Ulan-Ude is the capital city of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia. According to the 2010 Census, 404,426 people lived in Ulan-Ude, it was known as Udinsk, Verkhneudinsk. Ulan-Ude was first called Udinskoye for its location on the Uda River, it was founded as a small fort in 1668. From around 1735, the settlement was called Udinsk and was granted town status under that name in 1775; the name was changed to Verkhneudinsk "Upper Udinsk" in 1783, to differentiate it from Nizhneudinsk lying on a different Uda River near Irkutsk, granted town status that year. The "upper" and "lower" refer to positions of the two cities relative to each other, not the location of the cities on their respective Uda rivers. Verkhneudinsk lies at the mouth of its Uda, i.e. the lower end, while Nizhneudinsk is along the middle stretch of its Uda. The current name was given to the city 27 July 1934 and means "red Uda" in Buryat, reflecting the Soviet Union's Communist ideology. Ulan-Ude lies 5,640 kilometers east of 100 kilometers southeast of Lake Baikal.
It is 600 meters above sea level at the foot of the Khamar-Daban and Ulan-Burgasy mountain ranges, next to the confluence of the Selenga River and its tributary, the Uda, which divides the city. Ulan-Ude is one of the few pairs of cities in the world that has a near-exact antipodal city — with Puerto Natales, Chile. Ulan-Ude is traversed by the Selenga and Uda; the Selenga provides the greatest inflow to Baikal Lake. The Selenga brings into the lake about 30 cubic kilometers of water per year, exerting a major influence on the formation of the lake water and its sanitary condition. Selenga is the habitat of the most valuable fish species such as Omul, Siberian sturgeon, Siberian taimen and Coregonus. Uda is the right inflow of the Selenga river; the length of the watercourse is 467 kilometers. The first occupants of the area where Ulan-Ude now stands were the Evenks and the Buryat Mongols. Ulan-Ude was settled in 1666 by the Russian Cossacks as the fortress of Udinskoye. Due to its favorable geographical position, it grew and became a large trade center which connected Russia with China and Mongolia and, from 1690, was the administrative center of the Transbaikal region.
By 1775, it was known as Udinsk, in 1783 it was granted city status and renamed Verkhneudinsk. After a large fire in 1878, the city was completely rebuilt; the Trans-Siberian Railway reached the city in 1900 causing an explosion in growth. The population, 3,500 in 1880 reached 126,000 in 1939. From 6 April to October 1920 Verkhneudinsk was the capital of the Far Eastern Republic, sometimes called Chita Republic, it was a nominally independent state that existed from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of the Russian Far East. On 27 July 1934, the city was renamed Ulan-Ude. Ulan-Ude is the capital of the republic. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of republic significance of Ulan-Ude—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Ulan-Ude is incorporated as Ulan-Ude Urban Okrug. According to the 2010 Census, 404,426 people lived in Ulan-Ude. In terms of population, it is the third largest city in eastern Siberia.
The ethnic makeup of the city's population in 2010: Russians: 62.1% Buryats: 31.9% Ukrainians: 0.6% Tatars: 0.5% Others: 4.9%The city is the center of Tibetan Buddhism in Russia and the important Ivolginsky datsan is located 23 km from the city. Ulan-Ude is located on the main line of the Trans-Siberian Railway between Irkutsk and Chita at the junction of the Trans-Mongolian line which begins at Ulan Ude and continues south through Mongolia to Beijing in China; the city lies on the M55 section of the Baikal Highway, the main federal road to Vladivostok. Air traffic is served by the Ulan-Ude Airport, as well as the smaller Ulan-Ude Vostochny Airport. Intracity transport includes tram and marshrutka lines; until 1991, Ulan-Ude was closed to foreigners. There are old merchants' mansions richly decorated with wood and stone carving in the historical center of Ulan-Ude, along the river banks which are exceptional examples of Russian classicism; the city has a large ethnographic museum. There is a large and unusual statue of the head of Vladimir Lenin in the central square: the largest in the world.
