Perth Airport is a domestic and international airport serving Perth, the capital and largest city of Western Australia. It is the fourth busiest airport in Australia measured by passenger movements and falls within the boundaries of the City of Belmont, City of Kalamunda and the City of Swan. Perth Airport and Jandakot Airport, the other civilian airport within the Perth metropolitan area, recorded a combined total of 362,782 aircraft movements in 2017. If these two metropolitan airports were to be combined into a single airport it would be the busiest airport in Australia measured by aircraft movements. Since 1997, it has been operated by Perth Airport Pty Limited, a private company under a 99-year lease from the Commonwealth Government; the airport saw strong passenger growth from 2000 to 2012 due to the state's prolonged mining boom and an increase in traffic from international low-cost carrier airlines. By the end of June 2012, Perth Airport experienced passenger growth of 11.7% internationally and 6.9% domestically, resulting in an overall increase of 10.3%.
Passenger numbers trebled in the 10 years from 2002 to 2012 with more than 12.6 million people travelling through the airport in 2012. Since 2012, the winding down of the mining boom has seen the demand for both intra- and interstate services contract, with domestic passengers falling from a peak of 9.9 million to 9.5 million by the end of June 2016. The growth in passenger numbers since 2012 has been wholly due to expansion of international services from the city; the first mining boom in 1979 had 679,000 passengers use the airport. This number now travels through the airport every eighteen days; as well as passenger movements however, complaints about the impact of the airport on the residents of Perth have grown. The City of Canning, one area, affected, accepts that “aircraft noise is an important issue” and that “aircraft noise does impact on those suburbs under the flightpaths.” Another affected area, the City of Swan, “has experienced significant issues.” Indeed, planning policy adopted by the Government of Western Australia recognises that some aircraft noise is “not compatible with residential or educational” land use.
In 2012, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission released a report rating the Perth Airport as the worst in Australia, as judged by airlines. The same report rated it below satisfactory for the second year in a row. However, due to recent expansions and projects, the airport was awarded Capital City airport of the year by the Australian Airports Association at their national conference in 2016. In 2018, Perth Airport was named the best airport in Australia for overall service quality by the ACCC after the completion of a $1 billion redevelopment project over the span of 5 years; the first direct service from Oceania to Europe was started in 2018, with Qantas operating daily flights to London Heathrow and back using a Boeing 787-9 from Perth. The airport is located 10 km east of the Perth central business district, it is one of two civilian airports within the Perth metropolitan area, the other being Jandakot Airport. Besides the civilian airports, there are two military airports within the Perth metropolitan area.
The larger of the two is 30 km to the north of Perth Airport, at Bullsbrook. The other is 42 km south east of Perth Airport, is a part of the military base of HMAS Stirling on Garden Island. Prior to the opening of the Perth Airport, civilian air services for the city were provided from Maylands Airport located in Maylands, as well as on the city's foreshore at Langley Park. By the end of the 1930s, it became clear that the Maylands Aerodrome was limited in the size and speed of aircraft it was able to handle thus causing them to seek an alternative site for a future airport. Site selection and preparation of the original plans was undertaken by Mr N M Fricker of the Department of Civil Aviation. In 1938, land was purchased for the new aerodrome; the site selected in what was at the time Guildford, was an area of land granted by Governor James Stirling to local man John Scott, which became the long disused Dunreath Golf Course. A plaque located on a roadside wall of the old International terminal remains in permanent memory of Scott: Even before civil aviation operations could commence at the new site, the onset of World War II saw the facility being redesigned for military purposes as a temporary base for the Royal Australian Air Force and United States Navy, known as "RAAF Station Guildford" to supplement RAAF Base Pearce.
Royal Australian Air Force No. 85 Squadron was based there from February 1943. Despite military use of the airfield, civil services operated by Qantas Empire Airways and Australian National Airways commenced from the location in 1944; this was despite bitter protest from military authorities who felt civilian operations would undermine the defence and camouflage needs of the location. The move was agreed to by the government of the day, as the larger types of aircraft of the day being operated by the two airlines could not be handled at Maylands, notwithstanding the small grass airfield, lack of passenger facilities, approaches being difficult due to surrounding industrial infrastructure. Using Douglas DC-3 aircraft, ANA flew the first commercial service from the aerodrome to Adelaide. On 17 June 1944, Qantas made its inaugural flight to Ceylon via Exmouth using a modified Liberator bomber, arriving in Perth on 3 June 1944 having been released to the airline by the British Government. Full civilian operations at the Guildford Aerodrome commenced in 1944.
