Paul Bunyan is a giant lumberjack in American folklore. His exploits revolve around the tall tales of his superhuman labors, he is customarily accompanied by Babe the Blue Ox; the character originated in the oral tradition of North American loggers, was popularized by freelance writer William B. Laughead in a 1916 promotional pamphlet for the Red River Lumber Company, he has been the subject of various literary compositions, musical pieces, commercial works, theatrical productions. His likeness is displayed in several oversized statues across North America. There are many hypotheses about the etymology of the name Paul Bunyan. Much of the commentary focuses on a Franco-Canadian origin for the name. Phonetically Bunyan is similar to the Québécois expression "bon yenne!" Expressing surprise or astonishment. The English surname Bunyan is derived from the same root as bunion in the Old French bugne, referring to a large lump or swelling. Several researchers have attempted to trace Paul Bunyan to the character of Bon Jean of French Canadian folklore.
Michael Edmonds states in his 2009 book Out of the Northwoods: The Many Lives of Paul Bunyan that Paul Bunyan stories circulated for at least thirty years before finding their way into print. In contrast to the lengthy narratives abundant in published material, Paul Bunyan "stories" when told in the lumbercamp bunkhouses were presented in short fragments; some of these stories include motifs from older folktales, such as absurdly severe weather and fearsome critters. Parallels in early printings support the view that at least a handful of Bunyan stories hold a common origin in folklore; the earliest recorded reference to Paul Bunyan is an uncredited 1904 editorial in the Duluth News Tribune which recounts: Each of these elements recurs in accounts, including logging the Dakotas, a giant camp, the winter of the blue snow, stove skating. All four anecdotes are mirrored in J. E. Rockwell's "Some Lumberjack Myths" six years and James MacGillivray wrote on the subject of stove skating in "Round River" four years before that.
MacGillivray's account, somewhat extended, reappeared in The American Lumberman in 1910. The American Lumberman followed up with a few sporadic editorials, such as "Paul Bunyan's Oxen," "In Paul Bunyan's Cook Shanty," and "Chronicle of Life and Works of Mr. Paul Bunyan." Rockwell's earlier story was one of the few to allude to Paul Bunyan's large stature, "eight feet tall and weighed 300 pounds," and introduce his big blue ox, prior to Laughead's commercialization of Paul Bunyan, although W. D. Harrigan did refer to a giant pink ox in "Paul Bunyan's Oxen," circa 1914. In all the articles, Paul Bunyan is praised as a logger of great physical strength and unrivaled skill. K. Bernice Stewart, a student at the University of Wisconsin, was working contemporaneously with Laughead to gather Paul Bunyan stories from woodsmen in the Midwest. Stewart was able to make a scholarly anthology of original anecdotes through a series of interviews; these were published in 1916 as "Legends of Paul Bunyan, Lumberjack" in Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences and Letters and coauthored by her English professor Homer A. Watt.
The research relates traditional narratives, some in multiple versions, goes on to conclude that many existed in some part before they were set to revolve around Bunyan as a central character. Stewart argued in her analysis. Charles E. Brown was the curator of the Museum of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin and secretary of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society, he was another principal researcher. He published these anecdotes in short pamphlet format for the use of students of folklore. Much of his research was financed through the government-funded Wisconsin Writers' Program. In 2007, Michael Edmonds of the Wisconsin Historical Society began a thorough reinvestigation of the Paul Bunyan tradition, publishing his findings in Out of the Northwoods: The Many Lives of Paul Bunyan. Edmonds concluded that Paul Bunyan had origins in the oral traditions of woodsmen working in Wisconsin camps during the turn of the 20th century, but such stories were embellished and popularized by commercial interests.
Laughead, in 1916, devised the original advertising pamphlet for the Red River Lumber Company utilizing the Paul Bunyan folk character. Laughead reworked original folklore while adding some tales of his own; this has led to significant confusion as to Paul Bunyan's legitimacy as a genuine folkloric character. Laughead took many liberties with the original oral source material. While still a lumberjack of gigantic stature and size with extreme power and strength, Paul Bunyan's height was magnified so as to tower over trees and Laughead attributed to him the creation of several American landscapes and natural wonders. Laughead noted that Paul Bunyan and Babe are said to have created the 10,000 lakes of Minnesota by their footprints. Commenters would elaborate in more detail pointing out bodies of water such as Lake Bemidji; some observers have noted that Lake Bemidji, has a shape resembling something of a giant footprint when viewed from high above. Furthermore, latter authors, tourist agents, would add other geographic features to those Paul Bunyan was supposed to have created.
