SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Law of war

The law of war refers to the component of international law that regulates the conditions for war and the conduct of warring parties. Laws of war define sovereignty and nationhood and territories, other critical terms of international law. Among other issues, modern laws of war addresses the declarations of war, acceptance of surrender and the treatment of prisoners of war; the law of war is considered distinct from other bodies of law—such as the domestic law of a particular belligerent to a conflict—which may provide additional legal limits to the conduct or justification of war. Attempts to define and regulate the conduct of individuals and other agents in war and to mitigate the worst effects of war have a long history; the earliest known instances are found in the Old Testament. In the Indian subcontinent, the Mahabharata describes a discussion between ruling brothers concerning what constitutes acceptable behavior on a battlefield, an early example of the rule of proportionality: One should not attack chariots with cavalry.

One should not assail someone in distress, neither to scare him nor to defeat him... War should be waged for the sake of conquest. An example from the Book of Deuteronomy 20:19–20 limits the amount of acceptable collateral and environmental damage: 19When you besiege a city for a long time, making war against it in order to take it, you shall not destroy its trees by wielding an axe against them. You may eat from them. Are the trees in the field human, that they should be besieged by you? 20Only the trees that you know are not trees for food you may destroy and cut down, that you may build siegeworks against the city that makes war with you, until it falls. Deuteronomy 20:10–12, requires the Israelites to make an offer of peace to the opposing party before laying siege to their city. 10 When you draw near to a city to fight against it, offer terms of peace to it. 11And if it responds to you peaceably and it opens to you all the people who are found in it shall do forced labour for you and shall serve you.

12 But if it makes no peace with you, but makes war against you you shall besiege it. Deuteronomy 21:10–14 requires that female captives who were forced to marry the victors of a war could not be sold as slaves. In the early 7th century, the first caliph, Abu Bakr, whilst instructing his Muslim army, laid down the following rules concerning warfare: Stop, O people, that I may give you ten rules for your guidance in the battlefield. Do not commit treachery or deviate from the right path. You must not mutilate dead bodies. Neither kill an aged man. Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire those which are fruitful. Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food. You are to pass by people who have devoted their lives to monastic services. Furthermore, Sura Al-Baqara 2:190–193 of the Quran requires that in combat Muslims are only allowed to strike back in self-defense against those who strike against them, but, on the other hand, once the enemies cease to attack, Muslims are commanded to stop attacking.

In the history of the early Christian church, many Christian writers considered that Christians could not be soldiers or fight wars. Augustine of Hippo contradicted this and wrote about'just war' doctrine, in which he explained the circumstances when war could or could not be morally justified. In 697, Adomnan of Iona gathered Kings and church leaders from around Ireland and Scotland to Birr, where he gave them the'Law of the Innocents', which banned killing women and children in war, the destruction of churches. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church began promulgating teachings on just war, reflected to some extent in movements such as the Peace and Truce of God; the impulse to restrict the extent of warfare, protect the lives and property of non-combatants continued with Hugo Grotius and his attempts to write laws of war. One of the grievances enumerated in the American Declaration of Independence was that King George III "has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages and conditions".

The modern law of war is made up from three principal sources: Lawmaking treaties —see § International treaties on the laws of war below. Custom. Not all the law of war derives from or has been incorporated in such treaties, which can refer to the continuing importance of customary law as articulated by the Martens Clause; such customary international law is established by the general practice of nations together with their acceptance that such practice is required by law. General Principles. "Certain fundamental principles provide basic guidance. For instance, the principles of distinction and necessity, all of which are part of customary international law, always apply to the use of armed force". Positive international humanitarian law consists of treaties that directly affect the laws of war by binding consenting nations and achieving widespread consent; the opposite of positive laws of war is customary laws of war, many of which were explored at the Nuremberg War Trials. These laws define both the permissive rights of states as well as prohibitions on their conduct when dealing with irregular forces and non-signatories.

The Treaty of Armistice and Regularization of War signed on Nov

Wang Xiaochuan

Wang Xiaochuan is a Chinese computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur. He is Chief Executive Officer of Sogou Inc.. China’s No.2 Internet search engine. And a leading Artificial Intelligence company in China. Under his leadership, Sogou has developed essential products for the Chinese market, including Sogou Search, Sogou Keyboard and Sogou browser. Sogou Keyboard is the most popular input method in China on both PCs and mobile devices in terms of installation. Wang was born in 1978 in Sichuan Province. In 1994, he completed all proof of elementary geometry proposition for the first time in high school, using a microcomputer with Wu’s elimination method. In 1996, he won a gold medal at the 8th International Olympiad in Informatics. Wang studied at Tsinghua University and earned Bachelor of Science and master's degrees in Computer Science and an EMBA degree there. Wang entered China's Internet startup sector. In 1999, he helped to create the online alumni directory of ChinaRen.com as a part-time technical manager.