Civil operations at Maylands continued albeit reduced
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
National Highway (Australia)
The National Highway is a system of roads connecting all mainland states and territories of Australia, is the major network of highways and motorways connecting Australia's capital cities and major regional centres. National funding for roads began in the 1920s, with the federal government contributing to major roads managed by the state and territory governments. However, the Federal Government did not fund any roads until 1974, when the Whitlam Government introduced the National Roads Act 1974. Under the act, the states were still responsible for road construction and maintenance, but were compensated for money spent on approved projects. In 1977, the 1974 Act was replaced by the State Grants Act 1977, which contained similar provisions for the definition of "National Highways". In 1988, the National Highway became redefined under the Australian Land Transport Development Act 1988, which had various amendments up to 2003; the 1988 Act was concerned with funding road development in cooperation with the state governments.
The federal transport minister defined the components of the National Highway, a category of "Road of National Importance", with federal funding implications. Section 10.5 of the Act required the state road authorities to place frequent, signs on the National Highways and RONI projects funded by the federal government. In 2005, the National Highway became the National Land Transport Network, under the AusLink Act 2005; the criteria for inclusion in the network was similar to the previous legislation, but expanded to include connections to major commercial centres, inter-modal facilities. All of the roads included in National Land Transport Network as of 2005 were formally defined by regulation in October 2005; the Minister for Transport may alter the list of roads included in the network. Three amendments to the scheduled list of roads have been made, in February 2007, September 2008 and February 2009; the third variation, published in February 2009, is current as of September 2012. Under AusLink a program that operated between July 2004 and 2009, the AusLink National Network had additional links, both road and rail.
The Federal Government encouraged funding from state and local governments and public–private partnerships to upgrade the network and requires state government funding contributions on parts of the network for new links. For example, the Pacific Highway and the Calder Highway are part of the National Network, yet new projects are being funded 50/50 by federal and state governments. State contributions are required on some sections of the old network near major cities; the various superseded Acts defined National Highways as roads, or a series of connected roads, that were the primary connection between two State or Territory capital cities, as well as between Brisbane and Cairns, between Hobart and Burnie. The Melbourne-Devonport ferry route is sometimes described colloquially as the'sea highway', providing a link from Tasmania to the rest of the country by road; the 16,000 kilometres of roads included in the original National Highway system had large variations in road quality. Some sections were no more than dirt tracks, whilst others were four lane dual carriageways.
While 12,496 kilometres was sealed, there was 3,807 kilometres worth of gravel roads. The National Highway was improved, with the sealed proportion increased from 73 per cent in the early 1970s to 88 per cent by 1981; the sealing works were completed in 1989. Since 2005, National Highways were no longer defined in federal legislation. However, the routes were marked with a National Highway route marker up until 2013; these markers have "NATIONAL" printed in the upper portion of the shield, above the highway's number. The shield and number are coloured yellow while the background is dark green – the national colours of Australia. In 2014, the route makers retained the national colours, although the word "NATIONAL" was removed in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, parts of both Queensland and Victoria. National Highway numbering originates from the earlier national route network. Many of the routes that are now National Highways with the signature green and gold shields, continue beyond the official National Highway as the black and white shielded national routes.
Certain stretches of the National Highways have "A" and "M" tag on their shields. They have revised their route numbering, basing it on the British M, A, B, C classifications; these states have retained the original National Highway numbering and shield decal, having added the appropriate M and A classification. Sydney to Melbourne – Hume Motorway/Hume Highway/Hume Freeway Sydney to Brisbane – the Pacific Motorway, New England and Cunningham Highways route and the Pacific Highway route Brisbane to Cairns – Bruce Highway Brisbane to Darwin – Warrego, Landsborough and Stuart Highways Brisbane to Melbourne – Warrego, Gore and Goulburn Valley Highways and Hume Freeway Melbourne to Adelaide – Western Freeway, Western Highway, Dukes Highway and South Eastern Freeway Adelaide to Darwin – Port Wakefield Road, Augusta Highway and Stuart Highway Adelaide to Sydney – Sturt and Hume Highway/Hume Motorway Adelaide to Perth – Port Wakefield Road, Augusta Highway, Coolgardie-Esperance and Great Eastern Highways Perth to Darwin – Great Northern and Stuart Highways Sydney to Canberra – Hume Motorway/Hume Highway and Federal Highway Melbourne to Canberra – Hume Freeway/Hume Highway and Barton Highway Hobart to Burnie including the link from Launceston to Bell Bay – Brooker, Mi
Curtin University is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. It is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students. Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia and Mauritius, it has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres, it had a Sydney campus from 2005 to 2016. Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network, is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy and Communication, Health and Well-being and Changing Environments and Prosperity and Creative Writing, it is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.
Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business and research projects in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals and natural gas; the Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005. Curtin University was founded in 1966 as the Western Australian Institute of Technology, its nucleus comprised the tertiary programs of the Perth Technical College, which opened in 1900. Curtin University's current site in Bentley was selected in 1962, opened in 1966; the first students enrolled the following year. In 1969, three more institutions were merged with WAIT: the Western Australian School of Mines, the Muresk Agricultural College, the Schools of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy. Between 1966 and 1976 WAIT experienced an expansion from 2,000 to 10,000 students.
In December 1986 the Western Australian Institute of Technology was made a university, under provisions of the WA Institute of Technology Amendment Act 1986. Curtin University took its name from the former Prime Minister of John Curtin. Curtin accepted its first students as a university in 1987. In 2005, Curtin and Murdoch University were engaged in a feasibility study into the possibility of a merger. However, on 7 November 2005, both institutions announced. In 2009, Curtin became the first university in the Australian Technology Network to be listed on the Academic Ranking of World Universities of research universities. In 2010, Curtin dropped the "of Technology" suffix, from operating as "Curtin University"; the legal name remains Curtin University of Technology until the Act under which it operates is amended by the Western Australian parliament. Curtin has three smaller off-site campuses within the Perth metropolitan area; the Graduate School of Business building is located in the Perth Central Business District in the renovated former Government Printing Office and the law school is located on Murray Street in the old Public Health Department and Chief Secretary's building, a listed building on the State Register of Heritage Places.
Exploration Geophysics and Petroleum Engineering are located at the co-location research facilities of the Australian Resources Research Centre which houses offices of CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering and National Measurement Institute. The ARRC is located in the Technology Park Belmont, adjacent to the main Bentley campus; some University staff and students on practicum work in other locations such as the Oral Health Centre of WA in Nedlands and at Royal Perth Hospital, amongst other organisations. Curtin has campuses outside Perth, the largest being the Western Australian School of Mines at Kalgoorlie, a number of micro-campuses in locations such as Esperance, Margaret River and Geraldton. Nursing is the only course offered in Geraldton; the Muresk Institute at Northam left Curtin in 2012. In April 2017 Curtin University established its newest campus in Dubai at Dubai International Academic City. Australian Ambassador to the UAE HE Arthur Spyrou opened the campus on 10 September 2017.
Curtin University Dubai courses use the same structure and unit curriculum as those offered at the Bentley campus. Curtin University Dubai is accredited by the Knowledge and Human Development Authority-KHDA; the Academic qualifications granted by Curtin University is certified by KHDA and is recognised in the Emirate of Dubai by all public and private entities. The campus in Miri, Malaysia, is a significant development for the university and is Curtin's largest international campus. Curtin's operations in Miri began in February 1999. In 2002, a purpose-built campus was opened as Curtin's first offshore campus and the first foreign university campus in East Malaysia, it has around 4,000 students from over 45 countries, academics from more than 15 countries. Curtin Malaysia is the only approved CISCO Networking University in Brunei. Curtin University opened a Singapore-based campus on 23 November 2008. Curtin Singapore cour
Albany Highway links Western Australia's capital city Perth with its oldest settlement, Albany, on the state's south coast. The 405-kilometre-long highway travels through the southern Wheatbelt and Great Southern regions, is designated State Route 30 for most of its length. Outside of Perth the highway is predominately a sealed, single carriageway with regular overtaking lanes in some undulating areas. Albany Highway commences at The Causeway, a river crossing that connects to Perth's central business district; the highway heads south-east through Perth's metropolitan region, bypassed in part by Shepparton Road and Kenwick Link, continues south-eastwards through to Albany. It intersects several major roads in Perth, including the Leach, Tonkin and South Western highways; the rural section of Albany Highway connects to important regional roads at the few towns and roadhouses along the route, including Coalfields Highway at Arthur River, Great Southern Highway at Cranbrook, Muirs Highway at Mount Barker.
