World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Ouest-France is a daily French newspaper known for its emphasis on both local and national news. The paper is produced in 47 different editions covering events in different French départments within the régions of Brittany, Lower Normandy and its readership has been unaffected by the decline of newspaper reading in France, unlike most other dailies. With 2.5 million daily readers, it is by far the most read newspaper in the world, ahead of French national newspapers Le Figaro. Ouest-France was founded in 1944 by Adolphe Le Goaziou and others following the closure of Ouest-Éclair and it is based in Rennes and Nantes and has a circulation about 792,400, mostly in Brittany. Its editorial line has been strongly pro-European integration from the beginning, influenced by Christian democracy, now MoDem, the paper had a circulation of 773,471 copies in 2001 and 764,731 copies in 2002 with a market share of 14. 41%. The 47 different editions are divided among twelve départements, List of French newspapers Ouest-France website
Abel Faivre was a French painter and cartoonist. Jules Abel Faivre was born in Lyon, France and he attended École nationale des beaux-arts de Lyon for three years. He attended the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and Académie Julian and he was a member of the Société des Artistes Français. Professionally, he created posters for the French Army in World War I. He drew comics for Le Rire, LÉcho de Paris, Faivre died in August,1945, in Nice, France. A boulevard is named after Faivre in La Croix-Valmer and his work is held in the collections of the National Library of Medicine, the University of Michigan, the Museum of Modern Art. and the Brooklyn Museum
Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent and it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisias population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014, Tunisias name is derived from its capital city, which is located on Tunisias northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the end of the Atlas Mountains. Much of the rest of the land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic and it is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human development index. In addition, Tunisia is a state of the United Nations. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation, in ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers.
Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC, these immigrants founded Carthage, a major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the eight hundred years, introduced Christianity. After several attempts starting in 647, the Arabs conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881, Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis, an urban hub. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country.
Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с and Spanish Túnez, in this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, and only by context can one tell the difference. The name Tunis can be attributed to different origins and it is generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means to lay down or encampment
Newspaper of record
A newspaper of record is a major newspaper that has a large circulation and whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered professional and typically authoritative. A newspaper of record, sometimes referred to as an official newspaper. In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the authorities to publish public and legal notices. Likewise, a newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices. These are sometimes referred to as legally adjudicated newspapers, a variation of newspapers of public record are those newspapers controlled by governments or political parties that serve as official newspapers reflecting the positions of their controlling bodies. State organs such as the Soviet-era Izvestia and the Peoples Daily in China are examples of this type, the second type of newspaper of record is not defined by any formal criteria and its characteristics can be variable. Despite changes in society, such newspapers have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage and traditions.
In recognition of the usage, the Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record. The Times, and other newspapers of its type, sought to be chroniclers of events, acting as a record of the announcements, directories, proceedings. The Times no longer considers itself a newspaper of record in the original, literal sense. Over time, historians began to rely on The New York Times and similar titles as an archival record of significant past events. The term newspaper of record thus evolved from its literal sense to its currently understood meaning
Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr
Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr was a French critic and novelist. Karr was born in Paris, and after being educated at the Collège Bourbon, some of his novels, including his first, Sous les Tilleuls, were autobiographical romances. A second novel, Une heure trop tard, followed next year and his Vendredi soir and Le Chemin le plus court continued the vein of autobiographical romance with which he had made his first success. Geneviève is one of his best stories, and his Voyage autour de mon jardin was deservedly popular, others were Feu Bressier, and Fort en thème, which had some influence in stimulating educational reform. On the proposal to abolish capital punishment, je veux bien que messieurs les assassins commencent—let the gentlemen who do the take the first step. In 1848 he founded Le Journal, in 1855 he went to live at Nice, where he indulged his predilections for floriculture, and gave his name to more than one new variety, notably the dahlia. Indeed he practically founded the trade in cut flowers on the French Riviera and he was devoted to fishing, and in Les Soirées de Sainte-Adresse and Au bord de la mer he made use of his experiences.
His reminiscences, Livre de bord, were published in 1879–1880, karrs brother Eugène was a talented engineer, and his niece Carme Karr was a writer and suffragist in La Roche-Mabile. The bamboo species Bambusa multiplex Alphonse Karr was named in his honour and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Karr, Jean Baptiste Alphonse. Works by Alphonse Karr at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr at Internet Archive
Le Parisien is a French daily newspaper covering both international and national news, and local news of Paris and its suburbs. The newspaper is owned by Éditions Philippe Amaury, the paper was established as Le Parisien libéré by Émilien Amaury in 1944, and was published for the first time on 22 August 1944. The paper was launched as the organ of the French underground during the German occupation of France in World War II. The name was changed to the current one in 1986, a national edition exists, called Aujourdhui en France. Le Parisien had a circulation near to one million copies in the early 1970s, the paper reached a circulation of 659,200 copies on 24 April 1995 the day after the first round of the presidential election. In the period of 1995-1996 the paper had a circulation of 451,159 copies, the combined circulation of Le Parisien was 485,000 copies in 2001. The paper had a circulation of 147,143 copies and a circulation of 360,505 copies in 2002. It was the second largest regional newspaper in France with a circulation of 530,000 copies in 2008, behind Ouest-France.