Built in 1970 for the centennial of Lenin's birth, it towers over the main plaza at 7.7 meters and weighs 42 tons. The Ethnographic Museum of the peoples of Transbaikal is one of Russia's largest open-air museums; the museum contains historical finds from the era of the Slab Grave Culture and the Xiongnu until the mid 20th century, including a unique collection of samples of wooden architecture of Siberia - more than forty architectural monuments. Odigitrievsky Cathedral - Orthodox Church Diocese of the Buryat, was the first stone building in the city and is a Siberian baroque architectural monument; the cathedral is considered unique because it i
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a stylized star when viewed from the front, is called a "star engine" in some languages; the radial configuration was used for aircraft engines before gas turbine engines became predominant. Since the axes of the cylinders are coplanar, the connecting rods cannot all be directly attached to the crankshaft unless mechanically complex forked connecting rods are used, none of which have been successful. Instead, the pistons are connected to the crankshaft with a master-and-articulating-rod assembly. One piston, the uppermost one in the animation, has a master rod with a direct attachment to the crankshaft; the remaining pistons pin their connecting rods' attachments to rings around the edge of the master rod. Extra "rows" of radial cylinders can be added in order to increase the capacity of the engine without adding to its diameter.
Four-stroke radials have an odd number of cylinders per row, so that a consistent every-other-piston firing order can be maintained, providing smooth operation. For example, on a five-cylinder engine the firing order is 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, back to cylinder 1. Moreover, this always leaves a one-piston gap between the piston on its combustion stroke and the piston on compression; the active stroke directly helps compress the next cylinder to fire. If an number of cylinders were used, an timed firing cycle would not be feasible; the prototype radial Zoche aero-diesels have an number of cylinders, either four or eight. The radial engine uses fewer cam lobes than other types; as with most four-strokes, the crankshaft takes two revolutions to complete the four strokes of each piston. The camshaft ring is geared to spin slower and in the opposite direction to the crankshaft; the cam lobes exhaust. For example, four cam lobes serve all five cylinders, whereas 10 would be required for a typical inline engine with the same number of cylinders and valves.
Most radial engines use overhead poppet valves driven by pushrods and lifters on a cam plate, concentric with the crankshaft, with a few smaller radials, like the Kinner B-5 and Russian Shvetsov M-11, using individual camshafts within the crankcase for each cylinder. A few engines use sleeve valves such as the 14-cylinder Bristol Hercules and the 18-cylinder Bristol Centaurus, which are quieter and smoother running but require much tighter manufacturing tolerances. C. M. Manly constructed a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine in 1901, a conversion of one of Stephen Balzer's rotary engines, for Langley's Aerodrome aircraft. Manly's engine produced 52 hp at 950 rpm. In 1903–1904 Jacob Ellehammer used his experience constructing motorcycles to build the world's first air-cooled radial engine, a three-cylinder engine which he used as the basis for a more powerful five-cylinder model in 1907; this was made a number of short free-flight hops. Another early radial engine was the three-cylinder Anzani built as a W3 "fan" configuration, one of which powered Louis Blériot's Blériot XI across the English Channel.
Before 1914, Alessandro Anzani had developed radial engines ranging from 3 cylinders — early enough to have been used on a few French-built examples of the famous Blériot XI from the original Blériot factory — to a massive 20-cylinder engine of 200 hp, with its cylinders arranged in four rows of five cylinders apiece. Most radial engines are air-cooled, but one of the most successful of the early radial engines was the Salmson 9Z series of nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engines that were produced in large numbers during the First World War. Georges Canton and Pierre Unné patented the original engine design in 1909, offering it to the Salmson company. From 1909 to 1919 the radial engine was overshadowed by its close relative, the rotary engine, which differed from the so-called "stationary" radial in that the crankcase and cylinders revolved with the propeller, it was similar in concept to the radial, the main difference being that the propeller was bolted to the engine, the crankshaft to the airframe.
