Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Mississippi's 3rd congressional district
Mississippi's 3rd congressional district covers central portions of state and stretches from the Louisiana border in the west to the Alabama border in the east. Large cities in the district include Meridian, Starkville and Natchez, it includes most of the wealthier portions of Jackson, including the portion of the city located in Rankin County. The district includes the state's largest college and land-grant university, Mississippi State University in Starkville. From statehood to the election of 1846, Mississippi elected representatives at-large statewide on a general ticket; this district has been redefined based on changes in statewide population. Its current representative is Republican Michael Guest. Mississippi's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Lincoln County, Mississippi
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,869, its county seat is Brookhaven. The county was created by the legislature in April 1870, during the Reconstruction Era, it was formed from portions of Lawrence, Franklin and Amite counties. It was named for the 16th President of the United States. Lincoln County comprises the Brookhaven, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Jackson–Vicksburg–Brookhaven Combined Statistical Area; the county is southwest of the state capital of Jackson. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 588 square miles, of which 586 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. Interstate 55 U. S. Highway 51 U. S. Highway 84 Copiah County Lawrence County Walthall County Pike County Amite County Franklin County Jefferson County Homochitto National Forest, supervised by the United States Forestry Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture; as of the United States Census of 2000, —there were 33,166 people, 12,538 households, 9,190 families residing in the county.
The population density was 57 people per square mile. There were 14,052 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.38% White, 29.67% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.37% from two or more races. 0.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,538 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.90% were married couples living together, 14.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 92.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,279, the median income for a family was $33,552. Males had a median income of $29,060 versus $18,877 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,961. About 16.00% of families and 19.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.80% of those under age 18 and 17.10% of those age 65 or over. The Board of Supervisors governing Lincoln County has the following members: District 1: Rev. Jerry Wilson District 2: Bobby J. Watts District 3: Nolan Earl Williamson District 4: Doug Moak District 5: Gary Walker The offices of president and vice-president on the county supervisors rotate annually; this county does not have "home rule. Its representatives and state senators help serve its residents; the telecommunications company MCI Worldcom was located in Lincoln County. Its Chief Executive Officer and founder Bernard Ebbers resided near Brookhaven prior to his conviction.
The county is served by two separate public school districts, a private school, a couple of smaller "Christian" or religious/private schools. The Lincoln County Public School District consists of four K–12 schools of elementary, middle school, high school levels; these include Bogue Chitto, West Lincoln and Enterprise. Through annexations, the City tripled its size in 2007. Lincoln County is served by the local newspaper Daily Leader, printed daily except Monday and Saturday. Residents may purchase the larger daily newspaper from the state capital of Jackson, The Clarion-Ledger, which serves the central state metropolitan area and the entire State of Mississippi. Brookhaven Bogue Chitto Auburn Caseyville East Lincoln Norfield Ruth Woolworth Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Mississippi Lincoln County Lincoln County Sheriff's Office
Simpson County, Mississippi
Simpson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. Its western border is formed by the Pearl River, an important transportation route in the 19th century; as of the 2010 census, the population was 27,503. The county seat is Mendenhall; the county is named for judge Josiah Simpson. Simpson County is part of MS Metropolitan Statistical Area. Spencer Myrick, a politician who has served in both houses of the Louisiana State Legislature, his brother, Bill, a country music figure in Odessa, were born in Simpson County, they were reared in West Carroll Parish in northeastern Louisiana. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 590 square miles, of which 589 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 49 Mississippi Highway 13 Mississippi Highway 28 Mississippi Highway 43 Mississippi Highway 149 Rankin County Smith County Covington County Jefferson Davis County Lawrence County Copiah County As of the census of 2000, there were 27,639 people, 10,076 households, 7,385 families residing in the county.
The population density was 47 people per square mile. There were 11,307 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.39% White, 34.31% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races. 1.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,076 households out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 14.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years.
For every 100 females, there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,343, the median income for a family was $32,797. Males had a median income of $27,197 versus $20,136 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,344. About 17.50% of families and 21.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.70% of those under age 18 and 21.00% of those age 65 or over. Magee Mendenhall D'Lo Braxton Harrisville Merry Hell Pinola Sanatorium Westville Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Simpson County, Mississippi
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for