A lavoir is a public place set aside for the washing of clothes. Communal washing places were common in Europe until industrial washing was introduced, this process in turn was replaced by domestic washing machines and by launderettes; the English word is borrowed from the French language, which uses the expression bassin public, "public basin". Lavoirs were built from the seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. With the Baron Haussmann's redesign of Paris in the 1850s, a free lavoir was established in every neighbourhood, government grants encouraged municipalities across France to construct their own. Lavoirs are more common in certain areas, such as around the Canal du Midi. Lavoirs are sited on a spring or beside or set over a river. Many lavoirs are provided with roofs for shelter. With the coming of piped water supplies and modern drainage, lavoirs have been falling into disuse although a number of communities have restored ancient lavoirs, some of which date back to the 10th century.
There are bateaux-lavoirs in some towns on the banks of large rivers such as Paris and Lyon. The lavoir in Rives is lit in by the March afternoon slanting sun. Polished stone slabs line around the central pool, which reflects its light against the wall, the hall is cool and quiet, while it was a century ago ringing with bat thuds, washing songs and the loud chatter of gossips. Lavoirs of France Les lavoirs de France Lavoirs in the department Aube Lavoirs in Champagne-Ardenne Lavoirs in Burgundy and Franche-comté
Heathwick is an informal name for a proposal to create a high-speed rail link between London's Heathrow and Gatwick airports, in effect to combine them into a single airport. Proponents argue this would balance their capacity and so reduce the need to add more runways to Heathrow, or more airports in the south-east of England. In 2018 the similar project HS4Air was proposed. A similar plan was first mooted in the 1990s by the British Chambers of Commerce in 2009. Consideration of it by the UK government began in October 2011, when it was dubbed'Heathwick' by the UK press; the scheme envisages a 35-mile high-speed rail route linking the two airports in 15 minutes, with trains travelling at a top speed of 180 miles per hour parallel to the M25 and passengers passing through immigration or check-in only once. It is hoped that this streamlined immigration/check-in procedure would enable passengers arriving at one airport and departing on a connecting flight from the other to complete the transfer process within 75 minutes, thereby increasing its attractiveness as a viable alternative to changing flights at an overseas hub airport.
To make a combined Heathwick hub work, Gatwick would assume the role of a short- and medium-haul feeder for Heathrow's long-haul flights. The scheme's success rests on the assumption that a high-speed Gatwick–Heathrow rail link would increase the value of the former's takeoff and landing slots to a point where it will be attractive for low/no frills airlines that presently account for more than half of its traffic to sell these to full-service rivals and move their operations to other London airports Stansted, Luton or Southend; this would ensure that Gatwick has sufficient room to accommodate the large number of short-/medium-haul flights needed to feed Heathrow's long-haul services, given that it is running at 80% capacity. Gatwick would be required to build a second runway to cope with the huge influx of new short and medium haul flights moving in from Heathrow and to create an effective four runway hub with Heathrow. Proponents of Heathwick argue that at an estimated cost of £5 billion it is a viable alternative to the politically fraught provision of additional runway capacity at existing airports in the Southeast of England and much cheaper and less time-consuming than building a new hub airport in the Thames Estuary.
In 2013 a group called Interlinking Transit Solutions Ltd submitted proposals to the House of Commons Transport Select Committee which outlined a financed rapid transit system named London Air Rail Transit system. This orbital light rail system would follow the M25 route on an elevated guideway from Luton Airport in the north, around to Heathrow and terminating at Gatwick, it would include connections to several radial railway lines with interchanges at Iver, Kings Langley, West Byfleet and Sevenoaks. Further extensions as far as Stansted Airport are envisaged. Special light rail rolling stock would be designed to carry baggage and mail; the aviation and rail industry's initial response has been overwhelmingly negative: British Airways said it would not address the South-East's looming airport capacity crunch, which it said must be alleviated to maintain the UK's global competitiveness. EasyJet vowed to fight a forcible move from Gatwick. Ryanair CEO Michael O'Leary doubted the feasibility of the Heathwick high-speed rail link in the foreseeable future due to its high cost.
BAA and an unnamed rail executive questioned the project's success on grounds of technical, operational and financial difficulties as well as long time scales. To travel between London airports the following options are available: Heathrow Express trains go to Paddington station. From there, passengers can use taxi or London Underground to transfer to Victoria station. Gatwick Express trains go from Victoria to Gatwick Airport. Around two hours travel times should be expected including waits. A bus transfer from Heathrow serves Feltham railway station. A minimum of 80 minutes should be expected depending on waits for connection. A shuttle bus from Luton Airport connects with Luton Airport Parkway. Total journey time is 2 hours. Coaches go directly between the airports and take around 75 minutes, plus waiting time Taxis take around 45 minutes if there is little traffic, this journey may take more than double that in poor traffic. From 2022, Elizabeth line trains will run from all Heathrow Airport terminal stations into central London.
Passengers will be able to change at Farringdon onto Thameslink trains to either Luton or Gatwick Airport, at Liverpool Street for Stansted or Southend Airport. Heathrow Airport transport proposals Superlink Windsor Link Railway Airlink, which linked the airports between 1978 and 1986
Boissise-le-Roi is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. The inhabitants are called Régiboissiens. Boissise-le-Roi is twinned with: Caerano di San Marco, since 2002 Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department INSEE 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF French Ministry of Culture list for Boissise-le-Roi Map of Boissise-le-Roi on Michelin genealogy of de Thumery Chateau of Boissise, built by the de Thumery family History of Boissise-le-Roi History of Church Saint-Denis