ArcelorMittal S. A. is a multinational steel manufacturing corporation headquartered in Luxembourg City. It was formed in 2006 from the merger of Arcelor by Indian-owned Mittal Steel. ArcelorMittal is the world's largest steel producer, with an annual crude steel production of 92.5 million metric tonnes as of 2018. It is ranked 123 in the 2017 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations. ArcelorMittal was created by the takeover of Western European steel maker Arcelor by Indian-owned multinational steel maker Mittal Steel in 2006, at a cost of €40.37 per share $33 billion total. Mittal Steel launched a hostile takeover bid which replaced a previous planned merger between Arcelor and Severstal, which had lacked sufficient shareholder approval; the resulting merged business was headquartered in Luxembourg City. The resulting firm produced 10% of the world's steel, was by far the world's largest steel company. Total revenues in 2007 were $105 billion; the company earned revenues f $105 billion in 2007.
By February 2008, the company had 320,000 employees in 60 countries. In October 2008, the market capitalisation of ArcelorMittal was over $30 billion, after peaking at $32.5 billion in September 2008. At the end of 2008, the company reported operating income of around $12 billion. In December 2008, ArcelorMittal announced several plant closings, including the Bethlehem Steel plant in Lackawanna, New York, LTV Steel in Hennepin, Illinois. After purchase of Kryvorizhstal, Ukraine's largest steel producer, employment was scaled back from 57,000 employees to 30,000. In 2010, the company's operating income had fallen to $4.9 billion, with sales down 10 percent from the year earlier, income down 50 percent as steel prices slumped. In 2011, the company began curtailing its European production to match the reduced demand for steel, it sold Skyline Steel and Astralloy to a rival, for $605 million. On 26 January 2011, the stainless steel division split off as Aperam; as of 2012, due to overcapacity and reduced demand in Europe it had idled 9 of 25 blast furnaces.
On 31 October 2012, the company reported a third-quarter loss of $709 million as compared to a $659 million profit for the same period a year ago, citing the slow down in China's economy. In 2012 ArcelorMittal had $22 billion of debt. In January 2013, ArcelorMittal bid $1.5 billion to acquire ThyssenKrupp AG's rolling mill in Calvert, United States. On 26 February 2014, ThyssenKrupp sold their Calvert carbon steel facility to ArcelorMittal and Nippon Steel for $1.55 billion, as a new joint venture. The facility was renamed AM/NS Calvert through the 50/50 joint partnership with Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp; the firm entered into a $2.2 billion contract to develop an iron ore deposit in Senegal. This included construction of a 750 km railway line. After stalling on the contract and failing to build according to schedule the Government of Senegal sued. In September 2013, the government of Senegal won a court case before an international tribunal to rescind a $2.2 billion deal with ArcelorMittal after the company suspended work on an iron ore mine in the country.
In June 2014, the International Chamber of Commerce's arbitration court in Paris awarded Senegal $150 million. Dealing with price and demand fluctuations in the steel market, from 2012 to 2014 ArcelorMittal restructured its European division by reducing employee numbers and closing plants. In May, 2014, ArcelorMittal, citing economic self-interest, declared its opposition to sanctions on Russia; as of June 2014, ArcelorMittal accounted for 7 percent of world steel production. After being shut out of the Chinese steel industry in 2005 along with other foreign companies, in 2014 the company announced it was planning new plants in China. In 2014, the company had an annual crude steel production of 98.1 million tons. Following an investigation first launched in 2008, in August 2016 the South African Competition Commission found the company guilty of price fixing. ArcelorMittal was fined US$110.9 million, as part of the settlement agreed to invest R4.64 billion in capital over five years. According to the findings, the firm had been part of a 17 steel member groups nicknamed "Club Zürich" that became known as "Club Europe."
Between January 1984 and September 2002, the companies fixed the market and exchanged confidential corporate information. In 2015, the company had a net loss of $7.9 billion. Between February 2015 and February 2016, share value dropped 60%, making the company the "worst performer" in the FTSEurofirst300 index; the CEO said the company had performed poorly in 2015 due to "Chinese exports depressing prices." Early in 2016, the company announced it had raised $3 billion in new investment capital to help reduce debt to $11.7 billion of debt. In early 2016 the company announced a program to boost core profit by $3 billion by 2020 "through a mixture of cost-cutting, increased production and a focus on higher-value forms of steel." Chairman Lakshmi Mittal announced doubled earnings the following year in May 2017. Along with the increase in capital, the company sold its 35% stake in Gestamp Automacion for $979 million, with the goal of reducing ArcelorMittal's debt to less than $12 billion. By February 2016, the company made about 6% of the world's steel.
