Holy Cross Parish. Holy Cross Parish in Dover, would make it its parish high school. Beginning with the start of the 2017-18 school year, the high school whose origin began with a parish high school, came full circle. In fall of 2018, STMA celebrated its 20th anniversary Holy Cross High School would have celebrated its 60th anniversary. School website

Wait (Beatles song)

"Wait" is a song released by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1965 album Rubber Soul. The song is credited to Lennon–McCartney, although in the 1997 book, Many Years from Now, McCartney recalls it as his; this is supported by a 1970 interview with John Lennon by Ray Connolly, in which he could not remember writing it. The song was recorded for Help! in June 1965 but was rejected for inclusion on the album. When Rubber Soul fell one song short for a Christmas release, "Wait" was brought back. Overdubs were added to the initial recording so it would blend in better with the other, more recent songs on Rubber Soul; the lyrics, describing the singer's anxieties about his relationship with his girlfriend while he is away, are thematically similar to several other Lennon–McCartney songs, such as "When I Get Home" and "Things We Said Today", written during the period of 1964 and 1965. The vocals on the verse are shared between Lennon and McCartney, McCartney sings the two middle eight sections.

Instrumentally, George Harrison's tone pedal guitar has been considered the most memorable aspect of the song. Richie Unterberger of AllMusic writes that the song, while not one of the best on Rubber Soul, still fits in with the album comfortably enough, he compliments the song's "sorrowful melodies," calling them one of the most sorrowful of the Lennon–McCartney library, notes that it's one of the few Beatles songs to be in a minor key. Unterberger ends his review by saying the most memorable feature of "Wait" is Harrison's "eerie tone-pedal guitar" at the end of the bridges and at the end of the song. In his review for the 50th anniversary of Rubber Soul, Jacob Albano of Classic Rock Review writes: ""Wait" features great choruses and a decent bridge by McCartney along with a creative percussive ensemble and pedal-effected guitars," but concludes by calling it an otherwise weak song for its parent album. John Lennon – double tracked vocal, rhythm guitar Paul McCartney – double tracked vocal, bass George Harrison – lead guitar Ringo Starrdrums, tambourinePersonnel per Ian MacDonald A cover version was issued as a single by Frankie Vaughan but failed to chart.

A cover by husband and wife duo Sam Lakeman and Cara Dillon was included on the 2006 compilation Rubber Folk. Supergroup Yellow Matter Custard covered the song. Ben Kweller did a cover of the song for the 2005 album This Bird Has Flown – A 40th Anniversary Tribute to the Beatles' Rubber Soul Bettye LaVette recorded a cover of the song on her 2015 release Worthy. MacDonald, Ian. Revolution in the Head. Pimlico. ISBN 978-1-84413-828-9. Alan W. Pollack's Notes on "Wait"

Roberto Díaz Herrera

Roberto Díaz Herrera was a Panamanian colonel under General Manuel Noriega and was most famous for his public denunciation of the Panamanian dictator in 1987, at the behest of Sathya Sai Baba, an Indian Guru who never set foot on the American soil. After Noriega placed him under house arrest, Colonel Díaz received significant support from the Panamanian people, with many passing by his house in cars to shake his hand, he was imprisoned shortly thereafter and given political asylum in Venezuela. After spending 11 years of exile in various Latin American countries, Díaz returned to Panama. Diaz Herrera ran for the presidency with a minor political party, PNP, from 1996 to 1998, but lost to a larger political party. In 2004, he was chosen by the newly elected Panamanian president, Martín Torrijos, to be the country's ambassador to Peru. Born on June 27, 1938 as the seventh of nine siblings in Santiago, the capital city of the Panamanian province of Veraguas, Roberto Díaz was raised by his parents, Anastacio Díaz Jiménez, a teacher, Gregoria Herrera, who worked as a housewife and sold bread and desserts at a local store.

Gregoria was the sister of General Omar Torrijos Herrera’s mother. At age 15, he studied in Lima, Peru, at the Military School of Leoncio Prado, while attending classes at the Escuela de Oficiales de la Guardia Civil. Additionally, he studied at the ULACIT in Panama. Díaz Herrera married his first wife, Raquel Judith Tapiero, on October 7, 1962, they had four children: Judith Gregoria, Gaby I Sol, Raquel Diaz, Roberto Jr. They divorced. Beginning with a rank of second lieutenant, Díaz pursued a military career in the only institution of its kind in Panama, the Guardia Nacional de Panamá, he rose to colonel. On September 7, 1977, US President Jimmy Carter and Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos signed the Torrijos-Carter Treaties. Torrijos sent Díaz Herrera as a negotiator of the Panama Canal to many countries, including Cuba and Yugoslavia, he served as a political representative in Israel, Venezuela and Costa Rica. Díaz became General Chief of Staff to the military, renamed the Fuerzas de Defensa de Panamá.