The circulation of Le Parisien was 229,638 copies in 2014, official website Regular French Press Review – Radio France International
Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies. The term right-wing can generally refer to the conservative or reactionary section of a party or system. The original Right in France was formed as a reaction against the Left, and comprised those politicians supporting hierarchy, the use of the expression la droite became prominent in France after the restoration of the monarchy in 1815, when it was applied to the Ultra-royalists. The people of English-speaking countries did not apply the terms right, from the 1830s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from nobility and aristocracy towards capitalism. This general economic shift toward capitalism affected centre right movements such as the British Conservative Party, in the United States, the Right includes both economic and social conservatives. The nobility, members of the Second Estate, generally sat to the right, in the successive legislative assemblies, monarchists who supported the Ancien Régime were commonly referred to as rightists because they sat on the right side.
A major figure on the right was Joseph de Maistre, who argued for a form of conservatism. Throughout the 19th century, the line dividing Left and Right in France was between supporters of the republic and supporters of the monarchy. In British politics, the right and left came into common use for the first time in the late 1930s in debates over the Spanish Civil War. The meaning of right-wing varies across societies, historical epochs, and political systems, according to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, in liberal democracies, the political Right opposes socialism and social democracy. Right-wing parties include conservatives, Christian democrats, classical liberals, nationalists and, on the far Right, Roger Eatwell and Neal OSullivan divide the Right into five types, moderate, radical and new. Chip Berlet argues that each of these styles of thought are responses to the left, including liberalism and socialism, the reactionary right looks toward the past and is aristocratic and authoritarian.
Often the moderate right promotes nationalism and social welfare policies, radical right is a term developed after World War II to describe groups and ideologies such as McCarthyism, the John Birch Society and the Republikaner Party. Eatwell stresses that use has major typological problems and that the term has been applied to clearly democratic developments. The radical right includes right-wing populism and various other subtypes, Eatwell argues that the extreme right has four traits, 1) anti-democracy, 2) nationalism, 3) racism, and 4) the strong state. The New Right consists of the conservatives, who stress small government, free markets. Other authors make a distinction between the centre-right and the far right, parties of the centre-right generally support liberal democracy, the market economy, private property rights, and a limited welfare state. They support conservatism and economic liberalism, and oppose socialism and communism, typical examples of leaders to whom the far right label is often applied are Francisco Franco in Spain and Augusto Pinochet in Chile
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Dassault Aviation SA is an international French aircraft manufacturer of military and business jets, a subsidiary of Dassault Group. It was founded in 1929 by Marcel Bloch as Société des Avions Marcel Bloch or MB, after World War II, Marcel Bloch changed his name to Marcel Dassault, and the name of the company was changed to Avions Marcel Dassault on 20 January 1947. In 1971 Dassault acquired Breguet, forming Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation, in 1990 the company was renamed Dassault Aviation. The Dassault Aviation Group is headed by Eric Trappier since 9 January 2013, the Société des Avions Marcel Bloch was founded by Marcel Bloch in 1929. In 1935 Bloch and Henry Potez entered into an agreement to buy Société Aérienne Bordelaise, in 1936 the arms industry in France was nationalised as the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud Ouest. Marcel Bloch was asked to act as delegated administrator of the Minister for Air, during the occupation of France the countrys aviation industry was virtually disbanded.
Marcel Bloch was imprisoned by the Vichy government in October 1940, in 1944 Bloch was deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp by the German occupiers where he remained until it was liberated on 11 April 1945. On 20 January 1947 Société des Avions Marcel Bloch became Société des Avions Marcel Dassault to reflect the name adopted by its owner, from the 1950s to late 1970s exports become a major part of Dassault’s business, major successes were the Dassault Mirage series and the Mystere-Falcon. In 1965 and 1966 the French government stressed to its various defense suppliers the need to specialize to maintain viable companies, Dassault was to specialise in combat and business aircraft, Nord Aviation in ballistic missiles and Sud Aviation civil and military transport aircraft and helicopters. On 27 June 1967 Dassault acquired 66% of Breguet Aviation, under the merger deal Société des Avions Marcel Dassault was dissolved on 14 December 1971, with its assets vested in Breguet, to be renamed Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation.
