Edward Flanders Robb Ricketts known as Ed Ricketts, was an American marine biologist and philosopher. He is best known for Between Pacific Tides, a pioneering study of intertidal ecology, for his influence on writer John Steinbeck, which resulted in their collaboration on the Sea of Cortez republished as The Log from the Sea of Cortez. Ricketts was born in Illinois, to Abbott Ricketts and Alice Beverly Flanders Ricketts, he had a younger sister, a younger brother, Thayer. His sister Frances said of him that he had a mind like a dictionary and was in trouble for correcting teachers and other adults. Ricketts spent most of his childhood in Chicago, except for a year in South Dakota when he was ten years old. After a year of college, Ricketts traveled to New Mexico. In 1917 he was drafted into the Army Medical Corps, he hated the military bureaucracy but, according to John Steinbeck, "was a successful soldier." After discharge from the army, Ricketts studied zoology at the University of Chicago. He was influenced by his professor, W. C.
Allee, but dropped out without taking a degree. He spent several months walking through the American south, from Indiana to Florida, he used material from this trip to publish an article in Travel magazine titled "Vagabonding." He studied some more at the university. In 1922 Ricketts met and married Anna Barbara Maker, whom he called "Nan." A year they had a son, Edward F. Ricketts, Jr. and moved to California to set up Pacific Biological Laboratories with Albert E. Galigher: Galigher was Ricketts' college friend with whom he had run a similar business on a smaller scale. In 1924 Ricketts became sole owner of the lab, soon two daughters were born: Nancy Jane on 28 November 1924, Cornelia on 6 April 1928. Between 1925 and 1927, Ricketts' sister Frances and both his parents moved to California. In late 1930 Ricketts met aspiring writer John Steinbeck and his wife Carol, who had moved to Pacific Grove earlier in the year. For more than a year Carol worked half-time for Ricketts at the lab, until 1932 when Ricketts' wife Nan left, taking their two daughters, Ricketts no longer had enough money to pay Carol's salary.
Steinbeck himself spent time at the lab, learning marine biology, helping Ricketts preserve specimens and talking about philosophy. Steinbeck lived near the lab. What kept them together was the discovery that each had an boundless curiosity about everything, that their personality meshed so well. Steinbeck had a need to give, Ricketts a need to receive. Ricketts made listening an art. At one point in Steinbeck's life, he suffered an "overwhelming emotional upset", went to the lab to stay with Ricketts. Ricketts played music for Steinbeck. Nan's separation from Ricketts in 1932 was the first of many separations. In 1936 Ricketts and Nan separated for good, he took up residence in his lab. On 25 November 1936, a fire spread from the adjacent cannery. Ricketts lost nearly everything, including an extraordinary amount of correspondence, research notes and his prized library, which had held everything from invaluable scientific resources to his beloved collection of poetry. However, the manuscript of Ricketts' textbook Between Pacific Tides had been sent to the publisher.
John Steinbeck would become a silent 50 % partner after funding its reconstruction costs. In 1940 Ricketts and Steinbeck journeyed to the Sea of Cortez in a chartered fishing boat to collect invertebrates for the scientific catalog in their book, Sea of Cortez. In 1940, Ricketts began a relationship with Eleanor Susan Brownell Anthony "Toni" Solomons Jackson, who became his common-law wife; as Steinbeck's secretary, Jackson helped edit The Log From the Sea of Cortez. Jackson, who had attended the University of California, Los Angeles, was the daughter of Katherine Gray Church and Theodore Solomons, an explorer and early member of the Sierra Club, who had discovered and defined the John Muir Trail. Jackson and her young daughter Katherine Adele moved in with Ricketts and lived with him until 1947. In addition to Steinbeck, their circle of friends included the novelist and painter Henry Miller and the mythologist and lecturer Joseph Campbell. During World War II, Ricketts again served in this time as a medical lab technician.