It ranked 108th in the 2016 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations. In February 2017 ArcelorMittal announced its first annual profits in five years. In February 2017, ArcelorMittal and Votorantim announced plans to combine their long steel operations in Brazil. Under th
Jovan Deroko was a Serbian military commander holding the rank of captain during World War II. Deroko is notable for leading joint Chetnik–Partisan operations, he was killed by Partisan soldiers and his death marked the beginning of an all-out civil war in Yugoslavia. Deroko was born in the French city of Le Creusot on 7 April 1912 as the son of Col. Vladislav Deroko and Natalija Deroko, his mother Natalija was the daughter of the Medical Corps Colonel and Doctor Vladan Đorđević, a President of the Ministry Council and Ambassador in the Serbian government. Jovan Deroko's great-grandfather was a Venetian by the name of Marco de Rocco, who moved to Dubrovnik and married a local woman; the surname de Rocco was phoneticized to Deroko. Deroko's first cousin was well-known Serbian architect Aleksandar Deroko. Deroko's division was stationed on the periphery of Zagreb at the same time Croatian officers were massively leaving the Yugoslav side; the Wehrmacht entered Zagreb without battle and Deroko retreated towards Montenegro in order to escape imprisonment.
He continued towards the Bojana river as was stated by the P-41 plan by General Dušan Simović. After the Yugoslav government capitulated and numerous officers left for the Bay of Kotor with the goal of joining the government-in-exile in London and by offering them his services as an officer who wishes to continue to battle. Along with him at that time was colonel Zvonimir Vučković who escaped to Montenegro after the capitulation. While at the Bay of Kotor, Deroko found out that Draža Mihailović is hiding out somewhere in the western part of Serbia and Deroko tried to contact him, he soon found a contact with high-ranking politicians. In the middle of June, Deroko arrived at Ravna Gora and made himself known as one of the most capable commanders and became known as the youngest captain in the entire Chetnik organization. After organizing the first Chetnik battalions, Deroko was assigned the task of organizing the Ljubić area. In the first joint Chetnik–Partisan operations in the western part of Serbia, Deroko took part in liberating Čačak.
The Jelica Partisan detachment took part in the action. In Čačak, two German cannons were captured; the cannons were given to Deroko who used them in his battles. Deroko thus became the commander of the first Chetnik artillery unit in western Serbia. Upon freeing the city, Deroko was named the temporary representative of the Chetnik command in Čačak while Ratko Mitrović was named the Partisan representative. Draža Mihailović gave Deroko the responsibility of being the chief executive of the High Command and command of the artillery unit which took part in the Battle of Kraljevo; the Battle of Kraljevo took place in the first few days of October and lasted a month. The commander of the Chetnik forces was major Radoslav Đurić while Deroko still held the function of chief executive and commander of the artillery unit located at the Ibar river. During the siege, Deroko managed to take out a German airport near Kraljevo and to cut off German communication between Kraljevo and Belgrade; the failed siege of Kraljevo marked the beginning of the civil war between Partisans and Chetniks.
After the Chetnik attack on Užice on 21 November 1941, Deroko gained new functions. After the beginning of the first serious battles between Chetniks and Partizans, Deroko represented the Chetnik delegation at the talks of stopping the battles; the first meeting was held in the Drakčići village near Kraljevo. At the meeting, present were Deroko and major Đurić from the Chetnik side and Sredoje Urošević from the Partisan side; the talks however didn't have any result. During the talks, Deroko ordered that the Partisan delegation be apprehended as a retaliation to the Partisan attack on the Chetnik formation in Čačak. After tiresome negotiations, Deroko freed the Partisan delegations but the Partisans had surrounded the village; this led to an armed confrontation which lasted until Deroko and his group were kicked out of the village. Deroko attacked a new area of Ljubić with his cannons with the aim of bombing Čačak, held by Partisans; the Partisan patrol found out where Deroko was in Ljubić so as a preventative measure, the Jelica Partisan unit was sent in to thwart Deroko.