Among others, Paul Bunyan has been credited with creating the Grand Canyon by pulling his ax behind him, Mount Hood by putting stones on his campfire. Running at variance to his origins in folklore, the character of Paul Bunyan has become a fixture for juvenile audiences since his debut in print. Typical among such adaptations is the further embellishment of stories pulled directly from William B. Laughead's pamphlet
An arrowhead is a tip sharpened, added to an arrow to make it more deadly or to fulfill some special purpose. The earliest arrowheads were made of organic materials. Arrowheads are important archaeological artifacts. Modern enthusiasts still "produce over one million brand-new spear and arrow points per year". One who manufactures metal arrowheads is an arrowsmith. In the Stone Age, people used sharpened bone, flintknapped stones and chips of rock as weapons and tools; such items remained in use with new materials used as time passed. As archaeological artifacts such objects are classed as projectile points, without specifying whether they were projected by a bow or by some other means such as throwing since the specific means of projection is found too in direct association with any given point and the word "arrow" would imply a certainty about these points which does not exist; such artifacts can be found all over the world in various locations. Those that have survived are made of stone consisting of flint, obsidian or chert.
In many excavations, bone and metal arrowheads have been found. Stone projectile points dating back 64,000 years were excavated from layers of ancient sediment in Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Examinations found traces of blood and bone residues, glue made from a plant-based resin, used to fasten them on to a wooden shaft; this indicated. These hafted points might have been launched from bows. While "most attributes such as micro-residue distribution patterns and micro-wear will develop on points used to tip spears, darts or arrows" and "explicit tests for distinctions between thrown spears and projected arrows have not yet been conducted" the researchers find "contextual support" for the use of these points on arrows: a broad range of animals were hunted, with an emphasis on taxa that prefer closed forested niches, including fast moving and arboreal animals; this is an argument for the use of traps including snares. If snares were used, the use of cords and knots which would have been adequate for the production of bows is implied.
The employment of snares demonstrates a practical understanding of the latent energy stored in bent branches, the main principle of bow construction. Cords and knots are implied by use-wear facets on perforated shell beads around 72,000 years old from Blombos. Archeologists in Louisiana have discovered that early Native Americans used Alligator gar scales as arrow heads. "Hunting with a bow and arrow requires intricate multi-staged planning, material collection and tool preparation and implies a range of innovative social and communication skills." Arrowheads are attached to arrow shafts to be shot from a bow. The arrowhead or projectile point is the primary functional part of the arrow, plays the largest role in determining its purpose; some arrows may use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made from metal, rock, or some other hard material. Arrowheads may be attached to the shaft with a cap, a socket tang, or inserted into a split in the shaft and held by a process called hafting.
Points attached with caps are slid snugly over the end of the shaft, or may be held on with hot glue. In medieval Europe, arrowheads were adhered with hide glue. Split-shaft construction involves splitting the arrow shaft lengthwise, inserting the arrowhead, securing it using ferrule, rope, or wire. Modern arrowheads used for hunting come in a variety of styles. Many traditionalist archers choose heads made of modern high carbon steel that resemble traditional stone heads. Other classes of broadheads referred to; these heads rely on force created by passing through an animal to expand or open. Arrowheads are separated by function: Bodkin points are short, rigid points with a small cross-section, they were made of unhardened iron and may have been used for better or longer flight, or for cheaper production. It has been suggested that the bodkin came into its own as a means of penetrating armour, however limited research has so far found no hardened bodkin points, so it appears that it was first designed either to extend range or as a cheaper and simpler alternative to the broadhead.