The problem of the cooling of the cylinders, a major factor with the early "stationary" radials, was alleviated by the engine generating its own cooling airflow. In World War I many French and other Allied aircraft flew with Gnome, Le Rhône, Bentley rotary engines, the ultimate examples of which reached 250 hp although none of those over 160 hp were successful. By 1917 rotary engine development was lagging behind new inline and V-type engines, which by 1918 were producing as much as 400 hp, were powering all of the new French and British combat aircraft. Most German aircraft of the time used water-cooled inline 6-cylinder engines. Motorenfabrik Oberursel made licensed copies of the Gnome and Le Rhône rotary powerplants, Siemens-Halske built their own designs, including the Siemens-Halske Sh. III eleven-cylinder rotary engine, unusual for the period in being geared through a bevel geartrain in the rear end of the crankcase without the crankshaft being mounted to the aircraft's airframe, so that the engine's internal working components (fully in
The Lavochkin La-7 was a piston-engined Soviet fighter developed during World War II by the Lavochkin Design Bureau. It was a development and refinement of the Lavochkin La-5, the last in a family of aircraft that had begun with the LaGG-1 in 1938, its first flight was in early 1944 and it entered service with the Soviet Air Forces in the year. A small batch of La-7s was given to the Czechoslovak Air Force the following year, but it was otherwise not exported. Armed with two or three 20 mm cannon, it had a top speed of 661 kilometers per hour; the La-7 was felt by its pilots to be at least the equal of any German piston-engined fighter and is the Soviet fighter that suffered the lowest number of losses, in combat against the Luftwaffe: 115. It was phased out in 1947 by the Soviet Air Force, but served until 1950 with the Czechoslovak Air Force. By 1943, the La-5 had become a mainstay of the Soviet Air Forces, yet both its head designer, Semyon Lavochkin, as well as the engineers at the Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute, felt that it could be improved upon.
TsAGI refined earlier studies of aerodynamic improvements to the La-5 airframe in mid-1943 and modified La-5FN c/n 39210206 to evaluate the changes. These included complete sealing of the engine cowling, rearrangement of the wing center section to accommodate the oil cooler and the relocation of the engine air intake from the top of the cowling to the bottom to improve the pilot's view; the aircraft was evaluated between December 1943 and February 1944 and proved to have exceptional performance. Using the same engine as the standard La-5FN c/n 39210206 had a top speed of 684 kilometers per hour at a height of 6,150 meters, some 64 kilometers per hour faster than the production La-5FN, it took 5.2 minutes to climb to 5,000 meters. It was faster at low to medium altitudes than the La-5 that used the more powerful prototype Shvetsov M-71 engine. Lavochkin had been monitoring TsAGI's improvements and began construction in January 1944 of an improved version of the La-5 that incorporated them as well as lighter, but stronger, metal wing spars to save weight.
The La-5, as well as its predecessors, had been built of wood to conserve strategic materials such as aircraft alloys. With Soviet strategists now confident that supplies of these alloys were unlikely to become a problem, Lavochkin was now able to replace some wooden parts with alloy components. In addition Lavochkin made a number of other changes that differed from c/n 39210206; the engine air intake was moved from the bottom of the engine cowling to the wing roots, the wing/fuselage fillets were streamlined, each engine cylinder was provided with its own exhaust pipe, the engine cowling covers were reduced in number, a rollbar was added to the cockpit, longer shock struts were fitted for the main landing gear while that for the tail wheel was shortened, an improved PB-1B gunsight was installed, a new VISh-105V-4 propeller was fitted. Three prototype 20 mm Berezin B-20 autocannon were mounted in the engine cowling, firing through the propeller, arming the 1944 standard-setter, as the modified aircraft was designated.
