Government of Cook County, Illinois
The government of Cook County, Illinois is composed of the Board of Commissioners, other elected officials such as the Sheriff, State's Attorney, Board of Review, Assessor, Cook County Circuit Court judges and Circuit Court Clerk, as well as numerous other officers and entities. Cook County is the only home rule county in Illinois; the Cook County Code is the codification of Cook County's local ordinances. The Cook County Board of Commissioners is the county's legislative body, it made up of 17 commissioners. The county board sets policy and laws for the county regarding property, public health services, public safety, maintenance of county highways, it is presided over by the County Board President Toni Preckwinkle. The Cook County Sheriff is the sheriff. All Cook County Sheriff's Deputies have police powers regardless of their particular job function or title. Like other Sheriffs' departments in Illinois, the Sheriff can provide all traditional law-enforcement functions, including county-wide patrol and investigations irrespective of municipal boundaries in the city of Chicago, but has traditionally limited its police patrol functions to unincorporated areas of the county.
The Cook County Department of Corrections operates the Cook County Jail, the largest single-site jail in the nation. The Cook County State's Attorney handles criminal prosecutions; the Cook County Recorder of Deeds records and maintains land records and other official documents in perpetuity for public and private use, facilitating home ownership and mortgage lending. The Office is a statutorily-authorized repository for federal military discharge records, which are held as private records available only to those authorized by law; the current Cook County Recorder of Deeds is Karen Yarbrough. The Circuit Court of Cook County, a State agency funded, in part, by Cook County, accepts more than 1.2 million cases each year for filing. The Cook County Juvenile Detention Center, under the authority of the Chief Judge of the State court, is the first juvenile center in the nation and one of the largest in the nation; the Cook County Public Defender provides legal representation in the areas of felony and misdemeanor criminal cases, abuse/neglect, some appeals, post-conviction and traffic cases throughout the county.
It is the largest Public Defender System in the United States. It is the largest State Public Defender's office in the country; the Cook County Public Guardian acts as the guardian of disabled adults, as well as to act as attorneys and guardian ad litem for abused and neglected children in the county. The Bureau of Health Services administers the county's public health services and is the second largest public health system in the nation. Three hospitals are part of this system: Jr.. Hospital of Cook County, Provident Hospital, Oak Forest Hospital of Cook County, along with over 30 clinics; the Cook County Highway Department is responsible for the design and maintenance of roadways in the county. These thoroughfares are composed of major and minor arterials, with a few local roads. Although the Highway Department was instrumental in designing many of the expressways in the county, today they are under the jurisdiction of the state; the Cook County Forest Preserves, organized in 1915, is a separate, independent taxing body, but the Cook County Board of Commissioners acts as its Board of Commissioners.
The district is a belt of 69,000 acres of forest reservations surrounding the city of Chicago. The Brookfield Zoo and the Chicago Botanic Garden are located in the forest preserves; the Cook County Law Library is the second largest county law library in the nation. Cook County Department of Public Health and the Cook County Medical Examiner's office. Cook County is the fifth largest employer in Chicago. In March 2008, the County Board increased the sales tax by one percent to 1.75 percent. This followed a quarter-cent increase in mass transit taxes. In Chicago, the rate increased to 10.25 percent, the steepest nominal rate of any major metropolitan area in America. In Evanston, sales tax reached Oak Lawn residents pay 9.5 percent. On July 22, 2008, the Cook County board voted against Cook County Commissioner's proposal to repeal the tax increase; the Cook County Democratic Party represents Democratic voters in 50 wards in the city of Chicago and 30 suburban townships of Cook County. The organization has dominated County and state politics since the 1930s.