In a modern test, a direct hit from a hard steel bodkin point penetrated a set of fifteenth-century chain armour made in Damascus. However, archery was minimally effective against plate armour, which became available to knights of modest means by the late 14th century. Blunts are unsharpened arrowheads used for types of target shooting, for shooting at stumps or other targets of opportunity, or hunting small game when the goal is to stun the target without penetration. Blunts are made of metal or hard rubber, they may stun, the arrow shaft may penetrate the head and the target. Judo points have spring wires extending sideways from the tip; these catch on debris to prevent the arrow from being lost in the vegetation. Used for practice and for small game. Broadheads are still used for hunting. Medieval broadheads could be made from steel, sometimes with hardened edges, they have two to four sharp blades that cause massive bleeding in the victim. Their function is to
The Pillsbury Company was a Minneapolis, Minnesota-based company, one of the world's largest producers of grain and other foodstuffs until it was bought out by General Mills in 2001. Antitrust law required General Mills to sell off some of the products, so the company kept the rights to refrigerated and frozen Pillsbury branded products, while dry baking products and frosting were sold by its Orrville, Ohio-based Smucker company under license. Brynwood Partners agreed to purchase Pillsbury from Smuckers for $375 million in July 2018. In September 2018 the sale was completed along with other brands including Martha White and Hungry Jack. Advertising company Leo Burnett Worldwide created Pillsbury's Doughboy and Jolly Green Giant, which are two of the agency's top brand icons. C. A. Pillsbury and Company was founded in 1872 by Charles Alfred Pillsbury and his uncle John S. Pillsbury; the company was second only to Washburn-Crosby to use steel rollers for processing grain in the United States. The finished product required transportation, so the Pillsburys assisted in funding railroad development in Minnesota.
In 1889, Pillsbury and its five mills on the banks of the Mississippi River were purchased by a British company. The company tried to purchase and merge with the Washburn Crosby Company, but the principals at Washburn prevented the takeover. In 1923, the Pillsbury family reacquired Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills Company, Limited which subsequently was incorporated in 1935 as Pillsbury Flour Mills Company. In 1949, the company introduced a national baking competition, which would come to be known as the Pillsbury Bake-Off. Only seven products used the Pillsbury name in 1950, but the company began adding to its product line; the early 1950s brought the acquisition of Ballard & Ballard Company and the beginning of packaged biscuit dough, which would become one of the company's most important and profitable product lines in decades. The company began advertising on television. In 1957, Pillsbury commissioned a television commercial jingle with the main lyrics "Nothin' says lovin/Like somethin' from the oven/And Pillsbury says it best".
Corporate acquisitions included restaurants such as Burger King and Ale, Bennigan's, Godfather's Pizza, Häagen-Dazs, Quik Wok, plus popular grocery store food brands such as Green Giant. In the 1960s, Pillsbury added Sweet* 10 made with cyclamate, which became the most popular artificial sweetener. In 1964, Pillsbury introduced Funny Face Drink Mix with the names Goofy Grape, Rootin' Tootin' Raspberry, Freckle Face Strawberry, Loud Mouth Lime, Chinese Cherry, Injun Orange. Lefty Lemon followed in 1965, along with other flavors; the Funny Face characters, as well as the Funny Face brand were created in 1963 by Hal Silverman, a Creative Director at Campbell Mithun Advertising. When cyclamate was banned, Sweet* 10 and Funny Face had to be dropped, resulting in a $4.5 million loss. Both products were re-introduced after changes, the drinks became available sweetened and unsweetened. Another drink mix introduced in the 1960s was Moo Juice, a flavored powder combined with milk in a shaker to produce a milkshake.
Moo Juice was created by Hal Silverman. Its TV commercial featured a talking animation of the product's cartoon cow head mascot; this was voiced by Frank Fontaine, familiar at that time as Crazy Guggenheim in The Jackie Gleason Show's "Joe the Bartender" skits. Moo Juice was short-lived, as its milkshakes tended to be thin compared to similar products such as Borden's Frosted and Birds Eye's Thick and Frosty. Among the other crazy kid foods that Silverman created for Pillsbury was Nugget Town, chocolate flavored nuggets that came in eight different, collectable packages that when popped open and folded made into a whole western town; the TV commercial featured Buddy Hackett as the voice of the town's little bear sheriff. There was Gorilla Milk—"...you'll go ape for Gorilla Milk, a glass in the morning and you'll swing all day"—a protein additive that turned milk into an instant breakfast. This product, aimed at teenagers, was not successful going against Carnation Instant Breakfast; that decade, Pillsbury created Space Food Sticks to capitalize on the popularity of the space program.
