Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Kalabaka is a town and a municipality in the Trikala regional unit, part of Thessaly in Greece. The population was 21,991 at the 2011 census; the Metéora monasteries are located in the town. Kalabaka is the northwestern terminal of the old Thessaly Railways, now part of OSE. A Greek inscription on the wall of one of the town’s oldest churches testifies to the existence of an ancient Greek settlement under the name Aiginion. In the 10th century AD, it was known as a Byzantine fortress and bishopric. Of its medieval monuments, only the cathedral, the Church of the Dormition, survives, it was a late 11th- or early 12th-century building, built on the remains of an earlier, late antique church. Relics of an ancient Greek temple – of god Apollo – have been incorporated in the wall of the town’s oldest and most renowned church, dedicated to Virgin Mary. Stagoi is first mentioned in Diatyposis written by the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise. In 1163 there was a reference to the castle of Stagoi. In 1204 Stagoi fell under the Despotate of Epirus.
At the end of the 13th century they fell under the Duchy of Neopatria. In 1334, they were taken over once more by the Despot of Epirus, John II Orsini, shortly thereafter they came once more under the control of the Byzantine Empire. In 1348, they were conquered by the Serbs of Stephen Dushan, they reached their peak under the rule of his brother, King Simeon Uroš. When the Ottomans conquered Thessaly, Kalabaka was placed under the administrative rule of the Pasha of Larisa and on of the Sanjak of Trikala, it was named "Kalabaka" seven centuries ago. It is of Turkish origin and means "powerful fortress", it has been Anglicized variously as Kalambaka or Kalabaki. From the beginning of the 10th century, Stagoi was referred to as an episcopal see, thereby enjoying privileges and donations from the Byzantine emperors throughout the Middle Ages, it had dependent farmers in neighboring settlements. Besides the fields of northwest Thessaly, its territory included an extensive mountainous zone in Asia and central Pindos.
The bishopric of Stagoi, a suffragan of the Metropolis of Larissa, was maintained, with some small intermissions, up to 1900 when it was merged with the bishopric of Tricca to form the Metropolis of Tricca and Stagoi with the town of Trikala as its seat. It was reestablished in 1991, has been operating since as the Metropolis of "Stagoi and Meteora" with its seat in the town of Kalabaka; the province of Kalabaka was one of the provinces of the Trikala Prefecture. It had the same territory as the present municipality, it was abolished in 2006. The city is served by Kalambaka station on the Palaiofarsalos-Kalambaka line; the town is situated at the foot of the Meteora peaks. It is inhabited by an important community of Aromanians who attend the Meteora monasteries where they walk or drive up to the rock mountains to worship their Greek Orthodox faith; the municipality Kalabaka was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 8 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Aspropotamos Chasia Kalabaka Kastania Kleino Malakasi Tymfaia VasilikiThe municipality has an area of 1,658.280 km2, the municipal unit 277.087 km2.
The municipal unit Kalabaka consists of the following communities: Avra Diava Kalabaka Kastraki Krya Vrysi Megali Kerasea Orthovouni Sarakina Vlachava Kalampaka has two twin towns: Schwabach, Germany Le Haillan, France Kalabaka was voted as one of the most beautiful places in Greece by the Skai TV show I LOVE GR. Kostas Fortounis, professional footballer, born in nearby Trikala but he and his family are from Kalabaka. Christos Almpanis, professional footballer, born in the town. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister, Richard, MacDonald, William L. McAlister, Marian Holland, Aiginion, in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. A. Avramea, I Vyzantini Thessalia mechri tou 1204, doctoral dissertation, Athens 1974, EKPA-Vivliothiki Sofias N. Saripolou 27, Athens 1974, pp. 158–161. V. Spanos, Istoria-Prosopographia tis BD. Thessalias to B’ miso tou ID’ aiona. Larisa 1995 I. Vogiatzidis, To chronikon ton Meteoron, Yearbook of Society for Byzantine Studies 2, pp. 149–162.
D. Sofianos, Acta Stagorum, Ta yper tis Thessalikis episkopis Stagon palaia vyzantina eggrafa [Acta Stagorum: the Byzantine documents for the Thessalic diocese of Stagai, Trikalina 13, pp. 7–67. St. Aristarchis, "Ekthesis epi ton diagonismaton Thessalias kai Epirou", O en Konstantinoupolei Ellinikos Filologikos Syllogos 13-15, pp. 31–39 L. Heuzey – H. Daumet, Mission arhéologique de Macédoine, Paris 1876, pp. 452–454, L. Heuzey, Odoiporiko stin Tourkokratoumeni Thessalia to 1858, transl. Ch. Dimitropoulos, publ. Afoi Kyriakidi, Thessaloniki 1991, pp. 152–157 F. Dölger, Regesten der kaiserurkunden des oströmischen reiches von 565-1453,Verlag, München-Berlin 1960,pp. 159–160. P. Sustal, Hellas und Thessalia, ed Η. Hunger. Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bonn 1976, p. 262. Ch. Astruc, Un document inédit de 1163 sur l’ évêché thess
Floirac is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Floirac is twinned with: Diébougou, Burkina Faso Burlada, since 1985 Bordeaux Observatory Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Eysines is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Julien Courbet, born 7 February 1965, French journalist, television presenter and producer Jean-Claude Lalumière, novelist Lucenzo, French-Portuguese singer and record producer Pierre Duret de la Plane and benefactor Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Gradignan is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. It is located on its southwest side. Thus, it is a member of the metropolitan Urban Community of Bordeaux. Gradignan is a part of the Bordeaux education zone. Gradignan prison is a high-security facility serving the Bordeaux area. Gradignan has partnerships with: Pfungstadt Germany, since 1996. Figueira da foz, since 1992. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE Official website
Bouliac is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Bassens is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE