Lawrence, Kansas

Lawrence is the county seat of Douglas County and sixth-largest city in Kansas. It is in the northeastern sector of the state, astride Interstate 70, between the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 87,643. Lawrence is a college town and the home to both the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University. Lawrence was founded by the New England Emigrant Aid Company, was named for Amos Adams Lawrence, a Republican abolitionist from Massachusetts, who offered financial aid and support for the settlement. Lawrence was central to the "Bleeding Kansas" period, the site of the Wakarusa War and the Sacking of Lawrence. During the American Civil War it was the site of the Lawrence massacre. Lawrence began as a center of free-state politics, its economy diversified into many industries, including agriculture and education, beginning with the founding of the University of Kansas in 1865 and Haskell Indian Nations University in 1884. Prior to Kansas Territory being established in May 1854, most of Douglas County was part of the Shawnee Indian Reservation, created in 1830.

During this period, the Oregon Trail ran parallel to the Kansas River through the area where Lawrence would be situated. A hill in the area known as "Hogback Ridge" was used as a landmark and an outlook by those on the trail. While this territory was technically unopened to settlement prior to 1854, there did exist a few "squatter settlements" in the area just north of the Kansas River. Lawrence was founded "strictly for political reasons" having to do with slavery, debated in the United States during the early-to-mid 1800s. Northern Democrats, led by Senators Lewis Cass of Michigan and Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, promoted the idea of "popular sovereignty" as a middle position on the slavery issue. Proponents of this doctrine argued that it was more democratic, as it allowed the citizens of newly-organized territories to have a direct say as to the permissibly of slavery in their own lands. Douglas made popular sovereignty the backbone of his Kansas–Nebraska Act—legislation that repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska—which passed in Congress in 1854.

The Christian abolitionist and Protestant minister Richard Cordley noted that after the bill became law, "there was a feeling of despondency all over the north" because its passage "opened Kansas to slavery thought equivalent to making Kansas a slave state." This was because nearby Missouri allowed slavery, many rightly assumed that the first settlers in Kansas Territory would come flooding in from this state, bringing their penchant for slavery with them. In time, anger at the Kansas-Nebraska Act united antislavery forces into a movement committed to stopping the expansion of slavery. Many of these individuals decided to "meet the question on the terms of the bill itself" by migrating to Kansas, electing antislavery legislators, banning the practice of slavery altogether; these settlers soon became known as "Free-Staters". Before the bill passed, some people had this idea. In early May 1854, four men—Thomas W. and Oliver P. Barber, Samuel Walker, Thomas M. Pearson—made a tour of the new territory with the intention of finding a good place to settle.

These men passed over what would become Lawrence, passing up on the spur of the hill of what is now Mt. Oread; the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed while they were in the territory, they were instrumental in convincing others to come. In his book A History of Lawrence, Cordley wrote: The most systematic and extensive movement, was made "The New England Emigrant Aid Company"... The men engaged in it, Eli Thayer, Amos A. Lawrence, others, began their work at once, arousing public interest and making arrangements to facilitate emigration to Kansas; as early as June, 1854, they sent Dr. Charles Robinson, of Fitchburg, Mr. Charles H. Branscomb, of Holyoke, to explore the territory and select a site for a colony... Robinson his party climbed the hill along this spur, looked off over what was afterwards the site of Lawrence, they marked the magnificence of the view. Whether they thought of what might afterwards occur is not known; when he was asked, therefore, to go and explore the country with a view to locating colonies, it was not altogether an unknown land to him.

Branscomb was tasked with exploring the Kansas River up to about the location of Fort Riley, whereas Robinson scouted land near Fort Leavenworth and the nearby city of the same name. The two chose this site because it was the "first desirable location where emigrant Indians had ceded the

Colard Mansion

Colard Mansion was a 15th-century Flemish scribe and printer who worked together with William Caxton. He is known as the first printer of a book with copper engravings, as the printer of the first books in English and French. Colard Mansion was a central figure in the early printing industry in Bruges, he was active as early as 1454 as a bookseller, was active as a scribe and contractor for manuscripts, which meant entering into contracts with the clients, organizing and sub-contracting the elements such as scribing and binding. From 1474 until 1476 he worked together with the early English printer William Caxton, he continued the company on his own afterwards. Caxton learned the art of printing from Mansion, it was from Mansion's press that the first books printed in English and French came, he moved to the Burg, the commercial heart of Bruges at the time, in 1478. Mansion suffered under the economic crisis in Bruges in the 1480s, only one work was printed after the death of Mary of Burgundy in 1482.

Nothing is known with certainty about his life after 1484. Mansion sold illuminated manuscripts to the aristocracy, luxurious incunabula to the bourgeoisie, but he was one of the first to publish smaller and cheaper books of only twenty to thirty pages in French. Nowadays, 25 editions of incunabula by Mansion alone are known, making him the most prolific of Bruges' early printers. Only two of these are in Latin, all others are in French, many of them first editions. Customers of Mansion include Charles de Croÿ, prince of Chimay, Marie, the widow of Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol. Mansion has been called the first printer of luxury books, he collaborated with major manuscript illuminators, such as the Master of the Dresden Prayer Book, who were fast losing work to printing, or copyists of their work. In fact only two of his books are illustrated, the influential Ovide Moralisé with woodcuts, a French translation of Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium, the first book to be illustrated with engravings, some of which have been claimed to be the work of the Dresden Prayer Book Master and other identified illuminators in the circle of the Master of Anthony of Burgundy.

