A law degree is an academic degree conferred for studies in law. Such degrees are preparation for legal careers. A legal license is exercised locally; the first academic degrees were all law degrees-and. The foundations of the first universities in Europe were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law; the first European university, that of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. It is from this history that it is said that the first academic title of doctor applied to scholars of law; the degree and title were not applied to scholars of other disciplines until the 13th century. And at the University of Bologna from its founding in the 12th century until the end of the 20th century the only degree conferred was the doctorate earned after five years of intensive study after secondary school; the rising of the doctor of philosophy to its present level is a modern novelty. At its origins, a doctorate was a qualification for a guild—that of teaching law.
The University of Bologna served as the model for other law schools of the medieval age. While it was common for students of law to visit and study at schools in other countries, such was not the case with England because of the English rejection of Roman law and although the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge did teach canon law until the English Reformation, its importance was always superior to civil law in those institutions. In the medieval Islamic madrasahs, there was a doctorate in the Islamic law of the Sharia, called the ijazat attadris wa'l-ifta'; the type of law degree conferred differs according to the jurisdiction. Some examples include. To be a Lawyer and be admitted at the Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil, the Bachelor must be approved at the Brazilian Bar Exam, if the Selection and Registration Committee accept the new member he/she will be consider an Advogado. Bachelor of Laws referred to as a B. A. in Law or an LL. B. in the United Kingdom and various current or former Commonwealth countries.
It is an undergraduate degree. A Bachelor of Civil Law degree is similar in nature distinguished from canon law. Master of Laws in the United Kingdom and various current or former Commonwealth countries. Referred to as an LL. M. from its Latin name, Legum Magister. It is an advanced academic degree pursued by those holding a professional law degree or a degree in a relevant field. Laurea di Dottore in Giurisprudenza for graduates before the Bologna Process reforms, or Laurea Magistrale in Giurisprudenza after the Bologna Process reforms, in Italy, it is a masters level degree, however all graduates of Italian universities of the undergraduate degree, are authorized to use the title of "dottore". Erstes Juristisches Staatsexamen is the equivalent to the law degree, since the second part is the German equivalent to the Bar exam in the U. S. At some universities you either become a "Lizentiat des Rechts", a Magister iuris or a Diplom-Jurist, it is a master's-level degree. In Spain it's called Bacherlor's Degree in Law.
We must differentiate two types of the Bachelor's Degree in Law: the previous one to the Bologna Process and the one. The previous one to the Bologna Process was composed of 5 years, with specialization and without legal internship, that one was licenciate degree and has master's level; the current one consists of 4 years, with internship and to specialize and it has a graduate level. Licenciatura en Derecho in Mexico. Lizentiat der Rechtswissenschaften / Licence en droit until 2004 and Master of Law since 2004 in Switzerland, it is a masters level degree. Magister iuris in Croatia, it is the first academic title within both systems. After three years of practice you can take the "Anwaltsprüfung" or "Pravosudni ispit", an equivalent of the bar exam. Specialist in law or Jurist in Ukraine and Russia, it is a graduate degree which allows doing a PhD research after admission to the PhD department, though formally it is not at the masters level. The Finnish title of varatuomari is the basic qualification for the legal profession.
It is obtained by an one-year externship at a district court after completing a Master's degree in law in a university. Juris Doctor in the United States and Japan, it is a professional doctorate degree. Legum Doctor is in some jurisdictions the highest academic degree in law and is equivalent to a Ph. D. and in others is an honorary degree only. Doctor of Juridical Science is a research doctorate in law awarded in the United States and Canada. Legal education Adm
Robby the Robot is a fictional character and science fiction icon who first appeared in the 1956 film Forbidden Planet. He made a number of subsequent appearances in science fiction movies and television programs without specific reference to the original film character; the name "Robbie" had appeared in science fiction before Forbidden Planet. In a pulp magazine adventure The Fantastic Island, the name is used for a mechanical likeness of Doc Savage used to confuse foes; the name is used in Isaac Asimov's short story "Robbie" about a first-generation robot designed to care for children. In Tom Swift on The Phantom Satellite, it is the name given to a small four-foot robot designed by Tom Swift Jr. the boy inventor in the Tom Swift Jr. science fiction novel series by Victor Appleton II. Robby the Robot originated as a character in the 1956 MGM science fiction film Forbidden Planet; the story centers on a crew of space explorers from Earth who land their starship, the C57-D, on the planet Altair IV, ruled by the mysterious Dr. Morbius.