During his service, he kept compiling data. His son was drafted in 1943. In 1945, Steinbeck's novel Cannery Row was published. Ricketts, the model for "Doc," became a celebrity, tourists and journalists began seeking him out. Steinbeck portrayed "Doc" as a many-faceted intellectual, somewhat outcast from intellectual circles, a party-loving drinking man, in close touch with the working class and with the prostitutes and bums of Monterey's Cannery Row. Steinbeck wrote of "Doc": "He wears a beard and his face is half Christ and half satyr and his face tells the truth."Ricketts himself read Cannery Row with exasperation, by all accounts, but ended saying that it could not be criticized because it had not been written with malice. Ricketts was portrayed as "Doc" in Sweet Thursday, the sequel to Cannery Row. In September 1946, Ricketts' daughter Nancy Jane had a son; that same year, his stepdaughter Kay's health deteriorated du
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory; as of 2017, the university enrolls 44,831 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, is affiliated with two academic medical centers; the University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group. Known as the Arizona Wildcats, the UA's intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. UA athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men's basketball and softball; the official colors of the university and its athletic teams are navy blue. After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew.
The Arizona Territory's "Thieving Thirteenth" Legislature approved the University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory's mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory's only university. Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson's legislators, by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize. With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, still in use today.
Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation. The University of Arizona offers bachelor's, master's, professional degrees. Grades are given on a strict 4-point scale with "A" worth 4, "B" worth 3, "C" worth 2, "D" worth 1 and "E" worth zero points; the Center for World University Rankings in 2017 ranked Arizona No. 52 in the world and 34 in the U. S; the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated University of Arizona 161st in the world and the 2017/18 QS World University Rankings ranked it 230th. The University of Arizona was ranked tied for 77th in the "National Universities" category by U. S. News & World Report for 2018; the James E. Rogers College of Law Graduate School was ranked tied for 41st nationally; the College of Medicine was rated No. 7 among the nation's medical schools for Hispanic students, according to Hispanic Business Magazine. In 2017, the Eller MBA program was ranked 24th among public institutions and 49th nationally by U.
S. News & World Report, which placed the school's Management Information Systems program as 2nd, the Entrepreneurship program as 5th and the Part-time MBA 30th among U. S public schools. U. S. News & World Report rated UA as tied for 33rd for online MBA programs, tied for 49th for best online graduate nursing programs, tied for 33rd for best online graduate engineering programs nationally. UA graduate programs ranked in the top 25 in the nation by U. S. News & World Report for 2017 include Information Science, Geology and Seismology, Speech Pathology, Rehabilitation Counseling, Earth Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, Atomic/Molecular/Optical Sciences and Photography; the Council for Aid to Education ranked UA 12th among public universities and 24th overall in financial support and gifts. Campaign Arizona, an effort to raise over $1 billion for the school, exceeded that goal by $200 million a year earlier than projected. In April 2014, the "Arizona Now" campaign launched with a target of $1.5 billion.
As of 31 December 2016, the campaign has raised $1.59 Billion, two years ahead of schedule. In 2015, Design Intelligence ranked the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's undergraduate program in architecture 10th in the nation for all universities and private; the same publication ranked. The School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Arizona is one of the most ranked area studies programs focusing on the Middle East in the United States. In addition to offering language training in Arabic, Hebrew and Turkish, it is collocated with the Middle East Studies Association; the School of Geography and Development is ranked as one of the top geography graduate programs in the US. The UA is considered a "selective" university by U. S. News & World Report. In the 2014-2015 academic year, 68 freshman students were National Merit Scholars. UA students hail from all states in the U. S. While nearly 69% of students are from Arizona, nearly 11% are from California, 8% are international, followed by a significant student presence from Texas, Washington and New York..
Tuition at the University o
John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. was an American author. He won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception." He has been called "a giant of American letters," and many of his works are considered classics of Western literature. During his writing career, he authored 27 books, including 16 novels, six non-fiction books, two collections of short stories, he is known for the comic novels Tortilla Flat and Cannery Row, the multi-generation epic East of Eden, the novellas Of Mice and Men and The Red Pony. The Pulitzer Prize-winning The Grapes of Wrath is considered Steinbeck's masterpiece and part of the American literary canon. In the first 75 years after it was published, it sold 14 million copies. Most of Steinbeck's work is set in central California in the Salinas Valley and the California Coast Ranges region, his works explored the themes of fate and injustice as applied to downtrodden or everyman protagonists.