Prior to European settlement, the indigenous Noongar people had a considerable network of tracks, including a trade route between the areas now known as Perth and Albany. Construction of a road between Perth and Albany began soon after the naming of Albany in 1832, but progress was slow, with only 16 miles completed by 1833. A monthly mail route which operated in the 1840s had such trouble with the journey that a new contractor was required each year, from 1847 the mail route detoured via Bunbury; the introduction of convicts in 1850, thus convict labour, allowed a road along the direct route to be constructed by 1863. The rise of the motor vehicle era in the early 20th century saw the road gain prominence once more, by 1939 the whole road had been sealed. Congestion at the Perth end of the road in the 1930s led to parallel roads Berwick Street and Shepparton Road being upgraded to provide bypasses; the entire Perth−Albany road was renamed Albany Highway on 2 October 1940, in recognition of its importance as an arterial traffic route.
From the late 1970s, $49 million over ten years was spent on repairing Albany Highway, the experience saw Main Roads develop a program of interventions to prevent costly road reconstruction. Since the 1990s Main Roads has been upgrading various portions along the length of Albany Highway, including widening sections to dual carriageways in Perth, the construction of the Kenwick Link bypass. Albany Highway commences at The Causeway, a river crossing that connects to Perth's central business district; the highway heads south-east through Perth's metropolitan region, continues through the southern Wheatbelt and Great Southern regions to Albany on the south coast of Western Australia. Albany Highway is a two-lane single carriageway road, but with additional lanes and dual-carriageway sections in Perth and Albany; the highway is allocated State Route 30, except for bypassed sections in Perth, the southernmost portion in Albany. The part bypassed by Kenwick Link is allocated Alternate State Route 30, a short length in Arthur River is concurrently allocated State Route 107.
Albany Highway carries sections of Heritage Country Tourist Drive and Great Southern Tourist Way. Main Roads Western Australia monitors traffic volume across the state's road network, including various locations along Albany Highway. In the 2013/14 financial year, the recorded traffic volumes ranged between 3880 and 70,690 vehicles per weekday in Perth, 1980 to 3880 in the Wheatbelt, 1720 to 5120 in the Great Southern; the highest percentage of heavy traffic was 29.2%, south of Jarrahdale Road in the Wheatbelt. Reports commissioned by the Royal Automobile Club of Western Australia in 2006 and 2008 gave the majority of the highway a three-star safety rating out of five, with an 20-kilometre-long section south-east of Armadale rated at a two star level; the overall highway network was rated as three-star or four-star, but around 10% in 2006 and 5% in 2008 received a two-star rating. In Perth, Albany Highway's north-western terminus is at a parclo interchange with The Causeway, Shepparton Road, Great Eastern and Canning Highways in Victoria Park.
The first 200 metres of the road is one-way into the interchange, but only connecting to The Causeway and Canning Highway – there is no direct access to the other roads. For the next four kilometres, the highway is a two-lane, two-way high street serving Victoria Park's town centre, continuing south-east through East Victoria Park; the nearby four-lane Shepperton Road serves as a bypass, carrying through-traffic as well as State Route 30. The two roads converge at an intersection with Welshpool Road, for 15 kilometres Albany Highway serves as an arterial route in Perth's south-eastern suburbs, varying between a single carriageway and dual carriageway, between a four- and six-lane capacity; this part of the highway is dominated by commercial shopping precincts in Bentley, Maddington and Kelmscott, with numerous sets of traffic lights. The section of Albany Highway through Beckenham and Kenwick is allocated Alternate State Route 30, while State Route 30 follows a bypass, Kenwick Link. Albany Highway has a folded diamond interchange with Tonkin Highway in Gosnells, continues south for seven kilometres past commercial and residential properties in Kelmscott and Mount Nasura.
