Calabria, known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy. The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro; the Regional Council of Calabria is based at the Palazzo Campanella in the city of Reggio Calabria. The region is bordered to the north by the Basilicata Region, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the east by the Ionian Sea; the region has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria is calabrese in Calabrian in English. In ancient times the name Calabria referred, not as in modern times to the toe, but to the heel tip of Italy, from Tarentum southwards, a region nowadays known as Salento. Starting in the third century BC, the name Calabria was given to the Adriatic coast of the Salento peninsula in modern Apulia. In the late first century BC this name came to extend to the entirety of the Salento, when the Roman emperor Augustus divided Italy into regions; the whole region of Apulia received the name Regio II Calabria. By this time modern Calabria was still known as Bruttium, after the Bruttians who inhabited the region.
In the seventh century AD, the Byzantine Empire created the Duchy of Calabria from the Salento and the Ionian part of Bruttium. Though the Calabrian part of the duchy was conquered by the Longobards during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, the Byzantines continued to use the name Calabria for their remaining territory in Bruttium; the modern name Italy derives from Italia, first used as a name for the southern part of modern Calabria. Over time the Greeks started to use it for the rest of the southern Italian peninsula as well. After the Roman conquest of the region, the name was used for the entire Italian peninsula and the Alpine region too; the region is known as the “toe” of the “boot” of Italy and is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north to south for 248 km, with a maximum width of 110 km. Some 42% of Calabria's area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is mountainous, 49% is hilly, while plains occupy only 9% of the region's territory, it is surrounded by the Tyrrhenian seas.
It is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in Sicily and Punta Pezzo in Calabria is only 3.2 km. Three mountain ranges are present: Pollino, La Sila and Aspromonte. All three mountain ranges are unique with their own fauna; the Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept plateaus with little vegetation; these mountains are home to a rare Bosnian Pine variety and are included in the Pollino National Park. The Pollino National Park has the distinction of being the largest national park in Italy and covers about 1,925.65 square kilometres. La Sila, referred to as the "Great Wood of Italy", is a vast mountainous plateau about 1,200 metres above sea level and stretches for nearly 2,000 square kilometres along the central part of Calabria; the highest point is Botte Donato. The area boasts dense coniferous forests.
La Sila has some of the tallest trees in Italy which are called the "Giants of the Sila" and can reach up to 40 metres in height. The Sila National Park is known to have the purest air in Europe; the Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at 1,995 metres, is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea. In general, most of the lower terrain in Calabria has been agricultural for centuries, exhibits indigenous scrubland as well as introduced plants such as the prickly pear cactus; the lowest slopes are rich in citrus fruit orchards. The Diamante citron is one of the citrus fruits. Moving upwards and chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are dense forests of oak, pine and fir trees. Calabria's climate is influenced by mountains; the Mediterranean climate is typical of the coastal areas with considerable differences in temperature and rainfall between the seasons, with an average low of 8 °C during the winter months and an average high of 30 °C during the summer months.
Mountain areas have a typical mountainous climate with frequent snow during winter. Erratic behavior of the Tyrrhenian Sea can bring heavy rainfall on the western slopes of the region, while hot air from Africa makes the east coast of Calabria dry and warm; the mountains that run along the region influence the climate and temperature of the region. The east coast has wider temperature ranges than the west coast; the geography of the region causes more rain to fall along the west coast than that of the east coast, which occurs during winter and autumn and less during the summer months. Below are the two extremes of climate present in Calabria, both the warm mediterranean subtype on the coastline and the highland climate of Monte Scuro; when describing the geology of Calabria, it is considered as part of the "Calabrian Arc", an arc-shaped geographic domain extending from the southern part of the Basilicata Region to the northeast of Sicily, including the Peloritano Mountains. The Calabrian area shows basement of Paleozoic
Casarza Ligure is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Genoa in the Italian region Liguria, located about 45 kilometres southeast of Genoa. Casarza Ligure borders the following municipalities: Castiglione Chiavarese, Moneglia, Ne, Sestri Levante. Official website
Italian National Institute of Statistics
The Italian National Institute of Statistics is the main producer of official statistics in Italy. Its activities include the census of population, economic censuses and a number of social and environmental surveys and analyses. Istat is by far the largest producer of statistical information in Italy, is an active member of the European Statistical System, coordinated by Eurostat, its publications are released under creative commons "Attribution" license. Istat was created in 1926 as "Central Institute of Statistics", to collect and organize essential data about the nation, it took its current denomination with the reform of 1989. This gave Istat statutory responsibility for the coordination and standardization of official statistics collected or published under the aegis of the national statistical system SISTAN, whose membership includes the statistical offices of ministries, national agencies, provinces, chambers of commerce, similar bodies. Since 4 August 2009, Enrico Giovannini, former Chief statistician of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has been the President of the institute.