His work became part of Sohu. In 2003, after graduating from Tsinghua University, he formally joined Sohu, embarking on a number of successful product launches and rapid career advancement in the following years, he rose from senior technical manager to senior technical director, deputy president and senior vice-president, CTO in the space of just six years. In 2003, he established Sohu’s R&D Center, launched Sogou Search in 2004. In 2006, he invented the Sogou Input Method, which became China’s most popular input method, anchoring Sogou as China’s No.2 Internet property by user numbers. In 2010, after facilitating the spin-off of Sogou from Sohu, he started serving as the CEO of Sogou, opening a new chapter for the company. In 2013, Sogou acquired its Soso. In 1996, Wang won a gold medal at the Eighth International Olympiad in Informatics. In 2014, he was the winner of the Emerging Entrepreneur award of Ernst & Young China Entrepreneur of the Year

Jean Antoine Rossignol

Jean Antoine Rossignol, was a general of the French Revolutionary Wars. Rossignol began his Memoirs, published in 1820 by Victor Barrucand, with the words: "I was not born into a poor family. My father, who died before I was born, was a Bourguignon, he came to Paris and, after some years, he sought to marry. He thus got to know my mother and they married. Of the five children they had, I was the last." In 1774, aged 14, after 3 years' apprenticeship as a goldsmith, full of illusions and wanting to be his own master, left for the provinces. He journeyed by stages, stopping at Bordeaux, La Rochelle and Niort, before regretting his decision to leave Paris after six months and returning there. Faced with difficulties in finding work, he joined the Royal-Roussillon infantry regiment at Dunkirk on 13 August 1775, before the fall of the Ancien Régime. On the outbreak of the French Revolution, Rossignol was in Paris - in the words of his Memoirs, "On 12 July 1789 I knew nothing of the Revolution, did not suspect in any manner that it could hold me in any way."

However, he participated in the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 and in the revolutionary days of 20 June and 10 August. Lieutenant-colonel of the gendarmerie in 1793, général de brigade in the Vendée, under the protection of general Charles Philippe Ronsin, he was made commander-in-chief of the armée de l'Ouest on 27 July 1793, he reported several successes. As a general Rossignol was accused of incompetence by his subordinate, Augustin Tuncq, he was removed from that role on 23 August 1793 by representatives on mission Léonard Bourdon and Philippe Charles Aimé Goupilleau de Montaigu, but so was defended by Georges Danton and returned to it on 28 August 1793 by the National Convention, supported by Robespierre and Hébert at the Club des Jacobins in September 1793. He became commander in chief of the armée des côtes de Brest, armée de l'Ouest and armée des côtes de Cherbourg on 12 November 1793, he was reestablished in this role several times despite a notorious inability. He proposed a plan to the advocates of the council of war at Saumur was called absurd by Philippeaux and by the soldiers of the armée de Mayence, interested in the outcome.

Rossignol insisted and showed that the project that he supported was the only one that could be executed. The votes divided up and he said "I see what I am in - the plan is indisputable, it was me, bothering everyone; this gesture decided no one and Rossignol, in abstaining from taking part in the second vote, allowed his opponents to triumph in principle—but only in principle, for the turning march that they decided on resulted in the delays that he knew it would and the glorious defeat of the Mayenians themselves. It can be believed that the plan by Rossignol, an ignorant general, was not the best one, but we have an authoritative opinion of some value on the point—that of Napoleon himself. Judging the operations of the War in the Vendee at a distance, he declared that the only party to take to the Council of Saumur was to march directly and en masse, re-stating in several lines the plan proposed by Rossignol; the conduct of general Rossignol in the Vendee war, like that of all the Hébertist generals, was poorly appreciated by historians writing at a distance from the passions of that conflict.

The opinion of general Turreau in his Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire de la Vendée, was the closest to the truth and to the ulterior motives presiding over Rossignol's fate. Removed from office by the Comité de Salut Public, in April 1794, following disagreements with Billaud-Varenne during this Montagnard député's mission to Saint-Malo, he retired to Orléans, re-entering civil life. Imprisoned for several days after the Thermidorian Reaction, he was compromised in the conjuration des Égaux of Babeuf, but managed to get himself exonerated before the High Court of Vendôme, he served the French Directory without conviction, all the while continuing a clandestine popular militarism in the suburb in which he had been born. After the plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise, Bonaparte used this chance to rid himself of Rossignol, imprisoning him. Transferred from prison to prison, he was condemned to deportation to the Seychelles in 1801, with other jacobins transferred to the Comores. Rossignol died at Anjouan in 1802, but the people refused to believe that their hero had died - it seemed at the time that he had committed suicide of the Fauborg.

Rossignol thus survived in souvenirs, took a position in the legend after the bad 4-volume novel Le Robinson du Faubourg Saint-Antoine. Victor Barrucand, La vie véritable du citoyen Jean Rossignol, vainqueur de la Bastille et Général en Chef des armées de la République dans la guerre de Vendée, Librairie Plon, 1820. Adrien Bélanger, Rossignol, un plébéien dans la tourmente révolutionnaire, January 2005