The highway has a T junction, the western terminus of Brookton Highway, at the boundary between Kelmscott, Mount Nasura. Further south in Armadale, the highway intersects the eastern end of Armadale Road and northern end of South Western Highway. Albany Highway proceeds east and south from Armadale, around the suburb of Mount Ri
High Street, Fremantle
High Street is the main street running through the City of Fremantle, Western Australia. The street passes by historic landmarks, including the Round House, the Fremantle Town Hall, the Fremantle War Memorial, through the Fremantle West End Heritage area and through two town squares. Trams operated along High Street for 47 years, between 1905 and 1952. Running east–west, High Street continues as Leach Highway, a major arterial road, at Stirling Highway, linking Fremantle with Perth Airport although the stretch of road between Stirling Highway and Carrington Street is known locally—and signed—as High Street. Within twelve years of Fremantle being settled in 1829, High Street was considered the main road of the area; the street was named by the Surveyor-General of Western Australia John Septimus Roe, in line with the traditional naming of main streets in England. The east-west route linked the Round House at Arthur Head to Saint John's Church of England in Kings Square. High Street was first paved in 1858 with Yorkshire flagstones.
In 1881, the extension of High Street commenced after Saint John's Church sold land for the Fremantle Town Hall, a right of way through Kings Square, to the Fremantle City Council. In the 1960s, High Street was closed to traffic and made into a pedestrian mall between Queen Street and Market Street; this was carried out as part of a traffic management plan for Fremantle, which reinstated Kings Square as a town square, turned the streets around the square into a one way rotary. A plan for an electric tram network in Fremantle was submitted to the City Council in July 1897, that included routes along High Street. However, there was some opposition to the plans from local residents; the details of the tramway scheme were not finalised until June 1904. The Fremantle and East Fremantle councils financed the project through a loan of 80,000 pounds; the first trial runs of trams along High Street were on 30 September 1905, with the system opening on 30 October of that year. Trams operated along High Street until 1952.
The trams were taken out of service due to their economic costs and to relieve traffic congestion on roads. The last tram service operated was on 8 November 1952; the street begins at the intersection of Leach Highway and Carrington Street, at Fremantle's eastern edge. It travels west as the continuation of State Route 7, meeting Stirling Highway after 1.4 kilometres, at the highway's southern terminus. This stretch of road between Carrington Street and Stirling Highway is a part of Leach Highway; the road continues west for another 600 metres, until it reaches Monument Hill at its intersection with East Street and Swanbourne Street. From there it turns south-west, reaching Ord Street after 300 metres, the western terminus of State Route 7. High Street continues south-west, after 400 metres, through Queens Square, a set of four squares around High Street's intersection with Parry Street. Another 230 metres along is the north-eastern edge of Kings Square. High Street is a pedestrian mall through Kings square, for another 100 metres west of the square, until Market Street.
South-west from this point, the street is one-way for 400 metres. The road's terminus is only 65 metres further along, at Little High Street, adjacent to the Round House. High Street is lined by a significant number of heritage buildings between the Round House and where it becomes a pedestrian mall, at Market Street just west of the Fremantle Town Hall; the buildings include: 1 High Street – Fremantle Municipal Tramways Car Barn 4 High Street – Union Bank 6 High Street – Hotel Fremantle 7 High Street – Bank of New South Wales 9 – 23 High Street – Owston's Buildings 22 High Street – Westpac Building 25 High Street – P&O Hotel 28–36 High Street – Adelec Buildings 35 High Street – Athena Lodge 38–50 High Street – Marich Buildings 39 High Street – Orient Hotel 41–47 High Street – Union Stores Building 61–63 High Street – Central Chambers 80 High Street – Commercial Hotel 81–83 High Street – R. S. L. Club 84 High Street – ANZ Bank Building 98 High Street – National Hotel 101 High Street – Higham's BuildingsAt the town hall the pedestrian mall is crossed by the intersection of Adelaide and William streets it continues through Kings Square until it reaches Queen Street.
The section of road through Kings Square is used for festivals and markets. From Queens Street, High Street continues east. Along this section of the road there are a number of further significant places including: 160 High Street – Dalkeith House 177 High Street – Oriana Cinema 179 High Street – Victoria Hall 186 High Street – Lenaville 200 High Street – Fremantle Grammar School High & Swanborne – Fremantle War Memorial High & Carrington – Fremantle Cemetery Leach Highway east / Carrington Street Stirling Highway north East Street north / Swanbourne Street south Ord Street Parry Street Queen Street Adelaide Street north-east / William Street south-east Market Street Cliff Street Little High Street Australian Roads portal Route descriptionGoogle. "High Street, Fremantle". Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 19 November 2012