Space Food Sticks were developed by Robert Muller, the inventor of the HACCP standards used by the food industry to ensure food safety. When NASA astronaut Scott Carpenter launched into space on Mercury capsule Aurora 7 in 1962, he was carrying with him the first solid space food – small food cubes developed by Pillsbury's research and development department. Taking Pillsbury scientists more than a year to develop, space food cubes were followed by other space-friendly foods, such as cake, not crumbly, relish that could be served in slices and meat that needed no refrigeration, it acquired Burger King in 1967. The Pillsbury Company bought Häagen-Dazs in 1983. In 1999, Pillsbury and Nestlé merged their U. S. and Canadian ice cream operations into a joint venture called Ice Cream Partners. General Mills succeeded to its interest in the joint venture; that same year, Nestlé exercised its contractual right to buy out General Mills' interest in Ice Cream Partners, which included the right to a 99-year license for the Häagen-Dazs brand.
Since pursuant to that license, the Dreyer's subsidiary of Nestlé has produced and marketed Häagen-Dazs products in the United States and Canada. In 1989, the British company Grand Metropolitan (later D
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, focused on integrated clinical practice and research. It employs more than 4,500 physicians and scientists, along with another 58,400 administrative and allied health staff; the practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary destination medicine. It is home to the ranked Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine in addition to many of the largest, best regarded residency education programs in the United States, it has more than 3,000 full-time research personnel. William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1864 and opened a sole proprietorship medical practice that evolved under his sons and Charlie Mayo, into Mayo Clinic. Today, in addition to its flagship hospital in Rochester, Mayo Clinic has major campuses in Arizona and Florida; the Mayo Clinic Health System operates affiliated facilities throughout Minnesota and Iowa. Mayo Clinic is ranked number 1 in the United States on the 2018–2019 U. S. News & World Report Best Hospitals Honor Roll, maintaining a position at or near the top for more than 27 years.
It has been on the list of "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine for fourteen consecutive years, has continued to achieve this ranking through 2017. In 1863, William Worrall Mayo came to Rochester, from Salford in Lancashire, England, as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the American Civil War; the city was to his liking, his wife and children joined him in early 1864. On January 27, 1864, William Worrall Mayo advertised in the Rochester City Post the opening of a private medical partnership "over the Union Drug Store on Third Street" with "all calls answered by day or night". Both of W. W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo grew up in Rochester and, when old enough, both attended medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, with Charles joining after he completed his training in 1888. On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries.
One-third of the town was destroyed. The relief efforts began with a temporary hospital being established at Rommell's Hall, the doctors Mayo as well as other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of Saint Francis were called in to act as nurses despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical experience. After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W. W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester. Mayo agreed to work in the hospital and soon other local doctors agreed as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Mary's Hospital was opened by the Sisters. W. W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians at the hospital, his two sons began performing surgeries at the hospital. In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked Augustus Stinchfield, whom he considered to be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice. After Stinchfield agreed, W. W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the practice continued to grow.
The founders of Mayo Clinic are the Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W. W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo Properties Association, their private practice became a not-for-profit entity; the founders gave the Clinic furnishings to this newly formed association. The integrated practice model developed by Plummer created a foundation for what would grow into Mayo Clinic; as the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914, the partners planned and built a new clinic building. Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building, as well as for the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building, the 1954 Mayo Clinic building, the 2002 Gonda building. In 1914, under the guidance of Henry Plummer, the new building allowed the integrated group medical practice concept to be expressed.
Many innovative medical systems and equipment were incorporated into the building design. Plummer worked with Frederic Maass, of Maass & McAndrew, to design and fabricate many of the building systems innovations like the steam sterilization rooms, metal surgical tools and equipment, pneumatic tube system, knee operated sinks, a state of the art HVAC system; the air exchange rate for the building was three minutes. One intriguing innovation was the Rookwood fountain in the main lobby, designed to clean and humidify air from the outside, it heated and humidified air in the winter, provided cool air in the summer. To fight infection, steam sterilizer rooms were designed to hold much of the operating rooms metal surgical furniture and equipment; these and other aseptic procedures helped bring the overall patient infection rates down. Until 1919 the Mayo Clinic was operated as a for-profit medical practice. In 1919, the Mayo brothers donated the clinic property and significant amounts of their wealth to develop the Mayo Properties Association.