Dassault Systèmes was established in 1981 to develop and market Dassault’s CAD program, Dassault Systèmes was to become a market leader in this field. In 1979 the French government took a 20% share in Dassault and established the Societé de Gestion de Participations Aéronautiques to manage this, in 1998 the French government transferred its shares in Dassault Aviation to Aerospatiale. On 10 July 2000, Aérospatiale-Matra merged with other European companies to form EADS, in 2000 Serge Dassault resigned as chairman and was succeeded by Charles Edelstenne. Serge Dassault was appointed honorary chairman, the American company Atlantic Aviation based in Wilmington, was acquired in October 2000. On 18 December 2000, Dassault Aviation was the first French company to be certified ISO 9001/2000 by BVQI, within fifteen years or so, thanks to developments in I. T. the industrial design offices went from using drawing boards to computerized 3D-modelling. Physical models were replaced by virtual digital mock-ups enabling a first version to be produced that is directly operational and this veritable industrial revolution was made possible thanks to PLM software from Dassault Systemes.
Virtual plateau technology, allowing all the offices to work together simultaneously within short deadlines, was deployed for the Falcon 7X trijet program. In this way, for the first time, the primary parts, airbus sold some of its ownership back to Dassault in 2014, and further reduced its share to 27% in 2015
It is a political position which incorporates support for civil liberties and capitalism, along with some social-conservative positions. As both conservatism and liberalism have had different meanings over time and across countries, the liberal conservatism has been used in quite different ways. It usually contrasts with aristocratic conservatism, which rejects the principle of equality as something in discordance with human nature, consequently, in the United States the term liberal conservatism is not used and American modern liberalism happens to be quite different from the European brand. The opposite is true in Latin America, where economically liberal conservatism is often labelled under the rubric of neoliberalism both in culture and academic discourse. In much of central and northwestern Europe, especially in Germanic and traditionally Protestant countries, often this involves stressing free-market economics and the belief in individual responsibility together with the defense of civil rights, and support for a limited welfare state.
In the modern European discourse, liberal conservatism usually encompasses centre-right political outlooks that reject, at least to some extent and this position is associated with support for moderate forms of social safety net and environmentalism. Historically, in the 18th and 19th centuries, conservatism comprised a set of principles based on concern for established tradition, respect for authority, and religious values. This form of traditionalist or classical conservatism is often considered to be exemplified by the writings of Joseph de Maistre, contemporaneous liberalism – now recalled as classical liberalism – advocated both political freedom for individuals and a free market in the economic sphere. The maxim of liberal conservatism, according to scholar Andrew Vincent, is economics is prior to politics, nonetheless, in most countries the term liberal is used to describe those with free-market economic views. This is the case, for example, in continental Europe and Latin America
Le Monde is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry and continuously published in Paris since its first edition on 19 December 1944. It is one of the most important and widely respected newspapers in the world and it is one of two French newspapers of record along with Le Figaro, and the main publication of La Vie-Le Monde Group. It reported a circulation of 323,039 copies per issue in 2009. It has had its own website since 19 December 1995, and is often the only French newspaper easily obtainable in non-French-speaking countries and it should not be confused with the monthly publication Le Monde diplomatique, of which Le Monde has 51% ownership, but which is editorially independent. In the 1990s and 2000s, La Vie-Le Monde Group expanded under editor Jean-Marie Colombani with a number of acquisitions. However, its profitability was not sufficient to cover the debt loads it took on to fund this expansion. In June 2010, investors Matthieu Pigasse, Pierre Bergé, in contrast to other world newspapers such as The New York Times, Le Monde was traditionally focused on offering analysis and opinion, as opposed to being a newspaper of record.
Hence, it was considered important for the paper to offer maximum coverage of the news than to offer thoughtful interpretation of current events. For instance, on the 10th anniversary of the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, the newspaper directly implicated François Mitterrand, in recent years, the paper has established a greater distinction between fact and opinion. Beuve-Méry reportedly demanded total editorial independence as the condition for his taking on the project, in 1981 it backed the election of socialist François Mitterrand on the grounds that alternation of the political party in government would be beneficial to the state. The paper endorsed centre-right candidate Édouard Balladur in the 1995 presidential election and Ségolène Royal, according to the Mitrokhin Archive investigators, Le Monde was the KGBs key outlet for spreading anti-American and pro-Soviet disinformation to the French media. The archive identified two senior Le Monde journalists and several contributors who were used in the operations, michel Legris, a former journalist with the paper, wrote Le Monde tel quil est in 1976.
According to him, the journal minimized the atrocities committed by the Cambodian Khmer Rouge and it accused the paper of dangerously damaging the authority of the French state by having revealed various political scandals. This book remains controversial, but attracted attention and media coverage in France. Following a lawsuit, the authors and the publisher agreed in 2004 not to proceed to any reprinting, Le Monde has been found guilty of defamation for saying that Spanish football club FC Barcelona was connected to a doctor involved in steroid use. The Spanish court fined the newspaper nearly $450,000, in April 2016, a Le Monde reporter was denied visa to visit Algeria as part of the French Prime Minister press convoy to Algeria. Le Monde had previously published names of Algerian officials directly involved with the Panama papers corruption scandal, Le Monde is published around midday, and the date on the masthead is the following days. For instance, the issue released at midday on 15 March shows 16 March on the masthead and it is available on newsstands in France on the day of release, and received by mail subscribers on the masthead date