The county has by far more Democratic Party members than any other Illinois county and is one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. It has voted only once for a Republican candidate in a Presidential election in the last fifty years, when county voters preferred Richard Nixon to George McGovern in 1972; the 1970 Illinois Constitution allows the controlling party to redraw voting districts. In the 1980s, Cook County was ground zero to an extensive FBI investigation called Operation Greylord. Ninety-two officials were indicted, including 17 judges, 48 lawyers, 8 policemen, 10 deputy sheriffs, 8 court officials, a state legislator. To establish more localized government control and policies which reflect the different values and needs of large suburban sections of the sprawling county, several secession movements have been made over the years which called for certain townships or municipalities to form their own independent counties. In the late 1970s, a move
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
University of Chicago Library
University of Chicago Library is the library system of the University of Chicago, located on the university's campus in Chicago, United States. It is the tenth largest academic library in North America, with over 11.9 million volumes as of 2019. The library holds 65,330 linear feet of archives and manuscripts and 245 terabytes of born-digital archives, digitized collections, research data; the library has borrowing privileges with several other archives and libraries in the Chicago area, including the Art Institute of Chicago Library, the Chicago History Museum, the Field Museum of Natural History, the Newberry Library. The library was founded by president of the University of Chicago, William Rainey Harper, who set the course for Special Collections as a “working collection” in 1891; the library's collections are located in six sites: the Joseph Regenstein Library, the John Crerar Library, the D'Angelo Law Library, the Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, the Eckhart Library for mathematics and computer science, the School of Social Service Administration Library.
University of Chicago The University of Chicago Library The University of Chicago Library at the Digital Library Federation The Chopin Collection at the University of Chicago
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent. These interpretations are distinguished from statutory law, which are the statutes and codes enacted by legislative bodies, regulatory law, which are regulations established by executive agencies based on statutes; the term "case law" is applied to any set of previous rulings by an adjudicatory tribunal that guides future rulings. In common law countries the term is used for judicial decisions of selected appellate courts, courts of first instance, agency tribunals, other bodies discharging adjudicatory functions. In common law countries, "case law" is a near-exact synonym for "common law". In the common law tradition, courts decide the law applicable to a case by interpreting statutes and applying precedents which record how and why prior cases have been decided. Unlike most civil law systems, common law systems follow the doctrine of stare decisis, by which most courts are bound by their own previous decisions in similar cases, all lower courts should make decisions consistent with previous decisions of higher courts.
For example, in England, the High Court and the Court of Appeal are each bound by their own previous decisions, but the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is able to deviate from its earlier decisions, although in practice it does so. Speaking, higher courts do not have direct oversight over the lower courts of record, in that they cannot reach out on their own initiative at any time to overrule judgments of the lower courts; the burden rests with litigants to appeal rulings to the higher courts. If a judge acts against precedent and the case is not appealed, the decision will stand. A lower court may not rule against a binding precedent if it feels that it is unjust. If the court believes that developments or trends in legal reasoning render the precedent unhelpful, wishes to evade it and help the law evolve, it may either hold that the precedent is inconsistent with subsequent authority, or that it should be distinguished by some material difference between the facts of the cases. If that judgment goes to appeal, the appellate court will have the opportunity to review both the precedent and the case under appeal overruling the previous case law by setting a new precedent of higher authority.
This may happen several times. Lord Denning, first of the High Court of Justice of the Court of Appeal, provided a famous example of this evolutionary process in his development of the concept of estoppel starting in the High Trees case: Central London Property Trust Ltd v. High Trees House Ltd K. B. 130. The different roles of case law in civil and common law traditions create differences in the way that courts render decisions. Common law courts explain in detail the legal rationale behind their decisions, with citations of both legislation and previous relevant judgments, an exegesis of the wider legal principles; the necessary analysis constitutes a precedent binding on other courts. By contrast, decisions in civil law jurisdictions are very short, referring only to statutes; the reason for this difference is that these civil law jurisdictions adhere to a tradition that the reader should be able to deduce the logic from the decision and the statutes, so that, in some cases, it is somewhat difficult to apply previous decisions to the facts presented in future cases.
