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Lawrence, Massachusetts

Lawrence is a city in Essex County, United States, on the Merrimack River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 76,377, which had risen to an estimated as 80,376 of 2018. Surrounding communities include Methuen to the north, Andover to the southwest, North Andover and Lowell, Massachusetts to the southeast. Lawrence and Salem were the county seats of Essex County, until the Commonwealth abolished county government in 1999. Lawrence is part of the Merrimack Valley. Manufacturing products of the city include electronic equipment, footwear, paper products and foodstuffs. Lawrence was the residence of poet Robert Frost for his early school years. Native Americans, namely the Pennacook or Pentucket tribe, had a presence in this area. Evidence of farming at Den Rock Park and arrowhead manufacturing on the site of where the Wood Mill now sits have been discovered. Europeans first settled the Haverhill area in 1640, colonists from Newbury following the Merrimack River in from the coast; the area that would become Lawrence was part of Methuen and Andover.

The first settlement came in 1655 with the establishment of a blockhouse in Shawsheen Fields, now South Lawrence. The future site of the city, was purchased by a consortium of local industrialists; the Water Power Association members: Abbott Lawrence, Edmund Bartlett, Thomas Hopkinson of Lowell, John Nesmith and Daniel Saunders, had purchased control of Peter's Falls on the Merrimack River and hence controlled Bodwell's Falls the site of the present Great Stone Dam. The group allotted fifty thousand dollars to buy land along the river to develop. In 1844, the group petitioned the legislature to act as a corporation, known as the Essex Company, which incorporated on April 16, 1845; the first excavations for the Great Stone Dam to harness the Merrimack River's water power were done on August 1, 1845. The Essex Company would sell the water power to corporations such as the Arlington Mills, as well as organize construction of mills and build to suit; until 1847, when the state legislature recognized the community as a town, it was called interchangeably the "New City", "Essex" or "Merrimac".

The post office, built in 1846, used the designation "Merrimac". Incorporation as a city would come in 1853, the name "Lawrence" chosen as a token of respect to Abbott Lawrence, who it cannot be verified saw the city named after him. Canals were dug on both the north and the south banks to provide power to the factories that would soon be built on its banks as both mill owners and workers from across the city and the world flocked to the city in droves; the work was dangerous: injuries and death were not uncommon. Working conditions in the mills were unsafe and in 1860 the Pemberton Mill collapsed, killing 145 workers; as immigrants flooded into the United States in the mid to late 19th century, the population of Lawrence abounded with skilled and unskilled workers from several countries. Lawrence was the scene of the infamous Bread and Roses Strike known as the Lawrence Textile Strike, one of the more important labor actions in American history. Lawrence was a great wool-processing center; the decline left Lawrence a struggling city.

The population of Lawrence declined from over 80,000 residents in 1950 to 64,000 residents in 1980, the low point of Lawrence's population. Like other northeastern cities suffering from the effects of post-World War II industrial decline, Lawrence has made efforts at revitalization, some of them controversial. For example, half of the enormous Wood Mill, powered by the Great Stone Dam and once the largest mills in the world, was knocked down in the 1950s; the Lawrence Redevelopment Authority and city officials utilized eminent domain for a perceived public benefit, via a top down approach, to revitalize the city throughout the 1960s. Known first as urban redevelopment, urban renewal, Lawrence's local government's actions towards vulnerable immigrant and poor communities, contained an undercurrent of gentrification which lies beneath the goals to revitalize Lawrence. There was a clash of differing ideals and perceptions of blight and what constituted a desirable community; the discussion left out those members of the community who would be directly impacted by urban redevelopment.

Under the guise of urban renewal, large tracts of downtown Lawrence were razed in the 1970s, replaced with parking lots and a three-story parking garage connected to a new Intown Mall intended to compete with newly constructed suburban malls. The historic Theater Row along Broadway was razed, destroying ornate movie palaces of the 1920s and 1930s that entertained mill workers through the Great Depression and the Second World War; the city's main post office, an ornate federalist style building at the corner of Broadway and Essex Street, was razed. Most of the structures were replaced with one-story, steel-frame structures with large parking lots, housing such establishments as fast food restaurants and chain drug stores, fundamentally changing the character of the center of Lawrence. Lawrence attempted to increase its employment base by attracting industries unwanted in other communities, such as waste treatment facilities and incinerators. From 1980 until 1998, private corporations operated two trash incinerators in Lawrence.

