Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich was a Stalinist Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin. He is known for helping Stalin seize power, for his role in organizing and supervising the famine in Soviet Ukraine, for his harsh treatment and execution of those deemed threats to Stalin's regime, he was project manager and led the original design team of the Moscow Metro, Moscow's Metro was named after him until 1955. At his death in 1991, he was the last surviving Old Bolshevik; the Soviet Union itself outlived him by a mere five months before it disintegrated. Kaganovich was born in 1893 to Jewish parents in the village of Kabany, Radomyshl uyezd, Kiev Governorate, Russian Empire. Around 1911, he joined the Bolshevik party. Early in his political career, in 1915, Kaganovich became a Communist organizer at a shoe factory where he worked. During the same year he was sent back to Kabany. During March and April 1917, he served as the Chairman of the Tanners Union and as the vice-chairman of the Yuzovka Soviet.
In May 1917, he became the leader of the military organization of Bolsheviks in Saratov, in August 1917, he became the leader of the Polessky Committee of the Bolshevik party in Belarus. During the October Revolution of 1917 he led the revolt in Gomel. In 1918 Kaganovich acted as Commissar of the propaganda department of the Red Army. From May 1918 to August 1919 he was the Chairman of the Ispolkom of the Nizhny Novgorod gubernia. In 1919–1920, he served as governor of the Voronezh gubernia; the years 1920 to 1922 he spent in Turkmenistan as one of the leaders of the Bolshevik struggle against local Muslim rebels, commanding the succeeding punitive expeditions against local opposition. In May 1922, Stalin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party and transferred Kaganovich to his apparatus to head the Organizational Bureau or Orgburo of the Secretariat; this department was responsible for all assignments within the apparatus of the Communist Party. Working there, Kaganovich helped to place Stalin's supporters in important jobs within the Communist Party bureaucracy.
In this position he became noted for his personal loyalty to Stalin. He stated publicly that he would execute any order from Stalin, which at that time was a novelty. In 1924, Kaganovich became a member of the Central Committee. From 1925 to 1928, Kaganovich was the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Ukrainian SSR, he was given the task of "ukrainizatsiya" – meaning at that time the building up of Ukrainian communist popular cadres. He had the duty of implementing collectivization and the policy of economic suppression of the kulaks, he opposed the more moderate policy of Nikolai Bukharin, who argued in favor of the "peaceful integration of kulaks into socialism". In 1928, due to numerous protests against Kaganovich's management, Stalin was forced to transfer Kaganovich from Ukraine to Moscow, where he returned to his position as a Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, a job he held until 1939; as Secretary, he endorsed Stalin's struggle against the so-called Left and Right Oppositions within the Communist Party, in the hope that Stalin would become the sole leader of the country.
In 1933 and 1934, he served as the Chairman of the Commission for the Vetting of the Party Membership and ensured that nobody associated with anti-Stalin opposition would be permitted to remain a Communist Party member. In 1934, at the XVII Congress of the Communist Party, Kaganovich chaired the Counting Committee, he falsified voting for positions in the Central Committee, deleting 290 votes opposing the Stalin candidacy. His actions resulted in Stalin's being re-elected as the General Secretary instead of Sergey Kirov. By the rules, the candidate receiving fewer opposing votes should become the General Secretary. Before Kaganovich's falsification, Stalin received 292 opposing Kirov only three. However, the "official" result saw Stalin with just two opposing votes. In 1930, Kaganovich became a member of the Soviet Politburo and the First Secretary of the Moscow Obkom of the Communist Party, he headed the Moscow Gorkom of the Communist Party. He supervised the implementation of many of Stalin's economic policies, including the collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization.
During this period, he supervised the destruction of many of the city's oldest monuments, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. In 1932, he led the suppression of the workers' strike in Ivanovo-Voznesensk. On June 15, 1931, at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, after a report by the first secretary of the Moscow City Party Committee, Lazar Kaganovich, a decision was made to build the Moscow metro to improve the transport situation in the city and relieve tram lines. In the 1930s, Kaganovich - along with project managers Ivan Kuznetsov and - Isaac Segal and led the building of the first Soviet underground rapid-transport system, the Moscow Metro, known as Metropoliten imeni L. M. Kaganovicha after him until 1955. On October 15, 1941, L. M. Kaganovich received an order to close the Moscow Metro, within 3 hours to prepare proposals for its destruction, as a strategically important object; the metro was supposed to be destroyed, the remaining cars and equipment remov
Porfirio López Meza is a Costa Rican professional football player who plays for Municipal Perez Zeledon in the Costa Rican Premier Division. Porfirio López began his career with Santos de Guápiles in Costa Rica being part of the first team in the 2003/04 season, he remained at the club for three seasons. He joined Puntarenas and established himself as the club's starting left back, he moved to China and signed a contract with Dalian Shide in February 2010. He scored a goal in the match. After one season in China, López went on loan to Costa Rican club Alajuelense, helping his new club win both the Clausura and Apertura titles in 2011. López signed with Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer on December 22, 2011. López was released by Philadelphia on November 19, 2012, he made his debut for Costa Rica in an August 2011 friendly match against Ecuador and has, as of May 2014, earned a total of 6 caps, scoring no goals. He represented his country in 1 FIFA World Cup qualification match. Updated June 27, 2012 Statistics accurate as of August 16, 2012 Porfirio López at National-Football-Teams.com
St Andrew's Church is in Livesey Branch Road, Lancashire, England. It is a redundant Anglican church designed by the Lancaster architect E. G. Paley; the foundation stone was laid in December 1866, but the church was not consecrated until 1877. As first built, the church seated 652, cost £6,000, its plan is cruciform, consisting of a nave and south transepts, a chancel with a polygonal apse. There is an incomplete tower in the angle between the chancel. Along the sides of the church are paired lancet windows, the transepts contain rose windows, the windows at the west and east ends of the church incorporate Geometrical tracery; the stained glass in the south wall of the chancel is by Clayton and Bell, dates from about 1890. The church was declared redundant on 6 August 2008 and was approved for civic, cultural or community use on 13 August 2009. In 2010 there were plans to convert it into a 35-room care home for the elderly; as of 2014 the church is being refurbished into a care home. It will be known as Andrews Court Care Home.
Although most of the exterior remains the same there are noticeable alterations. The doorway arches have been lowered to accommodate additional windows to the upper floor. List of ecclesiastical works by E. G. Paley