Some pluralist systems, such as Scots law in Scotland and so-called civil law jurisdictions in Quebec and Louisiana, do not fit into the dual "common-civil" law system classifications. Such systems may have been influenced by the Anglo-American common law tradition; because of their position between the two main systems of law, these types of legal systems are sometimes referred to as "mixed" systems of law. Law professors in common law traditions play a much smaller role in developing case law than professors in civil law traditions; because court decisions in civil law traditions are brief and not amenable to establishing precedent, much of the exposition of the law in civil law traditions is done by academics rather than by judges. Common law courts relied little on legal scholarship. Today academic writers are cited in legal argument and decisions as persuasive authority, thus common law systems are adopting one of the approaches long common in civil law jurisdictions. Judges may refer to various types of persuasive authority to reach a decision in a case.
Cited non-binding sources include legal encyclopedias such as Corpus Juris Secundum and Halsbury's Laws of England, or the published work of the Law Commission or the American Law Institute. Some bodies are given statu
An encyclopedia or encyclopædia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge from either all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries that are arranged alphabetically by article name and sometimes by thematic categories. Encyclopedia entries are more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Speaking, unlike dictionary entries—which focus on linguistic information about words, such as their etymology, pronunciation and grammatical forms—encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in the article's title. Encyclopedias have existed for around 2,000 years and have evolved during that time as regards language, intent, cultural perceptions, authorship and the technologies available for their production and distribution; as a valued source of reliable information compiled by experts, printed versions found a prominent place in libraries and other educational institutions. The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 20th century has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship and variety of encyclopedia entries and called into question the idea of what an encyclopedia is and the relevance of applying to such dynamic productions the traditional criteria for assembling and evaluating print encyclopedias.
The word encyclopedia comes from the Koine Greek ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία, transliterated enkyklios paideia, meaning "general education" from enkyklios, meaning "circular, required general" and paideia, meaning "education, rearing of a child". However, the two separate words were reduced to a single word due to a scribal error by copyists of a Latin manuscript edition of Quintillian in 1470; the copyists took this phrase to be a single Greek word, with the same meaning, this spurious Greek word became the New Latin word "encyclopaedia", which in turn came into English. Because of this compounded word, fifteenth century readers and since have and incorrectly, thought that the Roman authors Quintillian and Pliny described an ancient genre. In the sixteenth century there was a level of ambiguity as to; as several titles illustrate, there was not a settled notion about its spelling nor its status as a noun. For example: Jacobus Philomusus's Margarita philosophica encyclopaediam exhibens, it is only with Pavao Skalić and his Encyclopediae seu orbis disciplinarum tam sacrarum quam profanarum epistemon that the term became first recognized as a noun.
There have been two examples of the oldest vernacular use of the compounded word. In 1490, Franciscus Puccius wrote a letter to Politianus thanking him for his Miscellanea, calling it an encyclopedia. More François Rabelais is cited for his use of the term in Pantagruel. Several encyclopedias have names that include the suffix -pedia, to mark the text as belonging to the genre of encyclopedias. For example, Banglapedia. Today in English, the word is most spelled encyclopedia, though encyclopaedia is used in Britain; the modern encyclopedia was developed from the dictionary in the 18th century. Both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content experts, but they are different in structure. A dictionary is a linguistic work which focuses on alphabetical listing of words and their definitions. Synonymous words and those related by the subject matter are to be found scattered around the dictionary, giving no obvious place for in-depth treatment.
Thus, a dictionary provides limited information, analysis or background for the word defined. While it may offer a definition, it may leave the reader lacking in understanding the meaning, significance or limitations of a term, how the term relates to a broader field of knowledge. An encyclopedia is, not written in order to convince, although one of its goals is indeed to convince its reader of its own veracity. To address those needs, an encyclopedia article is not limited to simple definitions, is not limited to defining an individual word, but provides a more extensive meaning for a subject or discipline. In addition to defining and listing synonymous terms for the topic, the article is able to treat the topic's more extensive meaning in more depth and convey the most relevant accumulated knowledge on that subject. An encyclopedia article often includes many maps and illustrations, as well as bibliography and statistics. Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, its method of production: Encyclopedias can be general, containing articles on topics in every field
Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported. Case citations are formatted differently in different jurisdictions, but contain the same key information. A legal citation is a "reference to a legal precedent or authority, such as a case, statute, or treatise, that either substantiates or contradicts a given position." Where cases are published on paper, the citation contains the following information: Court that issued the decision Report title Volume number Page, section, or paragraph number Publication yearIn some report series, for example in England and some in Canada, volumes are not numbered independently of the year: thus the year and volume number are required to identify which book of the series has the case reported within its covers. In such citations, it is usual in these jurisdictions to apply square brackets "" to the year.