Istituto Centrale di Statistica: Alberto Canaletti Gaudenti Lanfranco Maroi Giuseppe De Meo Guido Maria Rey Istituto Nazionale di Statistica: Guido Maria Rey Alberto Zuliani Luigi Biggeri Enrico Giovannini Antonio Golini Giorgio Alleva Istat has 18 regional offices which host public access points named Centri di informazione statistica, in English Statistical information centers. The center in Rome offers data from Eurostat; the library, established in 1926, is open to the public and contains Istat publications and international works on statistical and socioeconomics subjects, journals from other national statistical institutes and international organizations. The library collection receives about 2800 periodical journals. There are 1500 volumes printed prior to 1900. Official Website SISTAN
Bogliasco is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Genoa in the Italian region Liguria, located about 11 kilometres southeast of Genoa. Together with the comuni of Camogli, Pieve Ligure and Sori, it is part of the so-called Golfo Paradiso. Economy is based on tourism. Bogliasco borders the following municipalities: Genoa, Pieve Ligure, Sori; as archaeological findings proved, the area of Bogliasco was inhabited since Paleolithic and Mesolithic times. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Byzantine and Lombard domination, Liguria was conquered by Charlemagne; the town was destroyed by Venetian galleys in 1432. After the French domination, together with the whole Liguria, was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia, to the newly unified Kingdom of Italy in 1861. Church of Natività di Maria Santissima, dating from the 12th century but rebuilt in 1731–37 by architect Antonio Maria Ricca. Church of the Brethren of Santa Chiara, from 1403. Church of N. S. della Neve e dell'Ascensione di Gesù Cristo, in the frazione of Sassarego.
It has some paintings from the 18th century by the Genoese school. Church of San Bernardo, in the eponymous frazione. Bogliasco has a railway station on the line Pisa-La Spezia-Genoa; the other main road is the modern Via Aurelia. Official website Folk group "Amixi de Boggiasco e del golfo Paradiso" Fotos
Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the term, which designates the cultural and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War, until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, considered the completion of unification.
This view is followed, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was an absentee German-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naples established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States; this situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period.
Italy, including the Papal States became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici. Leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante, Boccaccio and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated. Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians"; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession. A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's Della Patria degli Italiani, written in 1764, it told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese.
"'Then what are you?' they asked.'I am an Italian,' he explained." The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz; the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority. The French Republic spread republican principles, the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties; the reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, the most powerful force against unification. An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Eril, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death. Meanwhile and literary sentiment turned towards nationalism.
Arenzano is a coastal town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Genoa, northern Italy, facing the Ligurian Sea. As of 2017, it has a population of 11,445; this varies during the holiday seasons due to tourist flow. There are a number of festivals during the summer; the town is home to many of the employees of the nearby architectural firm of Renzo Piano. Arenzano is located in the Riviera di Ponente section of the Italian Riviera, within a bay formed by the Capo San Martino not far from the metropolitan capital of Genoa. Part of the municipality territory, mountainous by grossly two thirds, is within the boundaries of the Parco naturale regionale del Beigua. Sanctuary of the Infant Jesus of Prague; the 18th-century parish church. Villa Negrotto Cambiaso, a Genoese patrician villa built in the 16th century, it is now the town hall. It has a beautiful park, endowed with rare trees like Lebanon Araucarias; the Saracens' Tower, built to prevent sudden incursions of pirates from Maghreb. Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Olivette.
Loutraki, since 1957 Pontoise, since 1958 Domburg, The Netherlands, since 1958 El Jadida, since 1964 Tata, since 1994
Republic of Genoa
The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. The republic began when Genoa became a self-governing commune within the imperial Kingdom of Italy, ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica was ceded to France in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768; the Ligurian Republic was annexed by the First French Empire in 1805. Before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent city-state, one of a number of Italian city-states during this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the city. Genoa was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics", along with Venice and Amalfi and trade and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean; the Adorno and other smaller merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth and power in the city.
The Republic of Genoa extended over modern Liguria and Piedmont, Corsica and had complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa; the collapse of the Crusader States was offset by Genoa's alliance with the Byzantine Empire. As Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position. Genoa took advantage of this opportunity to expand into Crimea. Internal feuds between the powerful families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi, the Doria and others caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair. Between 1218–1220 Genoa was served by the Guelph podestà Rambertino Buvalelli, who introduced Occitan literature to the city, soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala, Bonifaci Calvo. Genoa's political zenith came with its victory over the Republic of Pisa at the naval Battle of Meloria in 1284, with a temporary victory over its rival, Venice, at the naval Battle of Curzola in 1298.
This prosperity did not last. The Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, was presided over by a doge; the wars with Venice continued, the War of Chioggia —where Genoa managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venice's recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates with help from the French and laid siege to Mahdia. Though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa came under rule by the Visconti of Milan. Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Genoa was able to stabilize its position as it moved into the sixteenth century thanks to the efforts of Andrea Doria, who established a new constitution in 1528, making Genoa a satellite of the Spanish Empire.
Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Grimaldi and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. Christopher Columbus, for example, was a native of Genoa and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas for Spain to the Bank of Saint George in Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods. At the time of Genoa's peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens and Van Dyck; the architect Galeazzo Alessi designed many of the city's splendid palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco, designer of centrepieces of University of Genoa. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic of Genoa consisted of the city of Genoa and the surrounding areas.
As the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria fell under the Republic of Genoa. After the First Crusade in 1098 Genoa gained settlements in Syria. In 1261 the city of Smyrna in Asia Minor became Genoese territory. In 1255 Genoa established the colony of Caffa in Crimea. In the following years the Genoese established further colonies in Crimea: Soldaia and Cembalo. In 1275 the Byzantine Empire granted the islands of Samos to Genoa. Between 1316 and 1332 Genoa established the Black Sea colonies of La Samsun in Anatolia. In 1355 the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos granted Lesbos to a Genoese lord. At the end of the 14th century the c