The etalon only made nine test flights in February and March 1944 before testing had to be suspended after two engine failures, but proved itself to be the near-equal of c/n 39210206. It was 180 kilograms lighter than the earlier aircraft, which allowed the etalon to outclimb the other aircraft; however it was 33 kilometres per hour slower at sea level, but only 4 kilometers per hour slower at 6,000 meters. The flight tests validated Lavochkin's modifications and it was ordered into production under the designation of La-7, although the B-20 cannon were not yet ready for production and the production La-7 retained the two 20-mm ShVAK cannon armament of the La-5. Five La-7s were built in March by Factory Nr. 381 in Moscow and three of these were accepted by the Air Force that same month. The Moscow factory was the fastest to complete transition over to La-7 production and the last La-5FN was built there in May 1944. Zavod Nr. 21 in Gorky was slower to make the change as it did not exhaust its stock of wooden La-5 wings until October.
The quality of the early production aircraft was less than the etalon due to issues with the engine, incomplete sealing of the cowling and fuselage, defective propellers. One such aircraft was tested, after these problems had been fixed, by the Flight Research Institute and proved to be only 6 kilometers per hour slower than the etalon at altitude. Aircraft from both factories were evaluated in September by the Air Force Scientific Test Institute and the problems persisted as the aircraft could only reach 658 kilometers per hour at a height of 5,900 meters and had a time to altitude of 5.1 minutes to 5,000 meters. Combat trials began in mid-September 1944 and were very positive; however four aircraft were lost to engine failures and the engines suffered from numerous lesser problems, despite its satisfactory service in the La-5FN. One cause was the lower position of the engine air intakes in the wing roots of the La-7 which caused the engine to ingest sand and dust. One batch of flawed wings was built and caused six accidents, four of them fatal, in October which caused the fighter to be grounded until the cause was determined to be a defect in the wing spar.
Production of the first aircraft fitted with three B-20 cannon began in January 1945 when 74 were delivered. These aircraft were 65 kilograms heavier than those airc
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants. Liquids are desirable because their reasonably high density allows the volume of the propellant tanks to be low, it is possible to use lightweight centrifugal turbopumps to pump the propellant from the tanks into the combustion chamber, which means that the propellants can be kept under low pressure; this permits the use of low-mass propellant tanks. An inert gas stored in a tank at a high pressure is sometimes used instead of pumps in simpler small engines to force the propellants into the combustion chamber; these engines may have a lower mass ratio, but are more reliable, are therefore used in satellites for orbit maintenance. Liquid rockets can be monopropellant rockets using a single type of propellant, bipropellant rockets using two types of propellant, or more exotic tripropellant rockets using three types of propellant; some designs are throttleable for variable thrust operation and some may be restarted after a previous in-space shutdown.
Liquid propellants are used in hybrid rockets, in which a liquid oxidizer is combined with a solid fuel. The idea of liquid rocket as understood in the modern context first appears in the book The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices, by the Russian school teacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky; this seminal treatise on astronautics was published in May 1903, but was not distributed outside Russia until years and Russian scientists paid little attention to it. Pedro Paulet wrote a letter to a newspaper in Lima in 1927, claiming he had experimented with a liquid rocket engine while he was a student in Paris three decades earlier. Historians of early rocketry experiments, among them Max Valier, Willy Ley, John D. Clark, have given differing amounts of credence to Paulet's report. Paulet did not claim to have launched a liquid rocket; the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket took place on March 16, 1926 at Auburn, when American professor Dr. Robert H. Goddard launched a vehicle using liquid oxygen and gasoline as propellants.
The rocket, dubbed "Nell", rose just 41 feet during a 2.5-second flight that ended in a cabbage field, but it was an important demonstration that liquid-fueled rockets were possible. Goddard proposed liquid propellants about fifteen years earlier and began to experiment with them in 1921; the German-Romanian Hermann Oberth published a book in 1922 suggesting the use of liquid propellants. In Germany and scientists became enthralled with liquid-fuel rockets and testing them in the early 1930s in a field near Berlin; this amateur rocket group, the VfR, included Wernher von Braun, who became the head of the army research station that designed the V-2 rocket weapon for the Nazis. By the late 1930s, use of rocket propulsion for manned flight began to be experimented with, as Germany's Heinkel He 176 made the first manned rocket-powered flight using a liquid-fueled rocket engine, designed by German aeronautics engineer Hellmuth Walter on June 20, 1939; the only production rocket-powered combat aircraft to see military service, the Me 163 Komet in 1944-45 used a Walter-designed liquid-fueled rocket motor, the Walter HWK 109-509, which produced up to 1,700 kgf thrust at full power.