The battle began in the evening hours of 6 November 1941 in Ljubić. The Partisans wanted to destroy the two cannons. Deroko took control of the area on the surrounding hills beside a small lake from which he had a good view of the situation. In trying to stop the Partisan unit, advancing upon the hill however, Deroko was killed beside his cannons when struck in the head. After that, the Partisans used them in their units; the second version of his death states that Deroko was wounded and went down to the lake to take care of his wound where he was spotted by a Partisan platoon which executed him on the spot. When he was killed, Deroko was only 29 years old. Besides proving himself a capable commander, he was a renowned writer as well. Since he lived in the Toplica region in the years of the beginning of the famous Toplica Uprising, Deroko wrote the book Toplički ustanak while still preparing to enter the army; the song Nad Kraljevom živa vatra seva is about his death and the death of his fellow soldier and friend Simo Uzelac, with him at the time.
Otkrivena spomen-ploča potpukovniku Misiti, Press online
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015, electing 100 members to the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté; the region covers an area of 47,784 km2, has a population of 2,816,814. The text of the territorial reform law gives interim names for most of the merged regions, combining the names of their constituent regions separated by hyphens. Permanent names would be proposed by the new regional councils and confirmed by the Conseil d'État by 1 October 2016. Hence the interim name of the new administrative region is composed of the names of former administrative regions of Burgundy and Franche-Comté; the region chose to retain its interim name as its permanent name, a decision made official by the Conseil d'État on 28 September 2016. The merger represents a historic reunification of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy, for the first time since they were divided in 1477.
The territory, now Burgundy and Franche-Comté was united under the Kingdom of Burgundy. It was divided into two parts: the Duchy of Burgundy of France, the County of Burgundy of the Holy Roman Empire; the County was reintegrated as a free province within the Kingdom of France in the 17th century, separately from the Duchy which remained a vassal province of the Kingdom of France. These two former provinces were abolished during the French Revolution. Most of the area making up the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté used to belong to the former provinces of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, but it includes a significant part of the former provinces of Nivernais, Orléanais, the Territoire de Belfort, a small portion of Île-de-France. From 1941 to 1944, the regional prefecture of Vichy reunited Burgundy and Franche-Comté, as well as the igamie of Dijon from 1948 to 1964. During the creation of the regions of France and Franche-Comté once again became two separate regions, first as public establishments in 1972 as territorial collectivities in 1982.
On 14 April 2014, François Patriat and Marie-Guite Dufay announced in a press conference the desire for the reunification of the two regions, further to the declarations of Prime Minister Manuel Valls, who proposed a simplification of the administrative divisions of France. On 2 June 2014, the two regions were shown as one on the map presented by President François Hollande; these two regions are the only ones to have voluntarily discussed a merger, their alliance was the only one not needing revision by the National Assembly or the Senate. Under the Acte III de la décentralisation, the merger of the two regions was adopted on 17 December 2014, it became effective on 1 January 2016. The region borders Grand Est to the north, Île-de-France to the northwest, Centre-Val de Loire to the west, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes to the south and Switzerland to the east; the distances from Besançon, the capital of the region, to other cities are: Paris, the national capital, 410 km. Bourgogne-Franche-Comté comprises eight departments: Côte-d'Or, Jura, Nièvre, Haute-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, Territoire de Belfort.
Dijon Besançon Belfort Chalon-sur-Saône Nevers Auxerre Mâcon Burgundy Franche-Comté Regions of France Merger of the regions - France 3
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Claudie Haigneré is a French doctor and former astronaut with the Centre National d'Études Spatiales and the European Space Agency. Born in Le Creusot, Claudie Haigneré studied medicine at the Faculté de Médecine and Faculté des Sciences, she went on to obtain certificates in biology and sports medicine and space medicine, rheumatology. In 1986 she received a diploma in the biomechanics and physiology of movement and received her doctorate in and received her doctorate in rheumatology and neuroscience. Out of 10,000 candidates, France's space center selected only six men and Claudie Haigneré. Claudie Haigneré first qualified as an emergency pilot to the space shuttle, she first served as a back-up crew member for the 1993 Mir Altaïr mission in which her future husband Jean-Pierre Haigneré participated. The asteroid 135268 Haigneré is named in their combined honour. In 1994, Claudie Haigneré began training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia for the Franco-Russian Cassiopée mission and learned Russian during her time there.