Robby is a mechanical servant that Morbius has designed and programmed using knowledge gleaned from his study of the Krell, a long-extinct race of intelligent beings that once populated Altair IV. The film’s plot appears loosely based on William Shakespeare’s play The Tempest, with the planet Altair IV standing in for Shakespeare’s remote island and Dr. Morbius for Prospero. In this context Robby is analogous to Ariel, a spirit enslaved by Prospero. Robby exhibits artificial intelligence, but has a distinct personality that at times exhibits a dry wit, he is instructed by Morbius to be helpful to the Earthmen and does so by synthesizing and transporting to their landing site 10 tons of "isotope 217", a lightweight though still effective replacement for the requested lead shielding needed to house the C57-D’s main stardrive to power an attempt to contact Earth base for further instructions. Morbius programmed Robby to obey a system of rules similar to Isaac Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics as expressed in I, Robot.
One of the laws is a rule against killing humans. Hollywood purposely, misleadingly, depicts Robby in the film’s advertising posters as a terrifying adversarial creature carrying a seductively posed unconscious maiden, but no such scene is in the film and the images do not reflect in any way Robby's benevolent and intelligent character. Robby only carries one person during the film, the Earth starship's Dr. Ostrow, when he is mortally wounded near the end of the film. Robby was designed by members of the MGM art department and constructed by the studio's prop department; these concepts were refined by production illustrator Mentor Huebner and perfected by MGM staff production draughtsman and mechanical designer Robert Kinoshita. The robot's groundbreaking design and dazzling finish represented a radical advance on the conventional "walking oil-can" depictions of robots in earlier features and film serials, the only previous film robot of comparable style and quality was the "Menschmaschine" created for Fritz Lang's Metropolis.
However, this did not come cheap: As with every aspect of the production of Forbidden Planet, MGM spared no expense on Robby's design and construction. At a reported cost of US$125,000 it was, proportional to total budget, one of the most expensive single film props created up to that time, which represented nearly 7% of the film's total budget of US$1.9 million.. But thanks to its imaginative design, intricate detailing, the high visual quality of the final product, Robby became the "face" of the film and soon became an enduring popular culture icon; the Robby suit was constructed using a range of materials including metal, rubber and Plexiglas. The plastic parts were a pioneering example of the use of the novel technology of vacuum-forming heated plastic over wooden molds; these parts were made from an early form of ABS plastic with the brand name "Royalite", a material used at the time for making suitcases. The finished suit stands just over 7-foot tall and was fabricated in three detachable sections: the legs and lower torso, the barrel-like chest section, the detailed'head'.
The tall paraboloidal plexiglass dome that covered the head housed the detailed mechanisms representing Robby's electronic brain. These included a "pilot light" at the top, an intricate apparatus terminating in three white wire-frame spheres that rotate in planetary fashion, a pair of reciprocating arms in the shape of an inverted "V", multiple flashing lights, an elaborate horizontal array of moving levers resembling saxophone keys. Conical protuberances attached to each side of the head carry two small forward-facing blinking lights and two rotating chromed rings, one mounted vertically and the other horizontally, which represent Robby's audio detectors; the bottom front section of the head is a curved grille consisting of parallel rows of thin blue neon tubes, which light up in synchronization with Robb
Hamza Yusuf is an American Islamic scholar and co-founder of Zaytuna College. He is a proponent of classical learning in Islam and has promoted Islamic sciences and classical teaching methodologies throughout the world, he is an advisor to the Center for Islamic Studies at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley. In addition, he serves as vice-president for the Global Center for Guidance and Renewal, founded and is presided over by Abdallah bin Bayyah, he serves as vice-president of the UAE-based Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslim Societies, where Abdullah bin Bayyah serves as president. He is one of the signatories of A Common Word Between Us and You, an open letter by Islamic scholars to Christian leaders calling for peace and understanding. Yusuf was one of the signatories of an open letter to former-ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi that refuted the principles promoted by the terrorist organization; the Guardian has referred to Yusuf as "arguably the West's most influential Islamic scholar," and The New Yorker magazine called him "perhaps the most influential Islamic scholar in the Western world.".