After World War II the American government and military seriously considered liquid-propellant rockets as weapons and began to fund work on them. The Soviet Union did and thus began the Space Race. Liquid rockets have been built as monopropellant rockets using a single type of propellant, bipropellant rockets using two types of propellant, or more exotic tripropellant rockets using three types of propellant. Bipropellant liquid rockets use a liquid fuel, such as liquid hydrogen or a hydrocarbon fuel such as RP-1, a liquid oxidizer, such as liquid oxygen; the engine may be a cryogenic rocket engine, where the fuel and oxidizer, such as hydrogen and oxygen, are gases which have been liquefied at low temperatures. Liquid-propellant rockets can be throttled in realtime, have control of mixture ratio. Hybrid rockets apply a liquid oxidizer to a solid fuel. All liquid rocket engines have tankage and pipes to store and transfer propellant, an injector system, a combustion chamber, typically cylindrical, one rocket nozzles.
Liquid systems enable higher specific impulse than solids and hybrid rocket engines and can provide high tankage efficiency. Unlike gases, a typical liquid propellant has a density similar to water 0.7–1.4g/cm³, while requiring only modest pressure to prevent vapourisation. This combination of density and low pressure permits lightweight tankage. For injection into the combustion chamber, the propellant pressure at the injectors needs to be greater than the chamber pressure. Suitable pumps use centrifugal turbopumps due to their high power and light weight, although reciprocating pumps have been employed in the past. Turbopumps are extremely lightweight and can give excellent performance. Indeed, overall rocket engine thrust to weight ratios including a turbopump have been as high as 155:1 with the SpaceX Merlin 1D ro
The Yakovlev Yak-3 was a World War II Soviet fighter aircraft. Robust and easy to maintain, it was much liked by pilots and ground crew alike, it was one of the smallest and lightest major combat fighters fielded by any combatant during the war. Its high power-to-weight ratio gave it excellent performance, it proved a formidable dogfighter. Marcel Albert, World War II French ace, who flew the Yak in USSR with the Normandie-Niémen Group, considered it a superior aircraft when compared to the P-51D Mustang and the Supermarine Spitfire. After the war ended, it was flown by the Polish Air Forces; the origins of the Yak-3 went back to 1941 when the I-30 prototype was offered along with the I-26 as an alternative design. The I-30, powered by a Klimov M-105P engine, was of all-metal construction, using a wing with dihedral on the outer panels. Like the early Yak-1, it had a 20 mm ShVAK cannon firing through the hollow-driveshaft nose spinner as a motornaya pushka, twin 7.62 mm synchronized ShKAS machine guns in cowl mounts ahead of the cockpit on the fuselage, but was fitted with a ShVAK cannon in each wing.
The first of two prototypes was fitted with a slatted wing to improve handling and short-field performance while the second prototype had a wooden wing without slats, in order to simplify production. The second prototype was written off. Although there were plans to put the Yak-3 into production, the scarcity of aviation aluminum and the pressure of the Nazi invasion led to work on the first Yak-3 being abandoned in late fall 1941. In 1943, Yakovlev designed the Yak-1M, a lighter version of the Yak-1, it incorporated a wing of similar design, but with smaller surface area and had further aerodynamic refinements, like the new placement of the oil radiator, from the chin to the wing roots. A second Yak-1M prototype was constructed that year, differing from the first aircraft in that it had plywood instead of fabric covering of the rear fuselage, mastless radio antenna, reflector gunsight and improved armor and engine cooling; the chief test pilot for the project Petr Mikhailovich Stefanovskiy was so impressed with the new aircraft that he recommended that it should replace the Yak-1 and Yak-7 with only the Yak-9 retained in production for further work with the Klimov VK-107 engine.