On August 17, 1996, she became the first French woman to go to space as she and two Russian cosmonauts, commander Valery Korzun and flight engineer Aleksandr Kaleri, launched into space aboard the Soyuz TM-24 on the Russian-French Cassiopée mission. While on the mission, visited the Mirspace stationfor 16 days and she conducted comprehensive experiments in the fields of physiologyand development biology, fluid physics, technology. In 1999, Haigneré commanded a Soyuz capsule during reentry and became the first woman qualified to do so; as the flight engineer on Soyuz TM-33 in 2001, she became the first European woman to visit the International Space Station. After the mission, Claudie Haigneré continued her involvement in space science by attending scientific workshops and conferences, she contributed to data analysis and constructions for the scientific programs of future projects. She retired from ESA on June, 18 2002. Following her career as an astronaut, Claudie Haigneré entered French politics in Jean-Pierre Raffarin's government.
She was minister delegate for Research and New Technologies from 2002 to 2004 and succeeded Noëlle Lenoir as minister delegate for European Affairs from 2004 to 2005. Haigneré was named as the founding director of Universcience in 2009. At that time, she was an advisor to the Director of the ESA. In 2015, Haigneré resumed serving as a special advisor to ESA's director general. Claudie Haigneré accepted the position to chair the Jury of the DStv Eutelsat Star Awards, an annual pan-African student competition in which students write an essay or create a poster focusing on science and technology fields as a source of inspiration to unlock opportunities for Africa; the essays and posters will be judged by an international panel of industry experts and academic world members, based on accuracy, creativity and innovation. Claudie Haigneré's acceptance of this assignment marks the first time a woman has served on the panel for the DStv Eutelsat Star Awards. Claudie Haigneré received many special honors for her spaceflight career.
She received the "Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur" as well as the "Chevalier de l'order National du Mérite. To recognize her outstanding involvement in the Franco-Russian space cooperation she received ensuing ranks of the Russian "Order of Friendship." She received the Russian "Medal for Personal Valour."Claudie Haigneré is an honorary member of the Société Francaise de Médecine Aéronautique et Spatiale and the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France. She holds membership in the International Academy of Astronautics and of the Académie de l'Air et de l'space. Flitner, Bettina: Frauen mit Visionen – 48 Europäerinnen. With texts by Alice Schwarzer. Munich: Knesebeck, 2004. ISBN 3-89660-211-X, 108–111 p. ESA profile page The Andromede mission on the ESA website Claudie Haigneré photographed by Bettina Flitner
Mickaël Vendetta (born October 3, 1987 in Le Creusot, France is a French Internet phenomenon and entrepreneur whose notoriety followed upon the buzz he created on the internet through his personal blog. Vendetta began courses in Business Management at Asnières-sur-Seine, which he stopped after 3 months, he said that he was not made for the school system because he found it "too left-wing". He decided to take control of his life and joined a gym in Puteaux. Months of training got him better physique, he lists as his personal objectives, to become an actor, to market a clothing line, release a single of house music. He considers becoming a politician like Arnold Schwarzenegger, along with Bernard Tapie, supports Nicolas Sarkozy. Vendetta worked in real estate before leaving that business to develop his philosophy of "Bogossitude" and promoting it on his blog and in media, he created a buzz by publishing naked videos of him on his personal blog, showing his physique and establishing having a strong personality, by being purposefully arrogant and pretentious in order to gain public response.
The blog attracted more than 5,000,000 visitors. He appeared on the site Trendywebtv.com, a site which had produced Cindy Sander. Vendetta appeared on various TV and radio shows and acted for several TV commercial spots for Pringles chips, produced a house music single, won La Ferme Célébrités, he has produced a house music single named "The bogoss Life" on XIII Bis Records, as well as making appearances in business schools and night clubs. Among the shows in which Vendetta has appeared are La méthode Cauet on TF1, Chez Morandini on Direct8, LCI, as well as on Swiss TV and on Virgin Radio, his appearance on La méthode Cauet made the audience of the show become quite heated in response. While he was part of the cast, eventual winner, of La Ferme Célébrités 2010, the media had earlier criticized him for being arrogant and contemptuous. In 2008, David Abiker of France Info compared Vendetta to Paris Hilton, in that he was engaged in a similar race for notoriety. Ecrans called Vendetta "une marchandise dont le contenu n'est rien d'autre que son propre message publicitaire".