Activist residents blocked the approval of a waste treatment center on the banks of the Merrimack River near the current site of Salvatore's Pizza on Merrimack Street. The focus of Lawrence's urban renew

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami is a nonprofit organization in Canada that represents over 60,000 Inuit. It was founded in 1971 by Tagak Curley as the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada in Alberta, it has been headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario since 1972. It grew out of the Indian and Eskimo Association, formed in the 1960s; the organization represents Inuit living in four regions of the Inuit Nunangat: Nunatsiavut in Labrador, Nunavik in Northern Quebec and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories and Yukon. It is headquartered in Ottawa; the status vis-à-vis the growing population of Inuit living outside the land claims regions remains unclear. The aims of the organization is to preserve the Inuit languages. To this end the ITK publishes the cultural magazine Inuktitut three times a year with content in Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun and French; the organization represents the Inuit before the Government of Canada and advocates publicly on the population's behalf. ITK is governed by a board of directors and president.

The board of directors consists of the presidents of the four regional land claims organizations: Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, Makivik Corporation and the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation. Each president is a voting member; the presidents of the National Inuit Youth Council and Inuit Circumpolar Council are non-voting members. The president of ITK does not vote at board meetings, except in case of a tied vote. Any eligible Inuk can run for president; the board of directors votes for the president. Rosemarie Kuptana the President of ITK, declared on July 27, 1995, that the Inuit of northern Quebec would boycott the October 30, 1995, referendum on sovereignty which failed to address self-government and land claim issues. Terry Audla was elected President of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami on 6 June 2012, he was succeeded by Natan Obed, elected with 54% of the vote on September 17, 2015, in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami website

Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School

Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School is the second school affiliated with Suankularb Wittayalai School. The school is a secondary school for grades 7 through 12 in Thailand under the management of Dr.yanyalak Surawut, the 90th principal of the school. Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School is a government school and has more than 4,300 students with over 300 teachers and staff; as the school's location borders the districts of Mueang Pathum Thani of Pathum Thani Province, Don Mueang and Lak Si of Bangkok, Mueang Nonthaburi and Bang Bua Thong of Nonthaburi Province, it attracts students not only from Nonthaburi province but Pathum Thani province, Ayuttaya province and Bangkok as well. Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School covers 10 acres of land in Nonthaburi Province; the school is situated in Nonthaburi province. Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School is an extra-large secondary school for boys and girls situated in Pakkred, Nonthaburi Province; the school was founded on March 1978 by Mr. Pasuk Maneejak.

It was named Suankularb Wittayalai 2 in honour of the person that donated the land, Mr. Pasuk and Mrs. Ngek Maneejak. During its construction, the students enrolled in this school were temporarily sent to other schools; the boys were sent to Suankularb Wittayalai School in Bangkok and the girls were sent to Satri Nonthaburi School. In 1979, the Ministry of Education changed the school's name from Suankularb Wittayalai 2 to Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School. Not long after that, HRH Princess Sirindhorn named four buildings after the initials of her name as ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4 respectively. Sirindharalai meeting hall was named after her; the buildings were inaugurated twice by the princess herself on August 13, 1981 and November 9, 1992. On July 11, 2012, the Princess came to inaugurate King Rama V monument. Through the collaborative efforts of the school board and staff, Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School is recognized locally and internationally. Mini English Programme Math and Science Programme Intensive Math and Science Mini English Programme Math and Science in English Math and Science in Thai Math and Science Mathematics and English Chinese/Japanese/French The symbol of Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School is a book with a ruler and pencil put in the book.

On the cover of the book is a royal headdress and royal cypher initials. On the right side, there is a bouquet of roses. To the left of the book, a ribbon tying the bouquet of roses with the name of the school written on it. Stadium football field gymnasium indoor swimming pool basketball court school auditorium canteen souvenir shop small recreation park dormitory for school staff dormitory for school varsity students: football, volleyball Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School has many traditional events, including academic Paj chim Day and orientation Day On orientation day all matayom 6 students welcome first-year students to the school; this day invite director to give a speech, has a souvenir to give to matayom 1 students. On Paj chim day is the last day at the school. All matayom 6 students dinner together with their teachers. After the dinner each class of matayom 6 make a short speech. At the end of the event they sing a “Chompoo-Fah ar lai” song together. Department of Thai Language Department of Vocational Technology Department of Mathematics Department of Science Department of Arts Department of Physical Education, Health & Hygiene Department of Social Studies Department of Foreign Languages School Area: 10 acres School Abbreviation: S.

K. N Type of School: Government Secondary School Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School is located on 51/4 No. 5 Tiwanon Road, Pak kret Sub-district, Pak kret District, Nonthaburi. Foundation Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School Short History of Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi Alumni Association Public Relations Officer of Suankularb Wittayalai Nonthaburi School More photos in facebook. More videos in youtube