The new fighter, designated the Yak-3 entered service in 1944 than the Yak-9 in spite of the lower designation number. Production accelerated so that by mid-1946, 4,848 had been built; the designation Yak-3 was used for other Yakovlev projects – a proposed but never built, heavy twin-engine fighter and the Yakovlev Yak-7A. The first 197 Yak-3 were armed with a single motornaya pushka-mount 20 mm ShVAK cannon and one 12.7 mm UBS synchronized machine gun, with subsequent aircraft receiving a second UBS for a weight of fire of 2.72 kg per second using high-explosive ammunition. All armament was installed close to the axis of the aircraft, adding to the accuracy and leaving wings unloaded. Lighter and smaller than Yak-9 but powered by the same engine, the Yak-3 was a forgiving, easy-to-handle aircraft loved by both novice and experienced pilots and ground crew as well, it was robust, easy to maintain, a successful dog-fighter. It was used as a tactical fighter, flying low over battlefields and engaging in dogfights below 4 km.
The new aircraft began to reach front line units during summer 1944. Yak-3 service tests were conducted by 91st IAP of the 2nd Air Army, commanded by Lt Colonel Kovalyov, in June–July 1944; the regiment had the task of gaining air superiority. During 431 sorties, 20 Luftwaffe fighters and three Junkers Ju 87s were shot down while Soviet losses amounted to two Yak-3s shot down. A large dogfight developed on 16 June 1944. Soviet Yak-3 fighters shot down 15 German aircraft for the loss of one Yak destroyed and one damaged; the following day, Luftwaffe activity over that section of the front had ceased. On 17 July 1944, eight Yaks attacked a formation of 60 German aircraft, including escorting fighters. In the ensuing dogfight, the Luftwaffe lost three Ju 87s and four Bf 109Gs, for no loss; the Luftwaffe issued an order to "avoid combat below five thousand metres with Yakovlev fighters lacking an oil cooler intake beneath the nose!" Luftwaffe fighters in combat with the Yak-3 tried attacking from above.
Unresolved wartime problems with the Yak-3 included plywood surfaces coming unstuck when the aircraft pulled out of a high-speed dive. Other drawbacks of the aircraft were poor engine reliability; the pneumatic system for actuating landing gear and brakes, typical for all Yakovlev fighters of the time, was troublesome. Though less reliable than hydraulic or electrical alternatives, the pneumatic system was preferred owing to the weight saving. In 1944, the Normandie-Niemen Group re-equipped with the Yak-3, scoring with it the last 99 of their 273 air victories against the Luftwaffe. Total losses of the type in combat were 210. Yak-3 main production version Yak-3 Klimov VK-107A engine with 1,230 kW and 2 × 20 mm Berezin B-20 cannons with 120 rpg. After several mixed-construction prototypes, 48 all-metal production aircraft were built in 1945–1946 during and after WW2. Despite excellent performance, it saw only limited squadron service with the 897th IAP. Though the problems with the VK-107 overheating were mitigated, it was decide
Romanian Air Force
The Romanian Air Force is the air force branch of the Romanian Armed Forces. It has an operational command, four air bases and an air defense brigade. Reserve forces include three airfields. In 2010, the Romanian Air Force employed 9,700 personnel; the Romanian Air Force modernized 110 MiG 21 LanceRs, in cooperation with Israel between 1993 and 2002. Today, 48 of these MiG 21 LanceRs are operational; the Romanian Air Force operates C-130 Hercules, C-27J Spartan, An-26s transport planes and IAR-330 Puma helicopters. IAR-330 PUMA SOCAT helicopters have been modernized by the Romanian Aviation Industry in cooperation with Elbit Systems for attack missions; the Romanian Air Force includes locally built IAR-99 Șoim jet planes, in general only used for training of the young pilots. The remaining MiG-29s have been removed from service in 2003. Due to the old age of the MiGs, the Romanian Air Force is in the process of procurement of new fighters or used fighters from partner states. Romania has signed a contract in 2013 with Portugal for 12 F-16 A/B Block 15 MLU fighters.