The Internet brought with it the opportunity for courts to publish their decisions on websites and most published court decisions now appear in that way. They can be found through many national and other websites, such as WorldLII, that are operated by members of the Free Access to Law Movement; the resulting flood of unpaginated information has led to numbering of paragraphs and the adoption of a medium-neutral citation system. This contains the following information: Year of decision Abbreviated title of the court Decision number Rather than utilizing page numbers for pinpoint references, which would depend upon particular printers and browsers, pinpoint quotations refer to paragraph numbers; the conjunction "versus" is abbreviated to "v" in Commonwealth countries and to "v." in the United States. In common law countries with an adversarial system of justice, the names of the opposing parties are separated in the case title by the abbreviation v—usually written as v in Commonwealth countries and always as v. in the US.
The abbreviation represents the Latin word versus. When case titles are read out loud, the v can be pronounced, depending on the context, as and, versus, or vee. Commonwealth countries follow English legal style: Civil cases are pronounced with and. For example, Smith v Jones would be pronounced "Smith and Jones". Criminal cases are pronounced with against. For example, R v Smith would be pronounced "the Crown against Smith"; the Latin words Rex and versus are all rendered into English. Versus and vee are incorrect. In the United States, there is no consensus on the pronunciation of the abbreviation v; this has led to much confusion about the pronunciation and spelling of court cases: Versus is most used, leading some newspapers to use the common abbreviation vs. in place of the legal abbreviation v. Vee is heard but is not as common. Against is a matter of personal style. For example, Warren E. Burger and John Paul Stevens preferred to announce cases at the Supreme Court with against, and is used by some law professors, but other law professors regard it as an affectation.
During oral arguments in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the participants demonstrated the lack of consensus by using different pronunciations of v. Solicitor General Ken Starr managed to use all three of the most common American pronunciations interchangeably: Kenneth W. Starr: This is the process of analysis, quite familiar to the Court lengthily laid out by Justice Harlan in his dissent in Poe versus Ullman, adumbrated in his concurring opinion in Griswold against Connecticut.... Well, I think that, the necessary consequence of Roe vee Wade. Legal citation in Australia mirrors the methods of citation used in England. A used guide to Australian legal citation is the Australian Guide to Legal Citation, published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law; the standard case citation format in Australia is: As in Canada, there has been divergence among citation styles. There exist commercial citation guides published by Butterworths and other legal publishing companies, academic citation styles and court citation styles.
Each court in Australia may cite the same case differently. There is presently a movement in convergence to the comprehensive academic citation style of the Australian Guide to Legal Citation published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law. Australian courts and tribunals have now adopted a neutral citation standard for case law; the format provides a naming system that does not depend on the publication of the case in a law report. Most cases are now published on AustLII using neutral citations; the standard format looks like this: So the above-mentioned Mabo case would be cited like this: Mabo v Queensland HCA 23. There is a unique court identifier code for most courts; the court and tribunal identifiers include: Australian Guide to Legal Citation There are a number of citation standards in Canada. Many legal publishing companies and schools have their own standard for citation. Since the late 1990s, much of the legal community has converged to a single standard—formulated in The Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation known as the "McGill Guide" after the McGill Law Journal, which first published it.