At that time, he was second in command of Panama's military under the command of Manuel Noriega. In June 1987, Diaz Herrera was forcibly retired by Noriega, who it was rumored felt threatened by Diaz who had grown in influence and respect within the Panamanian Defense Forces. Noriega justified the move based on the age of Colonel Diaz Herrera who turned 50 years old that month. Following his forced retirement, in an interview with Panama's leading opposition newspaper, La Prensa, Colonel Díaz made a strong declaration against Noriega, he accused Noriega of drug trafficking. These allegations led many people in Panama to protest, resulting in a suspension of constitutional protections and austere measure by the Noriega regime including arrest and detainment of protestors and opposition party leaders, government seizure of local television stations, tear gassing of students and accused brutality of local citizens with batons, rubber hoses filled with sand, shotguns filled with rock salt. Just 50 days after the televised interview, Noriega placed Díaz under house arrest.

During that time many people went to Díaz's house to shake his hand in order to show their support for him. The street to his house was lined with the cars of his supporters; the whole Spadafora family would go into hiding at Díaz Herrera's residency, which served as a refuge against Noriega's loyal soldiers, who raided the residence on July 27, 1987 to place him in prison. The raid was accomplished with three helicopters and over 100 armed men in an assault orchestrated by Mike Harari, Noriega's personal friend and former Israeli intelligence officer; the raid ended when Díaz Herrera, who kept more than 30 of his loyal officers in the residence at the time and was taken into custody. The invasion of the personal home compound of Diaz occurred at between 6:30 and 8 a.m. with military helicopters circling the barb wired walls, firing automatic weapons into the home and compound. Tear gas and light armored vehicles were used to breach the walls and raid the compound, with at least one explosive round being used to breach the front gate.

While the Panamanian government claimed no one was killed in the raid, local residents reported several badly wounded bodies being removed in the hours after the attack. One body guard of Diaz Herrera was killed. Blood trails could be seen from the damaged front entrance used to enter the compound. During the raid, Díaz Herrera's second wife, Claret Maigualida, their small children were in the residence. After spending six months in jail, Díaz was exiled on December 24, after several countries negotiated his release from prison, he was sent to Venezuela where their three children awaited. At the beginning of his exile from Panama, Díaz spent about six years in Caracas, during the presidency of Carlos Andres Perez, a personal friend who granted him political asylum. Caracas was the birthplace of his second wife, Claret Maigualida, with whom he would spend the rest of his life, he spent time in Arg

Mendicity Institution

The Mendicity Institution in Dublin, Ireland, is one of Ireland's oldest charities. It continues its charitable work of providing meals to Dublin's needy from its premises at Island Street, south of Usher's Island, its former location; the Institution was one of many that were established in Dublin to relieve the poverty that pervaded the city at that time. There was no system of public welfare, until some time any general policy on the part of the government to alleviate poverty, it was left to parishes, private individuals and institutions to ease poverty through voluntary work. The Institution was established in 1818 as the Mendicity Association. From 1826, it had its headquarters at Moira House, Usher's Island, near the River Liffey the family house of Lord Moira; the house had many historical associations. It was here, on 18 May 1798, that Pamela, wife of the rebel patriot Lord Edward FitzGerald, was spending the evening when her husband was betrayed into the hands of his pursuers nearby.

The Institution remained at this location until 1954. Its aim was to provide food and lodging for the poor of Dublin, it was demolished in 1960, however the front gate and railing remain to this day. During the 1916 Rising, Sean Heuston was ordered to occupy the Institution, he was told to hold this position for four hours, to delay the advance of British troops. He held it for more than two days, along with 26 Volunteers. With his position becoming untenable against considerable numbers, he had to surrender, was executed. Audrey Woods. Dublin outsiders: a history of the Mendicity Institution. A & A Farmar, Dublin 1998.


Ginkūnai is a village located in Šiauliai District Municipality, Šiauliai County, Lithuania. The village is located on the northeastern border of Šiauliai and the western shore of the Ginkūnai Lake. Ginkūnai has post office and library. There are two agricultural cooperatives. In 1792, Catherine the Great gifted Šiauliai Economy, state land with more than 13,000 serfs, to her favorite Platon Zubov, he purchased Ginkūnai for 5,600 Dutch daalders in 1805. The family established the Ginkūnai Manor, which became the administrative center of the estates around it. Zubovs supported the Lithuanian National Revival and opened a secret Lithuanian school in 1896 in violation of the Lithuanian press ban. Zubov's descendants continued to own Ginkūnai until 1940 when the property was nationalized after the Soviet occupation. At the beginning of the 20th century, a freethinker's cemetery was established, which in 1966 became Šiauliai cemetery. During the Soviet times, the settlement became a centre of the local gardening-oriented sovkhoz.

Ginkūnai had 162 residents in 1923, 298 in 1939, 458 in 1959, 1,050 in 1970, 1,752 in 1979, 2,397 in 1989, 2,963 in 2001