The Association became the Mayo Clinic Foundation. The result of this was that the Mayo Clinic became a non-profit medical practice in 1920. In 1928, the Plummer Building was completed wit
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo was a British-American medical doctor and chemist. He is best known for establishing the private medical practice that evolved into the Mayo Clinic, he was a descendant of John Mayow. His sons, William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo, established a joint medical practice in Rochester in the U. S. state of Minnesota in the 1880s. William Worall Mayo was born in Salford, Lancashire and studied science in Manchester under John Dalton, the chemist and physicist responsible for formulating the modern atomic theory of matter and devising a table of relative atomic weights. Mayo left for the U. S. in 1846. His first work in his new country was as a pharmacist at Bellevue Hospital in New York City, though he soon moved westward. Mayo spent a brief period of time in Buffalo, New York, before settling in Lafayette, where he worked as a tailor, he returned to medicine in 1849, assisting in a cholera outbreak and attending courses at Indiana Medical College in La Porte, Indiana. Although the training there would be considered mediocre by modern standards, the school did have a microscope, an uncommon tool at the time.
Knowledge of how to use this instrument proved to be useful in Mayo's future practice. It is a matter of debate whether Mayo graduated from the Indiana Medical College. William Mayo stated orally that he graduated from the Indiana Medical College, his graduation date from the Indiana Medical College has been reported as February 14, 1850. However, no documentation of his graduation exists and he is not listed in the Indiana Medical School list of graduates for that year, he attended and graduated from the University of Missouri on February 28, 1854 with a degree in medicine. In 1851, Mayo married Louise Abigail Wright, two years they had their first child, Gertrude. Around this time, Mayo left for a winter to work as an assistant at the University of Missouri's medical department, he returned in 1854, but contracted malaria and decided to leave the Lafayette area, saying, "I'm going to keep on driving until I get well or die." Mayo found his way to Minnesota, which he thought would have a more healthful climate and where he did recover from malaria.
He settled in Saint Paul, but returned to Indiana a short time to bring his family to the Minnesota territory. Mayo found his way to the present-day area of Duluth where he worked as a census-taker, he brought his family to a village named Cronan's Precinct along the Minnesota River where he became known as the "Little Doctor" because of his 5-foot-4-inch stature. Mayo tried his hand at a number of different activities including farming, operating a ferry service, serving as a justice of the peace in addition to occasional medical duties. By this time, he had two more daughters in his family and Sarah. After a flood in 1859, the family moved to a home on Main Street in Le Sueur. There, he set up his first official medical practice, but the flow of patients was too meager to support the family. Mayo took to publishing a short-lived newspaper, the Le Sueur Courier, which only lasted about three months, he spent time working on a steamboat. The family saw its first male addition, William James Mayo, in 1861.
As the American Civil War began that same year, Mayo attempted to procure a commission as a military surgeon, but was rejected. Nonetheless, he found his way into military medicine as the Dakota War of 1862 erupted in southwest Minnesota in late 1862. Organizing a group of people from Le Sueur and St. Peter, Mayo headed out to New Ulm, where some of the worst fighting had occurred. Makeshift hospitals in the city cared for people injured in the conflict, as well as refugees driven from farms in the area, his wife opened her home and a nearby barn to harbor eleven refugee families back in Le Sueur. In hopes of getting a body for dissection, among other medical men, attended the hanging of 38 Native Americans in December 1862 for their role in the uprising. Mayo was given the body of Cut Nose. On April 24, 1863, Dr Mayo was named examining surgeon for the 1st Minnesota draft board headquartered in Rochester, Minnesota, he left his family for that position and soon found the new city to his liking, so they joined him there in early 1864.
A year his son Charles Horace Mayo was born. Dr Mayo opened a solo medical practice in Rochester in 1863, he partnered with Dr W. A. Hyde from February to June 1864 before going back to solo practice. In November 1867, Dr Mayo entered into a partnership with pharmacist O. W. Anderson, which lasted until November 1869 when Dr Mayo left heading for Pennsylvania and New York City to study surgical techniques. Dr Mayo's first foray into politics was in 1872 when he made a speech to expose local corruption, which ended poorly and Dr Mayo left for St Paul. In 1874, Dr Mayo re-entered local politics. Dr Mayo advocated for a municipal water supply, served on the local Health Board. In the 1880s, Dr Mayo was elected to city mayor and was a member of the school board; as Mayor, he oversaw the planning of the first City Hall. He was a Democrat. By now, the number of patients was large enough to support the family with no need for him to assume additional jobs. In the 1890s, Dr Mayo advocated unsuccessfully to create an artificial lake by damming Bear Creek where it enters the Zumbro River.