The first six fighters have entered service with the Romanian Air Force in October 2016 while another three have been delivered in December. The last three will enter service during 2017. Beside the 12 F-16s bought from Portugal, Romanian authorities intend to buy at least another 24 F-16s newer Block 50 ones, in at least two batches of 12. In the spring of 2009, the Romanian government decided to purchase VSHORAD/SHORAD systems from France; the deal included Mistral MICA VL surface-to-air missiles. However, after preliminary talks with MBDA in August, the deal was put on hold and canceled afterwards because of the defense cuts. In February 2010, the Supreme Council of National Defense signed an agreement with the United States for missile defense under whose terms land-based SM-3 systems would be installed in Romania. On 3 May 2011, the president of Romania Traian Băsescu announced the location for the SM-3 systems: former Air Force base Deveselu in Olt County; the system includes 3 batteries with 24 SM-3 Block I rockets, manned by 200 US soldiers under Romanian Air Force overall command.
The Deveselu Aegis Ashore site has been declared operational on the 13th of May 2016. The current chief of the Romanian Air Force Staff, succeeding Major General Fănică Cârnu on 19 December 2013, is Major General Laurian Anastasof. In 1818, during the reign of John Caradja, the prince of Wallachia, an unmanned hot air balloon was flown off Dealul Spirii in Bucharest. On July 7, 1874, Colonel Nicolae Haralambie with Ion Ghica and a third person flew over Bucharest in a hydrogen balloon named "Mihai Bravul", which had made its first flight on June 9 of the same year. On November 20, 1909 the Chitila Piloting School was formed as a joint venture by Mihail Cerchez; the school, conducted by French flight instructors, had five hangars, bleachers for spectators and shops where the Farman planes imported from France were assembled. The school opened on July 9, 1910, when the chief flight instructor and director of the school René Guillemin crashed a Farman III biplane from a height of 40 metres during a demonstration flight and broke his leg.
Guillemin was succeeded by Michel Molla who made the first flight across Bucharest on September 7, 1910. Molla was succeeded by two others before the school closed in late 1912 due to financial difficulties, having trained six officers, but only licensed two. In November 1909, the Romanian Minister of War commissioned Aurel Vlaicu to build the A. Vlaicu I airplane at the Bucharest Army Arsenal which first flew on June 17, 1910. On September 28, during the Fall military exercise, Vlaicu flew his airplane from Slatina to Piatra Olt carrying a message, Romania thus becoming the second country after France to use airplanes for military purposes. Along with other Romanian pilots, Vlaicu flew reconnaissance missions during the Second Balkan War. Vlaicu III, the first metal aircraft in the world, was completed after his death, in May 1914. On the eve of Romania's entrance in the war in late 1916, the Romanian Air Force comprised only 28 aircraft; the 28 aircraft comprised six different models, namely 10 Bristol T.
B.8 biplanes, 7 Bristol Coanda Monoplanes, 4 Farman HF.20 biplanes and 4 Blériot XI. Added to these were two Morane Type F monoplanes and two native-made monoplanes designed by Aurel Vlaicu. One of the Vlaicu monoplanes, A Vlaicu II, crashed in 1913, leaving A Vlaicu I as the sole Romanian-made aircraft in the Romanian Air Force. List of Romanian aircraft in mid-1916: During World War I, Romania acquired 322 aircraft from France and ex-RNAS aircraft from Great Britain including Nieuport 11 and 17 single seat fighters and Morane-Saulnier LA and Nieuport 12 two seat fighters. Caudron G.3, Henry Farman HF.20, Farman MF.11, Farman F.40 & 46 artillery observation and reconnaissance aircraft, Caudron G.4, Breguet-Michelin BLM and Voisin LA bombers. On September 16, 1916, a Romanian Farman F.40 downed an Imperial German Air Force aircraft near Slobozia. By the end of World War I, Romanian pilots had flown about 750 missions; the Royal Romanian Air Force was reorganized during an 18-year period. Several types of military and civil aircraft were purchased, some built in Romania, based on local and foreign designs.
