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Law of the United States

The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, which prescribes the foundation of the federal government of the United States, as well as various civil liberties. The Constitution sets out the boundaries of federal law, which consists of Acts of Congress, treaties ratified by the Senate, regulations promulgated by the executive branch, case law originating from the federal judiciary; the United States Code is the official compilation and codification of general and permanent federal statutory law. Federal law and treaties, so long as they are in accordance with the Constitution, preempt conflicting state and territorial laws in the 50 U. S. in the territories. However, the scope of federal preemption is limited because the scope of federal power is not universal. In the dual-sovereign system of American federalism, states are the plenary sovereigns, each with their own constitution, while the federal sovereign possesses only the limited supreme authority enumerated in the Constitution.

Indeed, states may grant their citizens broader rights than the federal Constitution as long as they do not infringe on any federal constitutional rights. Thus, most U. S. law consists of state law, which can and does vary from one state to the next. At both the federal and state levels, with the exception of the state of Louisiana, the law of the United States is derived from the common law system of English law, in force at the time of the American Revolutionary War. However, American law has diverged from its English ancestor both in terms of substance and procedure and has incorporated a number of civil law innovations. In the United States, the law is derived from five sources: constitutional law, statutory law, administrative regulations, the common law. Where Congress enacts a statute that conflicts with the Constitution, state or federal courts may rule that law to be unconstitutional and declare it invalid. Notably, a statute does not automatically disappear because it has been found unconstitutional.

Many federal and state statutes have remained on the books for decades after they were ruled to be unconstitutional. However, under the principle of stare decisis, no sensible lower court will enforce an unconstitutional statute, any court that does so will be reversed by the Supreme Court. Conversely, any court that refuses to enforce a constitutional statute will risk reversal by the Supreme Court. Commonwealth countries are heirs to the common law legal tradition of English law. Certain practices traditionally allowed under English common law were expressly outlawed by the Constitution, such as bills of attainder and general search warrants; as common law courts, U. S. courts have inherited the principle of stare decisis. American judges, like common law judges elsewhere, not only apply the law, they make the law, to the extent that their decisions in the cases before them become precedent for decisions in future cases; the actual substance of English law was formally "received" into the United States in several ways.

First, all U. S. states except Louisiana have enacted "reception statutes" which state that the common law of England is the law of the state to the extent that it is not repugnant to domestic law or indigenous conditions. Some reception statutes impose a specific cutoff date for reception, such as the date of a colony's founding, while others are deliberately vague. Thus, contemporary U. S. courts cite pre-Revolution cases when discussing the evolution of an ancient judge-made common law principle into its modern form, such as the heightened duty of care traditionally imposed upon common carriers. Second, a small number of important British statutes in effect at the time of the Revolution have been independently reenacted by U. S. states. Two examples are the Statute of 13 Elizabeth; such English statutes are still cited in contemporary American cases interpreting their modern American descendants. Despite the presence of reception statutes, much of contemporary American common law has diverged from English common law.

Although the courts of the various Commonwealth nations are influenced by each other's rulings, American courts follow post-Revolution Commonwealth rulings unless there is no American ruling on point, the facts and law at issue are nearly identical, the reasoning is persuasive. Early on, American courts after the Revolution did cite contemporary English cases, because appellate decisions from many American courts were not reported until the mid-19th century. Lawyers and judges used English legal materials to fill the gap. Citations to English decisions disappeared during the 19th century as American courts developed their own principles to resolve the legal problems of the American people; the number of published volumes of American reports soared from eighteen in 1810 to over 8,000 by 1910. By 1879 one of the delegates to the California constitutional convention was complaining: "Now, when we require them to state the reasons for a decision, we do not mean they shall write a hundred pages of detail.