As intaglio prints, the nine engravings had to be printed separately from the relief text and pasted in, only three copies are known with the engravings. More copies are known without the engravings, it has been suggested that this was Mansion's original intention, but that this hybrid product did not attract the wealthy buyers of illuminations, so the engravings were an afterthought, aimed at a less exclusive market. Mansion is known as the translator of at least five texts from Latin to French, including Le dialogue des créatures, printed by Dutch Gerard Leeu in 1482. 1467: Romuleon (manuscript by Benvenuto Rambaldi da Imola, translated by Jean Miélot, dedicated to Philip the Good 1472 or later: Penitence d'Adam, dedicated to Lewis de Bruges 1474-1475: Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, together with William Caxton and Johann Veldener 1475: The Game and Playe of Chesse, together with Caxton, based on a work by Jacobus de Cessolis 1476: Le Jardin de dévotion by Petrus de Alliaco, Mansion's first book as an independent publisher 1476: De cas de nobles hommes et femmes by Giovanni Boccaccio, translated into French by Laurent Premierfait, was the first book to be illustrated with engravings made by Marc le Bongeteur.

1476: Controversie de Noblesse by Buonaccorso da Montemagno, translated into French by Jean Miélot 1476-1477: an anonymous French prediction text 1477: La consolation de la philosophie by Boethius 1477: Estrif de Fortune et de Vertu 1477: Traité de l’espere, French translation of the Tractatus de Origine, Jure et Mutationibus Monetarum by Nicole Oresme in 26 chapters 1479: Le quadriloque invectif by Alain Chartier 1479: La somme rurale by Jean Boutillier 1479: Opera: De caelesti hyerarchia. De ecclesiastica hyerarchia. De divinis nominibus. De mystica theologia. Epistolae, a complete edition in Latin of the works of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, translated by Ambrosio Traversari 1480: Art de bien mourir 1480?: Guillaume Caoursin, Rhodiae Obsidionis descriptio before June 1481: Valere Maxime, dedicated to Philippe de Hornes 1482: Dyalogue des creatures, translated by Mansion from the Latin Dialogus creaturarum 1484: Ovide moralisé, first edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses, illustrated with woodcuts and rewritten by Mansion himself, published in May 1484.

It is his last known work, it has been speculated that the expensive book bankrupted the company. This book was reprinted as the Bible des poëtes at least four times in Paris between 1493 and 1531. Afterwards, a purer version under the title Grand Olympe des histoires poëtiques du Prince de poësie Ovide Naso en sa Metamorphose was published between 1532 and 1570. Unknown date: the Distichs of Cato Les Evangiles des quenouilles La doctrine de bien vivre en ce monde by Jean Gerson La Danse des aveugles by Pierre Michault, secretary of Charles the Bold Invectives contre la secte de Vauderie Adevineaux amoureux. Incunabula by Mansion are scattered throughout collections in Western Europe; the largest such collection is in Paris, the 16

Jamie Mackintosh

Jamie Mackintosh is a New Zealand professional rugby union player playing for the Austin Gilgronis in Major League Rugby. He played for Section Paloise in the French Top 14 competition. Southland, Chiefs in New Zealand, Montpellier in France, he was selected for the All Blacks 2008 End of year tour to travel to Hong Kong and Britain. Mackintosh grew up in Fortification, 50 minutes south east of Invercargill and played for the Tokanui Rugby Club's junior sides, he attended Southland Boys' High School. Jamie Mackintosh played his first match for Southland in 2004 when he came off the bench against Waikato, he played in eight games in the NPC that year, starting in two of them. In 2006, Mackintosh started. For the 2007 season, he went two better, played in ten matches, starting in all of them, enjoyed wins over Otago, Bay of Plenty and Manawatu. Mackintosh was a long-standing fixture for the Southland Stags, up until his surprising omission from the 2016 squad. Having earned 123 caps for the team, the peak of his accomplishments was helping bring the Ranfurly Shield back to Southland in 2009, breaking a drought of 50 years in doing so.

Mackintosh was a member of the 2011 team that re-captured the shield for a second time in the team's modern history. In 2007, Mackintosh was called into the Highlanders squad, where he played in three matches, all of them off the bench. In 2008, Mackintosh played, he scored two tries and received two yellow cards. He remained with the Highlanders until 2013, captaining the team for the 2011 seasons, he joined the Chiefs for the 2014 Super Rugby season, with whom he played until 2015. During the autumn 2015, Mackintosh joined the Top 14 side Montpellier. In 2016, Mackintosh returned to the Top 14 competition with Section Paloise. In March 2016, Mackintosh joined the American newly formed PRO Rugby competition with the Ohio Aviators, he played in the competition's only season before returning to France. On Sunday, 26 October 2008, after a successful year in the NPC with Southland, who made the semi-finals of the Air New Zealand Cup for the first time, he was named in the All Blacks squad to tour Europe in November of that year.

He made his test debut against Scotland, so far his only appearance internationally. Highlanders profile Audio Interview with the New Zealand Herald Video of Whopper scoring a try for Pau Falcon, courtesy of Jimmy Cowan