Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy. It is located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, overlooking the main campus of the University of California, Berkeley, it is operated by the University of California. The laboratory was founded in August 26, 1931, by Ernest Lawrence, as the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California, associated with the Physics Department, it centered physics research around his new instrument, the cyclotron, a type of particle accelerator for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939. Throughout the 1930s, Lawrence pushed to create larger and larger machines for physics research, courting private philanthropists for funding, he was the first to develop a large team to build big projects to make discoveries in basic research. These machines grew too large to be held on the university grounds, in 1940 the lab moved to its current site atop the hill above campus.
Part of the team put together during this period includes two other young scientists who went on to establish large laboratories. Leslie Groves visited Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory in late 1942 as he was organizing the Manhattan Project, meeting J. Robert Oppenheimer for the first time. Oppenheimer was tasked with organizing the nuclear bomb development effort and founded today's Los Alamos National Laboratory to help keep the work secret. At the RadLab and his colleagues developed the technique of electromagnetic enrichment of uranium using their experience with cyclotrons; the calutrons became the basic unit of the massive Y-12 facility in Tennessee. Lawrence's lab helped contribute to what have been judged to be the three most valuable technology developments of the war; the cyclotron, whose construction was stalled during the war, was finished in November 1946. The Manhattan Project shut down two months later. After the war, the Radiation Laboratory became one of the first laboratories to be incorporated into the Atomic Energy Commission.
The most classified work remained at Los Alamos, but the RadLab remained involved. Edward Teller suggested setting up a second lab similar to Los Alamos to compete with their designs; this led to the creation of an offshoot of the RadLab in 1952. Some of the RadLab's work was transferred to the new lab, but some classified research continued at Berkeley Lab until the 1970s, when it became a laboratory dedicated only to unclassified scientific research. Shortly after the death of Lawrence in August 1958, the UC Radiation Laboratory was renamed the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory; the Berkeley location became the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1971, although many continued to call it the RadLab. Another shortened form came into common usage, LBL, its formal name was amended to Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1995, when "National" was added to the names of all DOE labs. "Ernest Orlando" was dropped to shorten the name. Today, the lab is referred to as Berkeley Lab; the Alvarez Physics Memos are a set of informal working papers of the large group of physicists, computer programmers, technicians led by Luis W. Alvarez from the early 1950s until his death in 1988.
Over 1700 memos are available on-line. In 2018, the lab remains owned by the U. S. Department of Energy, with management from the University of California. Companies such as Intel were funding the lab's research into computing chips.: Ernest Lawrence: Edwin McMillan: Andrew Sessler: David Shirley: Charles V. Shank: Steven Chu: Paul Alivisatos: Michael Witherell From the 1950s through the present, Berkeley Lab has maintained its status as a major international center for physics research, has diversified its research program into every realm of scientific investigation, its mission is to solve the most pressing and profound scientific problems facing humanity, conduct basic research for a secure energy future, understand living systems to improve the environment and energy supply Understand matter and energy in the universe and safely operate leading scientific facilities for the nation, train the next generation of scientists and engineers The Laboratory's 20 scientific divisions are organized within six areas of research: Computing Sciences, Physical Sciences and Environmental Sciences, Energy Sciences, Energy Technologies.
Berkeley Lab has six main science thrusts: advancing integrated fundamental energy science, integrative biological and environmental system science, advanced computing for science impact, discovering the fundamental properties of matter and energy, accelerators for the future, developing energy technology innovations for a sustainable future. It was Lawrence's belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together, his teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab tradition. Berkeley Lab operates five major National User Facilities for the DOE Office of Science: The Advanced Light Source is a synchrotron light source with 41 beam lines providing ultraviolet, soft x-ray, hard x-ray light to scientific experiments; the ALS is one of the world's brightest sources of soft x-rays, which are used to characterize the electro
Together Again, Again is an album by saxophonist Willis Jackson with organist Brother Jack McDuff, recorded in 1959, 1960 and 1961 and released on the Prestige label in 1966. AllMusic awarded the album 4½ stars stating "Tenor saxophonist Jackson and organist McDuff might be the spotlighted performers in the marketing, but it's a pretty integrated full-band, small-group sound. There's not much original material from Jackson, with a New Orleans-tinged version of Hank Williams' "Jambalaya" the most unexpected cover choice". All compositions by Willis Jackson except. "Gil's Pills" – 4:10 "Backtrack" – 2:05 "Without a Song" – 3:0 "Snake Crawl" – 2:40 "Angel Eyes" – 4:40 "Dancing on the Ceiling" – 4:12 "Medley: September Song/Easy Living/Deep Purple" – 7:39 "Jambalaya" – 4:50Recorded at Van Gelder Studio in Hackensack, New Jersey on May 25, 1959, at Van Gelder Studio in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey on November 9, 1959, February 26, 1960 and December 13, 1961 Willis Jackson – tenor saxophone Jack McDuff – organ Bill Jennings – guitar Milt Hinton, Jimmy Lewis, Wendell Marshall, Tommy Potter – bass Alvin Johnson, Frank Shea – drums Buck Clarke – congas
Job Bartram was a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives from Norwalk in the sessions of May and October 1790. He served as a captain of the Connecticut Militia in the American Revolutionary War. Bartram was born in Fairfield, Connecticut Colony on March 20, 1735, he married Jerusha Thompson on November 18, 1762. She died on November 23, 1773. Bartram next married Abigail Starr on November 7, 1774, they had one son Daniel Starr Bartram, born 1775. He next married Elizabeth Scudder on August 27, 1776. Bartram was in command of a company in Connecticut's Fifth Regiment under Colonel Samuel Whiting in 1777, he was wounded in Fairfield, in 1779. Job Bartram was drowned along with Stephen Morehouse off Bridgeport. Tomb inscription: "In memory of Mr. Job Bartram, drowned October 28, 1817 aged 50 years & 6 months. Of Jane daughter of Mr. Job & Mrs. Ruth Bartram died Oct 29. 1815, aged 16 months. Death like an overflowing stream, Sweeps us away: our life's a dream: An empty tale, a morning flower.
Cut down and wither'd in an hour."