He has been listed in the top 50 of The 500 Most Influential Muslims an annual publication compiled by the Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre in Amman, which ranks the most influential Muslims in the world. Yusuf was born as Mark Hanson in Walla Walla, Washington to two academics working at Whitman College and he was raised in northern California, he grew up as a practicing Greek Orthodox Christian and attended prep schools on both the east and west coasts. In 1977, after a near-death experience in a car accident and reading the Qur'an, he converted from Christianity to Islam. Yusuf has Irish and Greek ancestry. After being impressed by a young couple from Saudi Arabia who were followers of Abdalqadir as-Sufi—a Scottish convert to Islam and leader of the Darqawa Sufi order and the Murabitun World Movement—Yusuf moved to Norwich, England to study directly under as-Sufi. In 1979, Yusuf moved to Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates where he spent the next four years studying Sharia sciences at the Islamic Institute, more on a one-on-one basis with Islamic scholars.
Yusuf became fluent in the Arabic language and studied Qur'anic recitation, poetry and theology among other classical Islamic disciplines. In 1984, Yusuf formally disassociated himself from as-Sufi's teachings and moved in a different intellectual direction having been influenced by a number of Mauritanian scholars residing in the Emirates, he moved to North Africa in 1984 studying in Algeria and Morocco, as well as Mauritania. In Mauritania he developed his most lasting and powerful relationship with Islamic scholar Sidi Muhammad Ould Fahfu al-Massumi, known as Murabit al-Hajj, he and other colleagues founded the Zaytuna Institute in Berkeley, United States, in 1996, dedicated to the revival of traditional study methods and the sciences of Islam. In the early 2000s, he was joined by additional colleagues Zaid Shakir and Hatem Bazian in further establishing what was Zaytuna Institute. In the fall of 2010 it would open its doors as Zaytuna College, a four-year Muslim liberal arts college, the first of its kind in the United States.
It incorporates Yusuf's vision of combining the classical liberal arts—based in the trivium and quadrivium—with rigorous training in traditional Islamic disciplines. It aims to "educate and prepare morally committed professional and spiritual leaders"; the Zaytuna Institute became the first accredited Muslim campus in the United States after it received approval from the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Yusuf stated that "We hope, God willing, that there will be more such Muslim colleges and universities to come". Hamza Yusuf has been involved in many controversies in recent years on issues of race and the Arab revolutions. In December 2016, Yusuf made comments critical of the African American community, he argued that America was one of the least racist nations in the world, that many of the problems of African Americans was due to the breakdown of the family in these communities. In a discussion with The Atlantic, Ubaydullah Evans, the executive director of the American Learning Institute for Muslims said in 2017 that he saw "Yusuf’s comments as a way of perpetuating myths about “black pathology” and blaming African Americans for violence."
Yusuf has been working as an official of the UAE in recent years, where he works with the Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslim Societies. His involvement with the UAE has been attacked by Qatari-backed medias such as Al-Jazeera and Middle East Eye. Yusuf has been criticized by Qatari-medias such as Al-Jazeera and Middle East Eye, as well as Shia Haseeb Rizvi's The Muslim Vibe, for working with the Trump administration as a committee member in a committee advising the President on human rights. In 2019, a video was released in which Yusuf comments on the Syrian revolution in a way that some viewed as mocking the attempts to unseat Bashar al-Assad. Qatari media, such as Middle East Eye and The New Arab, attacked Yusuf over this in their publications. Yusuf apologized for these comments. Yusuf has taken a stance against religious justifications for terrorist attacks, he described the 9/11 attacks as "an act of mass murder and simple". Condemning the attacks, he stated that "Islam was hijacked... on that plane as an innocent victim."Jordan's Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre places him 36th on its list of the top 500 most influential Muslims in the world.