The event, credited with beginning the "Mayo Clinic Story" happened on August 21, 1883, when a tornado devastated Rochester. The most
Rochester is a city founded in 1854 in the U. S. State of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County located on the Zumbro River's south fork in Southeast Minnesota, it is Minnesota's third-largest city and the largest city located outside the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of 2015, the Rochester metropolitan area has a population of 215,884. According to the 2010 United States Census the city has a population of 106,769; the U. S. Census Bureau estimated that the 2017 population was 115,733, it is the home of the Mayo Clinic and an IBM facility one of the company's largest. The city has long been rated as one of the best places to live in the United States by multiple publications such as Money; the area developed as a stagecoach stop between Saint Paul and Dubuque, Iowa near the Zumbro River. The community was founded by George Head and his wife Henrietta who built log cabin Head's Tavern in 1854 and named the city after his hometown of Rochester, New York; when the Winona and St Peter Railroad initiated service in October 1864, it brought new residents and business opportunities further spurring growth and expansion.
In 1863, Dr. William W. Mayo arrived as the examining surgeon for Union draftees in the Civil War. Rochester celebrated its sesquicentennial in 2004. On August 21, 1883, the Great Tornado demolished much of Rochester, leaving 37 dead and 200 injured; as there was no medical facility in the immediate area at the time, Dr. Mayo and his two sons worked together to care for the wounded. Donations of US$60,000 were collected and the Sisters of St. Francis, assisted by Mayo, opened a new facility named St. Marys Hospital in 1889; the Mayo practice grew and is today among the largest and most well-respected medical facilities in the world. Many notable people from around the world, including former Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, George H. W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, have visited Rochester as patients of the Mayo Clinic. Rochester has been hit by two F4 tornadoes since 1950. Rochester lies alongside the South Fork of the Zumbro River, 57.6 miles long and is ringed by gentle hills and surrounded by farmland within a deciduous forest biome.
The Zumbro Watershed flows through 1,422 square miles of urban lands. Located in southeast Minnesota, the City of Rochester falls within the Driftless Area: the only region in North America, never glaciated and contains deeply-carved river valleys; the rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.75 square miles, of which 54.59 square miles of it is land and 0.16 square miles is water. The city is located 85 miles southeast of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Rochester is in one of only four counties in Minnesota without a natural lake. Artificial lakes exist in the area, including Silver Lake, a dammed portion of the South Fork Zumbro River just below the convergence with Silver Creek near the city center. Silver Lake was once used as a cooling pond when the coal-burning power plant was operated by Rochester Public Utilities at the lake.
When operational, the RPU coal plant's heated water output prevented the lake from freezing over during the winter months. Rochester has an extensive parks system, the largest of which are Silver Lake and Soldiers Field in the central part of the city. A major flood in 1978 led the city to embark on an expensive and successful flood-control project that involved altering many nearby rivers and streams; the Zumbro river flowing through the center of the city is presently being readdressed for increased development and use as part of city planning in conjunction with funding from the Destination Medical Center project. Rochester features a humid continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters; the city features four distinct seasons. Rochester sees on 48 inches of snowfall per year. Significant snow accumulation is common during the winter months. Spring and fall are transitional seasons, with a general warming trend during the spring and a general cooling trend during the fall. However, it is not uncommon to see some snowfall during the early months of spring and the months of fall.
Rochester is the second windiest city in the United States, with wind speeds averaging 12.6 mph. January to April are the windiest months on average, according to The Weather Channel; as of the census of 2010, there were 106,769 people, 43,025 households, 26,853 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,955.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 45,683 housing units at an average density of 836.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.0% White, 6.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 6.8% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, the 2005–2007 American Community Survey found German Americans to be the largest single ethnic group in Rochester, making up 35.5% of the city's population. Norwegian Americans made up 15.9%, while Irish Americans contributed to 11.6% of the city's populace. English Americans made up 8.2% of the populatio