Steinbeck was born on February 1902, in Salinas, California. He was of German and Irish descent. Johann Adolf Großsteinbeck, Steinbeck's paternal grandfather, shortened the family name to Steinbeck when he immigrated to the United States; the family farm in Heiligenhaus, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, is still named "Großsteinbeck." His father, John Ernst Steinbeck, served as Monterey County treasurer. John's mother, Olive Hamilton, a former school teacher, shared Steinbeck's passion for reading and writing; the Steinbecks were members of the Episcopal Church, although Steinbeck became agnostic. Steinbeck lived in a small rural town, no more than a frontier settlement, set in some of the world's most fertile land, he spent his summers working on nearby ranches and with migrant workers on Spreckels sugar beet farms. There he learned of the harsher aspects of the migrant life and the darker side of human nature, which supplied him with material expressed in such works as Of Mice and Men, he explored his surroundings, walking across local forests and farms.
While working at Spreckels Sugar Company, he sometimes worked in their laboratory, which gave him time to write. He had considerable mechanical fondness for repairing things he owned. Steinbeck graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and went on to study English Literature at Stanford University near Palo Alto, leaving without a degree in 1925, he traveled to New York City. When he failed to publish his work, he returned to California and worked in 1928 as a tour guide and caretaker at Lake Tahoe, where he met Carol Henning, his first wife, they married in January 1930 in Los Angeles, with friends, he attempted to make money by manufacturing plaster mannequins. When their money ran out six months due to a slow market and Carol moved back to Pacific Grove, California, to a cottage owned by his father, on the Monterey Peninsula a few blocks outside the Monterey city limits; the elder Steinbecks gave John free housing, paper for his manuscripts, from 1928, loans that allowed him to write without looking for work.
During the Great Depression, Steinbeck bought a small boat, claimed that he was able to live on the fish and crab that he gathered from the sea, fresh vegetables from his garden and local farms. When those sources failed and his wife accepted welfare, on rare occasions, stole bacon from the local produce market. Whatever food they had, they shared with their friends. Carol became the model for Mary Talbot in Steinbeck's novel Cannery Row. In 1930, Steinbeck met the marine biologist Ed Ricketts, who became a close friend and mentor to Steinbeck during the following decade, teaching him a great deal about philosophy and biology. Ricketts very quiet, yet likable, with an inner self-sufficiency and an encyclopedic knowledge of diverse subjects, became a focus of Steinbeck's attention. Ricketts had taken a college class from Warder Clyde Allee, a biologist and ecological theorist, who would go on to write a classic early textbook on ecology. Ricketts became a proponent of ecological thinking, in which man was only one part of a great chain of being, caught in a web of life too large for him to control or understand.
Meanwhile, Ricketts operated a biological lab on the coast of Monterey, selling biological samples of small animals, rays, starfish and other marine forms to schools and colleges. Between 1930 and 1936, Steinbeck and Ricketts became close friends. Steinbeck's wife began working at the lab as secretary-bookkeeper. Steinbeck helped on an informal basis, they formed a common bond based on their love of music and art, John learned biology and Ricketts' ecological philosophy. When Steinbeck became upset, Ricketts sometimes played music for him. Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold, published in 1929, is loosely based on the life and death of privateer Henry Morgan, it centers on Morgan's assault and sacking of the city of Panama, sometimes referred to as the'Cup of Gold', on the women, fairer than the sun, who were said to be found there. Between 1930 and 1933, Steinbeck produced three shorter works; the Pastures of Heaven, published in 1932, consists of twelve interconnected stories about a valley near Monterey, discovered by a Spanish corporal while chasing runaway Indian slaves.
In 1933 Steinbeck published The Red Pony, a 100-page, four-chapter story weaving in memories of Steinbeck's childhood. To a God Unknown, named after a Vedic hymn, follows the life of a homesteader and his family in California, depicting a character with a primal and pa
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, United States, home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area was 980,263; the Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor; the city is 108 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi north of the U. S.–Mexico border. Tucson is the 58th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde and Vail. Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast and Oracle to the north, Green Valley to the south.
The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón, is derived from the O'odham Cuk Ṣon, meaning " base of the black ", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as Sentinel Peak known as "A" Mountain. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo". Tucson was first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago. Recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River found a village site dating from 2100 BC; the floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150. These people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting; the Early Ceramic period occupation of Tucson saw the first extensive use of pottery vessels for cooking and storage. The groups designated as the Hohokam lived in the area from AD 600 to 1450 and are known for their vast irrigation canal systems and their red-on-brown pottery. Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino visited the Santa Cruz River valley in 1692, founded the Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1700 about 7 mi upstream from the site of the settlement of Tucson.