Notable among these are IAR 80 built by IAR Braşov. Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Heinkel He 112 fighters, Heinkel He 111 and Junkers Ju 88 bombers, Junkers Ju 87 di
Soviet Air Defence Forces
The Soviet Air Defence Forces was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces. Formed in 1941, it continued being a service branch of the Russian Armed Forces after 1991 until it was merged into the Air Force in 1998. Unlike Western air defence forces, V-PVO was a branch of the military unto itself, separate from the Soviet Air Force and Air Defence Troops of Ground Forces. During the Soviet period it was ranked third in importance of the Soviet services, behind the Strategic Missile Troops and the Ground Forces. Preparations for creation of the air defence forces started in 1932, by the start of the war there were 13 PVO zones located within the military districts. At the outbreak of war, air defence forces were in the midst of rearmament. Anti-aircraft artillery teams had 85 mm guns. Moreover, the troops were deficient in MiG-3s. Increased rates of production were initiated to provide the troops with new equipment. In July 1941, the National Defence Committee took several measures to strengthen the forces guarding Moscow and Leningrad and Gorky industrial areas, strategic bridges across the Volga.
To this end, the formation of parts of the IA, IN, anti-aircraft machine gun and searchlight units were accelerated. A classic example of a major political organization of defence and industrial center was the defence of Moscow, it was carried out by the 1st Air Defence Corps and the 6th Fighter Aviation Corps PVO. As part of these formations at the beginning of German air raids had more than 600 fighters; the presence of such large forces and their skilful management foiled enemy attempts to inflict massive air strikes. Only 2.6percent of the total number of Axis aircraft flew in the outskirts of Moscow as a result of their efforts. Air defence forces defending Moscow destroyed 738 enemy aircraft. Assaults by the 6th Fighter Aviation Corps inflicted heavy blows, destroying 567 enemy aircraft on the ground; the Air Defence Forces destroyed 1,305 aircraft and in combat with the armies of Nazi Germany and its allies, alongside the Air Force, destroyed 450 tanks and 5,000 military vehicles. On November 9, 1941, the post of the Commander of the Air Defence Forces was created and Major General Mikhail Gromadin was appointed.
In January 1942, to improve the interaction of forces and air defence systems, the fighter aircraft and crews manning them were ordered to be subordinated to the Air Defence Command. In April 1942, the Moscow Air Defence Front was founded, the Leningrad and Baku Air Defence Armies were raised. There were the first operational formations of the Air Defence Forces. In June 1943, the Office of the Commander of Air Defence Forces of the country was disbanded. Following the reorganization in April 1944 that created the Western and Eastern Air Defence Fronts, caused the division of the Transcaucasian Air Defence Area, which this year have been reorganized as the North, the South and the Transcaucasian Air Defence Fronts, air defence forces in the vicinity of Moscow were renamed the Moscow Air Defence Army. In the Far East in March 1945, three air defence armies were established: Maritime and Baikal. During the Second World War, the Air Defence Forces provided the defence industry and communication, allowing the breakthrough to the objects only a few planes, so that there were only few devastated enterprises and impaired movement of trains on some sections of railway lines nationwide.
In carrying out its tasks, the PVO destroyed 7,313 German aircraft, of which 4,168 and 3,145 were targeted by the IA antiaircraft artillery, machine guns and barrage balloons. More than 80,000 soldiers, sergeants and generals of the Country Air Defence Forces were awarded state orders and medals, 92 soldiers were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and one was twice given the honor. During the war PVO formations were organised as Air Defence Armies. PVO Fronts covered airspace over several ground Army Fronts; the Air Defence Fronts had the following service history: Western Air Defence Front 1st formation 29 June 1943 – 20 April 1944 renamed to Headquarters, Northern PVO Front Northern Front PVO 21 April 1944 – 23 December 1944 formed from Headquarters, Western PVO Front.