In its 2016 edition, Yusuf is described "as one of the foremost authorities on Islam outside of the Muslim world" by The 500 Mos
Apple Books iBooks, is an e-book reading and store application by Apple Inc. for its iOS and macOS operating systems and devices. It was announced, under the name iBooks, in conjunction with the iPad on January 27, 2010, was released for the iPhone and iPod Touch in mid-2010, as part of the iOS 4 update. IBooks was not pre-loaded onto iOS devices, but users could install it free of charge from the iTunes App Store. With the release of iOS 8, it became an integrated app. On June 10, 2013, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Craig Federighi announced that iBooks would be provided with OS X Mavericks in fall 2013, it receives EPUB content from the iBooks Store, but users can add their own EPUB and Portable Document Format files via data synchronization with iTunes. Additionally, the files can be downloaded to iBooks through Apple Mail, it is capable of displaying e-books that incorporate multimedia. According to product information as of March 2010, iBooks will be able to "read the contents of any page " using VoiceOver.
On January 19, 2012, at an education-focused special event in New York City, Apple announced the free release of iBooks 2, which can operate in landscape mode and allows for interactive reading. In addition, a new application, iBooks Author, was announced for the Mac App Store, allowing anyone to create interactive textbooks for reading in iBooks; the iBooks Author Conference, the annual gathering of digital content creators around Apple's iBooks Author, has convened since 2015.iBooks was renamed "Apple Books" alongside the release of iOS 12 and macOS Mojave in September 2018. It features a new variation of the San Francisco typeface known as "SF Serif." IBooks was announced alongside the iPad at a press conference in January 2010. The store itself, was released in America three days before the iPad with the introduction of iTunes 9.1. This was to prevent too much traffic on Apple's servers, as they have been overloaded with previous releases of the iPhone. On the day of its launch, on March 31, 2010, the iBooks Store collection comprised some 60,000 titles.
On April 8, 2010, Apple announced that iBooks would be updated to support the iPhone and iPod Touch with iOS 4. As a result, iBooks was not supported on iPod Touches. On June 8, 2010 at the WWDC Keynote it was announced that iBooks would be updated that month to read PDF files as well as have the ability to annotate both PDFs and eBooks; as of July 1, Apple expanded iBooks availability to Canada. Upon its release for older devices running iOS 4, such as the iPhone 3GS and iPod Touch, iBooks received criticism for its slow performance. However, a July 19 update from Apple offered several improvements. On September 27, 2011, Apple expanded the premium store to the Republic of Ireland. On January 19, 2012, Apple announced the release of the iBooks 2 app, allowing users to purchase and download textbooks to the iPad; the new app will support digital textbooks that can display interactive diagrams and video on the iPad. Apple released a free tool called iBooks Author; the software allows users to create these interactive textbooks themselves.
On October 23, 2012, Apple announced iBooks 3. On November 13, 2012, Apple was granted the patent “Display screen or portion thereof with animated graphical user interface” for page-turning animation; the page-turning animation was first filed for in December 2011 as ornamental design for a display screen. The patent’s illustration shows three different images of a virtual page being turned. One with a corner of a page being turned the next image with the page halfway turned, the third showing the page entirely turned over; the patent refers to O'Reilly Media and FlippingBook companies that use page-turning animation in eBooks. On June 10, 2013, Apple announced iBooks for OS X Mavericks. Books are now available for purchase in the following countries. On October 24, 2013, Apple patented an application for “Personalizing digital gifts”, which describes a novel method for gifting e-books to friends; the patent describes how a user can select the appealing e-book snippet that will bring up a contextual menu containing an option to gift the media to another party.