A separate Convento settlement was founded downstream along the Santa Cruz River, near the base of what is now "A" mountain. Hugo O'Conor, the founding father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón, on August 20, 1775. During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were mounted by Apaches; the town came to be called "Tucson" and became a part of the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821. Tucson was captured by Philip St. George Cooke with the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican–American War in 1846-1848, but it soon returned to Mexican control as Cooke continued his mission westward establishing Cooke's Wagon Road to California. Tucson was not included in the Mexican Cession and Cooke's road through Tucson became one of the important routes into California during the California Gold Rush of 1849. Arizona, south of the Gila River, was obtained via treaty from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase on June 8, 1854.
Tucson became a part of the United States of America, although the American military did not formally take over control until March 1856. In 1857, Tucson became a stage station on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and in 1858 became 3rd division headquarters of the Butterfield Overland Mail until the line shut down in March 1861; the Overland Mail Corporation attempted to continue running, following the Bascom Affair, devastating Apache attacks on the stations and coaches ended operations in August 1861. From August 1861 to mid-1862, Tucson was the western capital of the Confederate Arizona Territory, the eastern capital being Mesilla. In 1862, the California Column drove the Confederate forces out of Arizona. Tucson and all of what is now Arizona were part of New Mexico Territory until 1863, when they became part of the new Arizona Territory. From 1867 to 1877, Tucson was the capital of the Arizona Territory. Tucson was incorporated in 1877. From 1877 to 1878, the area suffered a rash of stagecoach robberies.
Most notable were the two holdups committed by masked road-agent William Whitney Brazelton. Brazelton held up two stages in the summer of 1878 near Point of Mountain Station 17 mi northwest of Tucson. John Clum, of Tombstone, Arizona fame was one of the passengers. Pima County Sheriff Charles A. Shibell and his citizen posse killed Brazelton on Monday August 19, 1878, in a mesquite bosque along the Santa Cruz River 3 miles south of Tucson. Brazelton had been suspected of highway robbery in the Tucson area, the Prescott region and Silver City, New Mexico area. Brazelton's crimes prompted John J. Valentine, Sr. of Wells, Fargo & Co. to send special agent and future Pima County sheriff Bob Paul to investigate. Fort Lowell east of Tucson, was established to help protect settlers from Apache attacks. In 1882, Frank Stilwell was implicated in the murder of Morgan Earp by Cowboy Pete Spence's wife, Marietta, at the coroner's inquest on Morgan Earp's shooting; the coroner's jury concluded Spence, Frederick Bode, Florentino "Indian Charlie" Cruz were the prime suspects in the assassination of Morgan Earp.
Deputy U. S. Marshal Wyatt Earp gathered a few trusted friends and accompanied
Althea Hester Warren was the director of the Los Angeles Public Library from 1933 to 1947 and president of the American Library Association in 1943-1944. Warren was born in 1886 in Illinois, she attended the University of Chicago from 1904 to 1909 and the library school at the University of Wisconsin, graduating in 1911. She was a branch manager in a "poor neighborhood" in the Chicago Public Library system, she managed a branch in the Sears, Roebuck store in that city, which served the store's employees. In 1914 she relocated with her family to San Diego and during World War I she helped furnish books to soldiers at Camp Kearny, outside of San Diego, she worked in the San Diego Public Library system and was the head librarian there from 1916 to 1926. She moved to the Los Angeles Public Library in the latter year, having been chosen to oversee all the system's branch libraries. In 1933 she became LAPL head librarian, one of six women overseeing large public libraries in the United States at that time.