The following format reflects this standard: Hunter v Southam, 2 SCR 145. Broken into its component parts, the format is: The Style of Cause is i
Illinois State Bar Association
The Illinois State Bar Association is among largest voluntary state bar associations in the country. 28,000 lawyers are members of the ISBA. Unlike some state bar associations, in which membership is mandatory, ISBA membership is not required of lawyers licensed to practice in Illinois and ISBA membership is voluntary; the ISBA is headquartered in Illinois. It has an office in Chicago, Illinois; the ISBA was founded on January 4, 1877, at a meeting held in the Sangamon County Courthouse in Springfield, attended by 88 lawyers from 37 counties. According to the association’s constitution adopted at that time, the purpose of the association is: o cultivate the science of jurisprudence, to promote reform in the law, to facilitate the administration of justice, to elevate the standard of integrity and courtesy in the legal profession, to encourage a thorough and liberal education, to cherish a spirit of brotherhood among the members thereof; this first meeting elected Anthony Thornton as first president of the ISBA.
In 1879, the ISBA gained notoriety after it granted honorary membership to Myra Bradwell and Ada Kepley after they were denied admission to the bar on the grounds that they were women. Responding to a request from the Supreme Court of Illinois on how to improve the quality of Illinois lawyers, in 1897 the ISBA and the Chicago Bar Association recommended that the court require lawyers to have at least a high school education; the Illinois Supreme Court accepted both recommendations. The ISBA would lead a crusade against the unauthorized practice of law; the ISBA spent decades lobbying for reform of Illinois' civil procedure, this paid off in 1933, when the Illinois General Assembly passed the Civil Practice Act of 1933. In 1962, the ISBA led a campaign to change the judicial article of the Illinois Constitution; the ISBA played a large role in developing the current Illinois Criminal Code and Illinois Code of Criminal Procedure. In the 1970s and 1980s, the ISBA lobbied to have Illinois adopt a regime of no-fault divorce and for independent administration of decedents' estates.
The ISBA played a role in creating the Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education, the Client Security Fund of the Bar of Illinois, the Lawyers’ Assistance Program, the Lawyers Trust Fund. The ISBA is divided into 40 substantive law divisions, allowing ISBA members the opportunity to meet other lawyers who practice in the same field; each section publishes a newsletter to keep its members aware of substantive changes in the field of law. The sections offer continuing legal education services for members. One of these sections, the Young Lawyers Division, is for lawyers 36 years old and younger, is designed to give young lawyers an opportunity to meet and discuss issues peculiar to younger practitioners; the ISBA operates 26 standing committees and several special committees and task forces created by either the Assembly or the Board of Governors. Each committee consists of members appointed by the ISBA president; these committees study issues facing the legal community and make recommendations to the ISBA Assembly.
The association sponsors a number of online and print publications, including: the Illinois Bar Journal, dozens of section newsletters, the Illinois Courts Bulletin, its blog Illinois Lawyer Now. Members receive E-Clips, a daily email newsletter summarizing legal news and case updates. Other ISBA highlights include: Member benefits, including: Fastcase online legal research service, On-Demand online CLE courses, automated legal form builder IllinoisBarDocs, an online Career Center, an online Lawyer Referral Service, meeting space in its Chicago and Springfield offices, the ability to purchase malpractice insurance through the ISBA Mutual Insurance Company. Legal resources for the public, including: consumer guides covering dozens of legal issues and an online lawyer search tool called IllinoisLawyerFinder. Awards recognizing professional achievement in the legal profession, the most prestigious of, the ISBA Laureate Award; the Illinois State Bar Association’s Academy of Illinois Lawyers was founded in 1999 to recognize those who personify excellence in the legal profession.
The Laureate Award, the Academy’s highest honor, is awarded to those deemed to exemplify the highest ideals of the profession. Its charitable wing, the Illinois Bar Foundation that promotes pro bono work and other legal work in the public interest; the association administers the annual ISBA High School Mock Trial Invitational, a mock trial tournament for high school students, with the winning team representing Illinois at the National High School Mock Trial Championship. The ISBA's supreme policy making body is the ISBA Assembly; the Assembly has 203 lawyer members elected on a pro rata basis from the judicial circuits. The Assembly meets twice a year, it has taken positions on a number of important matters, including repeal of the death penalty in Illinois, support of civil unions, support of U. S. ratification of the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Between meetings of the Assembly, the ISBA is governed by a 27-member Board of Governors, which oversees the operations and management of ISBA and is subject to policies set by the 203-member Assembly.
The Board of Governors is headed by