We not mean that they shall include the small case

La Friche

La Friche de la Belle de Mai or La Friche is a former tobacco factory near the Saint-Charles station in Marseille, France in the neighbourhood of Belle de Mai. In 1992, it was converted into a cultural complex. Presenting itself as a "pole of authors," the Wasteland focuses its efforts on the creation and production of works, it hosts dozens of international artists in residence and it contains over sixty artistic and cultural structures of all disciplines. It is a place of spectacle and broadcasting, it contains 2 concert rooms, it hosted several times the electronic and urban music festival Marsatac. La Friche includes as well a restaurant, a nursery, a playground for children, a library, a local food market, a skate shop, a skate park and community gardens and two new theaters; the Mediterranean Institute of Show Crafts will open there in 2014. In 2013 was built the Panorama Tower, for the European Capital of Culture, a 4,000 m2 exhibition space dedicated to contemporary art. In the same time, 7,500 m2 of the building "Les Magazins" were renovated and host offices and art studios.

A large public terrasse has been created on the roof of the building and hosts events and dj sets

5 O'Clock Charlie

"5 O'Clock Charlie" was the 26th episode of the M*A*S*H television series, second of season two. The episode aired on September 22, 1973. For six weeks, an ammo dump near the camp has been the target of a punctual but inept North Korean bomber pilot; every afternoon at 5:00, he flies overhead and attempts to hit the dump with a single hand-thrown bomb. The pilot, nicknamed "5 O'Clock Charlie," has been so reliably unsuccessful that the denizens of the 4077th have begun a daily betting pool based on how far away from the target his bomb will land. Only Frank and Margaret regard Charlie as a serious threat. Frank gets Henry to request an anti-aircraft gun, Brigadier General Crandall Clayton comes to the camp to assess the situation. Clayton, who has placed the dump near the hospital so that the enemy will leave it alone, is skeptical of the need for a gun; when Charlie's next bomb destroys Clayton's jeep, though, he agrees to send the gun. Frank takes charge of the gun and begins to train three South Korean soldiers in its use, but Hawkeye and Trapper mock him and argue that the gun's presence will draw enemy fire toward the hospital.

Prompted by the camp dentist, Captain Phil Cardozo and Trapper begin devising plans to get rid of the dump and thus remove the need for the gun. They dye sheets with mercurochrome to make a target for Charlie to hit. Charlie stops his daily raids, the staff of the 4077th return to their routine duties. A Ryan PT-22 painted with North Korean markings was used for Charlie's plane; the plane used was owned by Don Burkett. The production team painted over the plane's orange and white starburst pattern with special paint to resemble the North Korean markings. Burkett himself flew the plane from the rear seat, as the pilot, assigned to do the flying had never flown a plane of this type before. Enough film was taken during the one day of flying they were able to piece together two episodes featuring the plane and its inept pilot. An article in the October 1972 edition of Private Pilot magazine featured Burkett's experience doing the show; the magazine's cover has a picture of what the plane looked like when it wasn't "in costume".

The character of 5 O'Clock Charlie returns in the Season 3 episode "There Is Nothing Like a Nurse", in which the nursing staff is evacuated based on intelligence that points to an upcoming air raid on the 4077. In the end, the "air raid" turns out to be 5 O'Clock Charlie, this time armed with propaganda leaflets. During the U. S. Pacific campaign of World War II—specifically, during the Guadalcanal campaign —Japanese bombers would harass various U. S. Army Air Force bases at night to deprive personnel of sleep. American troops nicknamed these bombers with various related nicknames, such as "5 O'Clock Charlie", "Bed-Check Charlie" or "Washing-Machine Charlie". Various methods of harassment included overflights at full throttle with propellers at near-flat pitch, or deliberately unsynchronized engines. One Washing-Machine Charlie appeared in the U. S. television comedy series McHale's Navy. Washing Machine Charlie was discussed in Gregory Boyington's autobiography and made appearances in Black Sheep Squadron, the television show loosely based on Boyington's World War II exploits.

"5 O'Clock Charlie" on IMDb