In November 1941, considered "#1 in the field of Women Librarians," took a leave from her Los Angeles job to become director of the ALA's National Defense Book Campaign, which sought to collect and organize distribution of books to American servicemen. The campaign, headquartered in New York City became known among her closest friends as "Warren's child." Warren was California Library Association president in 1921 and American Library Association president in 1943-1944. She worked on the national level to increase federal aid to libraries and to end discrimination faced by African American librarians at ALA conference hotels. Warren retired in 1947 and taught in library science programs in Wisconsin and Michigan and at the University of Southern California. Althea B. Warren Papers, 1942-1945, The American Library Association Archives
The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939. The book won the National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize for fiction, it was cited prominently when Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962. Set during the Great Depression, the novel focuses on the Joads, a poor family of tenant farmers driven from their Oklahoma home by drought, economic hardship, agricultural industry changes, bank foreclosures forcing tenant farmers out of work. Due to their nearly hopeless situation, in part because they are trapped in the Dust Bowl, the Joads set out for California. Along with thousands of other "Okies", they seek jobs, dignity, a future; the Grapes of Wrath is read in American high school and college literature classes due to its historical context and enduring legacy. A celebrated Hollywood film version, starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford, was released in 1940; the narrative begins just after Tom Joad is paroled from McAlester prison, where he had been imprisoned after being convicted of homicide.
On his return to his home near Sallisaw, Tom meets former preacher Jim Casy, whom he remembers from his childhood, the two travel together. When they arrive at Tom's childhood farm home, they find it deserted. Disconcerted and confused and Casy meet their old neighbor, Muley Graves, who tells them the family has gone to stay at Uncle John Joad's home nearby. Graves tells them that the banks have evicted all the farmers; the next morning and Casy go to Uncle John's. Tom finds his family loading their remaining possessions into a Hudson Motor Car Company sedan converted to a truck; the Joads see no option but to seek work in California, described in handbills as fruitful and offering high pay. The Joads put everything. Although leaving Oklahoma would violate his parole, Tom decides it is worth the risk, invites Casy to join him and his family. Traveling west on Route 66, the Joad family find the road crowded with other migrants. In makeshift camps, they hear many stories from others, some returning from California, the group worries about lessening prospects.
The family dwindles as well: Grandpa dies along the road, they bury him in a field. Led by Ma, the remaining members realize they can only continue, as nothing is left for them in Oklahoma. Reaching California, they find the state oversupplied with labor; the big corporate farmers are in collusion and smaller farmers suffer from collapsing prices. Weedpatch Camp, one of the clean, utility-supplied camps operated by the Resettlement Administration, a New Deal agency, offers better conditions but does not have enough resources to care for all the needy families. Nonetheless, as a Federal facility, the camp protects the migrants from harassment by California deputies. In response to the exploitation, Casy becomes a labor organizer and tries to recruit for a labor union; the remaining Joads work as strikebreakers in a peach orchard, where Casy is involved in a strike that turns violent. When Tom Joad witnesses Casy's fatal beating, he kills the attacker and flees as a fugitive; the Joads leave the orchard for a cotton farm, where Tom is at risk of being arrested for the homicide.
Tom promises to work for the oppressed. Rose of Sharon's baby is stillborn. Ma Joad forces the family through the bereavement. With rain, the Joads' dwelling is flooded, they move to higher ground. In the final chapter of the book, the family takes shelter from the flood in an old barn. Inside they find a young boy and his father, dying of starvation. Rose of Sharon offers him her breast milk to save him from starvation. Tom Joad: Protagonist of the story. On, Tom takes leadership of the family though he is young. Ma Joad: Matriarch. Practical and warm-spirited, she tries to hold the family together, her given name is never learned. Pa Joad: Patriarch named Tom, age 50. Hardworking sharecropper and family man. Pa becomes a broken man upon losing his livelihood and means of supporting his family, forcing Ma to assume leadership. Uncle John Joad: Pa Joad's older brother, he felt guilty about the death of his young wife years before, has been prone to binges involving alcohol and prostitutes, but is generous with his goods.
Jim Casy: A former preacher who lost his faith. He is based on Ed Ricketts. Al Joad: The third youngest son, a "smart-aleck sixteen-year-older" who cares for cars and girls. Rose of Sharon Joad Rivers: Childish and dreamy teenage daughter who develops into a mature woman. Pregnant in the beginning of the novel, she delivers a stillborn baby due to malnutrition. Connie Rivers: Rose of Sharon's husband. Nineteen years old and naïve, he is overwhelmed by marriage and impending fatherhood. Noah Joad: The oldest son, he is the first to leave the family, planning to live off fishing on the Colorado River. Injured at birth and described as "strange", he may have slight learning difficulties. Grampa Joad: Tom's grandfather
South Pasadena, California
South Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 25,619, up from 24,292 at the 2000 census, it is located in the West San Gabriel Valley. It is 3.42 square miles in area and lies between the much larger city of Pasadena, of which it was once a part, the metropolis of Los Angeles. South Pasadena is the oldest self-builder of floats in the historic Tournament of Roses Parade; the original inhabitants of South Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation that occupied the Los Angeles Basin. The Tongva name for the area that covers modern-day South Pasadena and part of Pasadena was Akuvranga. Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in South Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city, they lived in dome-shape lodges characteristic for their use of carved wood decorations. For food, they lived on a diet of corn meal, acorns and herbs, venison, berries and other small animals.