On November 15, 2013, Apple pushed version 3.2 of iBooks for iOS with a redesigned interface to match the "flat" style of iOS 7, which dropped support for iOS 6 and earlier versions. On the annual WWDC in 2014, Apple unveiled that iBooks will be a pre-installed app in the next version of the operating system, iOS 8, along with the Podcasts app. On September 17, 2014, Apple bundled version 4.0 of iBooks for iOS with iOS 8.0. This includes slight changes with the bookstore button, grouping of books by series in the bookshelf, Auto-night mode theme, as well as small changes to the underlying rendering engine. On October 20, 2014, Apple bundled version 4.1 of iBooks for iOS with iOS 8.1. On January 24, 2018, Apple renamed iBooks to Books in the iOS 11.3 beta. As well as in macOS 10.13.4 beta iBooks to Books on March 5, 2018. It was renamed back to iBooks in a next intermittent 10.13.4 macOS beta, showing some uncertainty about the marketing decision. The supported e-b
Lewes Old Grammar School in Lewes, East Sussex, is an independent co-educational day school accredited by the Independent Schools Council. An educational trust was established in the will of Agnes Morley who died in 1512; the school itself was proprietorial until 1989 when a new educational trust was formed, of which there were eight active trustees. The current school has existed as an organisation since 25 April 2015, when the company limited by guarantee that now operates the school was formed; as at 16 November 2018, ten directors of the company were listed at Companies House. In November 2017, the school was the subject of an emergency no-notice inspection by the Independent Schools Inspectorate in relation to regulatory failings or concerns raised as to the safeguarding of children. A school has been at the current school's site at the top of the Lewes High Street since the 19th century. Morley House, the junior school, which includes the Early Years and Foundation Stage, is situated in a residential suburb, in a house, updated and extended.
The senior school occupies three listed houses in the High Street of Lewes which have been refurbished and extended. The Junior School, for ages 4 -- 11, is housed in Morley House in King Henry's Road; the Senior School is situated in the centre of Lewes, occupying three former townhouses, Mead House, Tyne House and St. Clair House, all of which are grade II listed buildings; the curriculum followed includes three foreign languages, sciences are studied as individual subjects at senior level. Expansions to the sixth form college have allowed for the study of psychology and graphic design, they allow the study of business and Latin. The sixth form produces theatrical events featuring the orchestra and actors from the school; the most notable of these is the annual VIth form pantomime, performed on the last day of the autumn term. The last assembly of each academic year is held and organised by the leaving upper VIth form. School trips include the annual ski trip, a week spent at a sports training camp in Lanzarote, every two years some members of the VIth form venture to Morocco for 10–11 days, visiting Marrakech and travelling into the High Atlas mountains to visit a school with which LOGS has been in contact with regularly.
LOGS and the school have carried out exchanges, LOGS having several fundraising events in order to pay for travel from Morocco to the UK. Every year the senior school carries out a sponsored charity walk from the senior school in Lewes across some of the South Downs to Stanmer Park and back. One of the most popular charities is Fish Aid—a charity set up in memory of a former student of LOGS who died of cancer. There are three houses in the school—DeMontfort house, Barbican house, Malling house; the houses compete in events throughout the year. Each house performs a Christmas pantomime before the VIth form pantomime on the last day of the Autumn Term. Official website ISI Inspection Reports
Peter von Danzig was a 15th-century ship of the Hanseatic League. The three-masted ship was the first large vessel in the Baltic Sea with carvel planking. Peter von Danzig was built at the French west coast and named Pierre de la Rochelle or Peter van Rosseel; the ship arrived in Danzig in 1462. While she anchored in roadstead, she was damaged by lightning; the ship lay inactive for a while in Danzig harbour, but was seized and changed over to a warship in 1469 after the Hanse had declared war on England. Between August 1471 and 1473 Peter von Danzig operated in the North Sea under captain Paul Beneke, hunting English merchantmen with a letter of marque and securing Hanse convoys. After the Treaty of Utrecht, the ship undertook several trade trips abroad, before she appears to have been decommissioned in the late 1470s. List of ships of the Hanseatic League Jochen Brennecke: Geschichte der Schiffahrt, Künzelsau 1986 ISBN 3-89393-176-7, p. 62 Propyläen Technikgeschichte: Karl-Heinz Ludwig, Volker Schmidtchen: Metalle und Macht.