Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a federal research facility in Livermore, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A branch of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore laboratory became autonomous in 1971 and was designated a national laboratory in 1981. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center, Lawrence Livermore lab is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. LLNL is self-described as "a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security." Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science and technology.
The Laboratory applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness. The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile site at the eastern edge of Livermore, it operates a 7,000 acres remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of 8,000 employees. LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, it was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence, director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.
The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions. About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus. Lawrence tapped age 32, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood, Project Whitney, diagnostic weapon experiments, a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence "big science" approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university's board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory; the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had close relationships on research projects, business operations, staff.
The Livermore Lab was established as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, LLNL's remote test location as Site 300; the laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before; the laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008. The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for "reasonable cause."
The five plaintiffs have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial. There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS; the May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years. On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore expanded the city's boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits; the unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore's southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres that comprise the LLNL site. The site was an unincorporated area of Alameda County; the LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government. From its inception, Livermore focused on new weapon design concepts; the lab persevered and its subsequent designs proved successful. In 1957, the Livermore Lab was selected to develop the warhead for the Navy's Polaris missile; this warhead required numerous innovations to fit a nuclear warhead into the small confines of the missile nosecone.
During the Cold War, many Livermore-designed warheads entered service. These were used in missiles ranging in size from th
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Structured light is the process of projecting a known pattern on to a scene. The way that these deform when striking surfaces allows vision systems to calculate the depth and surface information of the objects in the scene, as used in structured light 3D scanners. Invisible structured light uses structured light without interfering with other computer vision tasks for which the projected pattern will be confusing. Example methods include the use of infrared light or of high frame rates alternating between two exact opposite patterns. Structured light is used by a number of police forces for the purpose of photographing fingerprints in a 3D scene. Where they would use tape to extract the fingerprint and flatten it out, they can now use cameras and flatten the fingerprint digitally, which allows the process of identification to begin before the officer has left the scene. Stereoscopy 3D scanner#Structured light Structured Light 3D Scanners employ a multiple-camera setup in conjunction with structured light to capture the geometry of the target.
Dual photography More advanced light stages make use of structured light to capture geometry of the target. The primary use of a light stage is an instrumentation setup for reflectance capture. Depth map Laser Dynamic Range Imager Lidar Range imaging Kinect Time of flight camera Projector-Camera Calibration Toolbox Tutorial on Coded Light Projection Techniques Structured light using pseudorandom codes High-accuracy stereo depth maps using structured light A comparative survey on invisible structured light A Real-Time Laser Range Finding Vision System Dual-frequency Pattern Scheme for High-speed 3-D Shape Measurement High-Contrast Color-Stripe Pattern for Rapid Structured-Light Range Imaging