They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva on a daily basis. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. South Pasadena has a strong claim to having the oldest and most historic sites in the San Gabriel Valley. For many centuries, its adjacency to a natural fording place along the Arroyo Seco had served as a gateway to travel and commerce for aboriginal peoples here and along the coast, it was here that Hahamognas greeted Portola and the missionaries who established the San Gabriel Mission a few miles to the east. The initial buildings on the Rancho San Pascual were built on the land which became the cities of Pasadena, South Pasadena and Altadena; the first of these adobe structures became headquarters for General Flores and his staff in 1847 where they agreed to surrender to American forces, ending Mexican Colonial rule in California. In 1875, the landowners of the area encompassing present-day Pasadena and South Pasadena voted to rename their association, Pasadena.
South Pasadena's first mayor was Donald McIntyre Graham. In February 1888, members of the southern portion of Pasadena attempted to gain more control over their own property and a vote for incorporation was made. In 1888, South Pasadena incorporated the southern portion of the Indiana Colony and land south and eastward to the Los Angeles border. Few Tongva had received any land. On 2 March 1888, the city of South Pasadena was incorporated with a population over 500 residents, becoming the sixth municipality in Los Angeles County, it was chartered with the same area as the current South Pasadena, about 3.42 square miles. With the completion of the Pacific Electric Short Line, putting the entire city within easy walking distance of the “red car” stations, South Pasadena became one of the first suburbs of Los Angeles. South Pasadena's history is associated with that of the Cawston Ostrich Farm and the Fair Oaks Pharmacy and Soda Fountain, which played vital roles in the history of the city. South Pasadena's streets are lined with numerous species of native California trees.
These include redwood, ash and sycamore. Some non-native trees, such as sweetgum, are seen; because there are few stucco-clad Spanish Colonial houses and no palm trees in some parts of the city, South Pasadena is a popular stand-in for Midwestern and Northeastern towns in motion picture and television productions. South Pasadena sits less than 10 miles from Downtown Los Angeles. "Mom and Pop" merchants populate the business district, the Mission West area is a part of the original U. S. Route 66. Of historical relevance is The Fair Oaks Pharmacy and Soda Fountain, it is one of the last remaining single screen cinemas in the country. The Rialto was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, having narrowly missed being torn down that year, it went out of business on August 2007 because of low profits. It has been featured in many films and commercials, most notably Robert Altman's The Player and more in La La Land; the Farmer's Market has become a tradition in the historic Mission-West District of South Pasadena on every Thursday from 4 pm to 8 pm.
On the first Saturday of December every year, South Pasadena Booster Club hosts an annual 5K/10K run around South Pasadena known as the "Tiger Run", after the SPHS mascot. Racers from kindergarten to age 80 are invited to participate, including a wheelchair event; the 5K is run on flat sidewalks and roads around town. There is a 300-meter children's run for kids 10 and under. South Pasadena can be seen in motion picture productions with its beautiful tree-lined streets and "anywhere in America" feel; such movies as Freaky Friday, The Terminator, Gone with the Wind, Halloween 2, Nightmare On Elm Street, Pee-Wee's Big Adventure, American Pie, The Girl Next Door, Legally Blonde, 13 Going on 30, Back to the Future, Mr. Deeds, Bruce Almighty, Old School, The Ugly Truth, License to Wed are just a few of the notable films shot on location in South Pasadena. Notable television series that have been filmed there include Parenthood, Boston Public, Nip/Tuck, Desperate Housewives, Cold Case, Modern Family, No Ordinary Family, Big Love, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation.
South Pasadena, together with a broad coalition of national, state an