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Lead vocalist

The lead vocalist in popular music is the member of a group or band whose voice is the most prominent melody in a performance where multiple voices may be heard. The lead singer sets his or her voice against the accompaniment parts of the ensemble as the dominant sound. In vocal group performances, notably in soul and gospel music, early rock and roll, the lead singer takes the main vocal melody, with a chorus or harmony vocals provided by other band members as backing vocalists. Lead vocalists incorporate some movement or gestures into their performance, some may participate in dance routines during the show in pop music; some lead vocalists play an instrument during the show, either in an accompaniment role, or playing a lead instrument/instrumental solo role when they are not singing. The lead singer typically guides the vocal ensemble and band with visual cues to indicate changes of tempo or dynamics, stops or pauses, the starts of new sections; the lead vocalist typically speaks to the audience between songs, to give information about the songs, introduce the band members, develop a rapport with the audience.

The lead vocalist may play a leadership role in rehearsals, unless there is a bandleader who takes on this role. If the lead singer is a singer-songwriter, she or he may write some or all of the lyrics or create entire songs. An example of a lead vocalist in rock music is Freddie Mercury from Queen. In soul music, Smokey Robinson was the lead singer of The Miracles. There may be two or more lead vocalists in a band, as with Fleetwood Mac or ABBA; the lead vocalist may be called the main vocalist, lead vocals, or lead singer. In rock music, the lead singer or solo singer is the front man or front woman, who may play one or more instruments and is seen as the leader or spokesman of the band by the public, it is uncertain when the term "lead vocals" was first used, but it may have emerged in the late 1930s, when rich vocal interplay with multiple voices where one or more voices may dominate began to impact on North American popular music, dominated by solo vocals. The practice of using a lead singer in vocal groups, has a longer history: an early form is the "call and response" found in work songs and spirituals sung by African-American slaves.

Songs of the late nineteenth century used a leading solo voice, followed by a choral response by other singers. As the style developed through early commercial recordings and performances in the early 20th century, the role of the lead vocalist became more established, although popular groups of the 1930s and 1940s such as the Ink Spots and the Mills Brothers used different lead singers on different songs rather than keeping the same lead singer throughout. By the 1950s, singers such as Sam Cooke and Clyde McPhatter took on more defined roles as lead singers, by the end of the decade credited group names changed to reflect the leading roles of the main vocalists, with examples such as Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers and Dion & the Belmonts. Academic David Horn has written:The influence of US rhythm and blues recordings may well be a crucial one in the assimilation of the format of lead singer plus backing group into the guitar-based British'beat' groups of the 1960s, in US groups such as The Beach Boys.

From these various points - including Motown - it went on to become a standard device in much rock and pop music. In some bands - most famously, The Beatles - the role of lead singer alternated, while in others - for example, Herman's Hermits - one lead singer dominated. There are as many styles of lead singer as there are styles and genres of music. However, the lead singer of a group or band is the main focus of audiences' attention; the lead vocalist of band is sometimes called the "front man" or "front woman", as the most visible performer in a group. While most bands have a singular lead singer, many others have dual lead singers, or other member of the band that sing lead on particular songs. While the lead singer defines the group's image and personality to the general public, this is not always the case. In modern rock music, the lead singer is but not always the band's leader and spokesperson. While lead singers or spokespersons for any musical ensembles can be called a front man, the term is used widely in rock music.

Since the position has an expanded role from simple lead vocalists, there have been cases in which the front man for a band is someone other than the lead vocalist. For example, while the lead vocalist for the band Fall Out Boy is guitarist Patrick Stump, the bassist and lyricist, Pete Wentz, is called the front man, both in the media and by the band members themselves, since he represents the band in most interviews and contributes most to the band's image in the popular media. Another example is Angus Young of AC/DC, the band's lead guitarist, co-leader with his brother Malcolm Young. In many bands, such as The Who

English ship Aid (1562)

Aid or Ayde was an 18-gun ship of the Royal Navy. She was built at Deptford Dockyard, being launched on 6 October 1562, she was rebuilt in 1580 and was broken up in 1599. For the majority of her service, she was commanded by Sir Martin Frobisher. Aid was one of three ships built in 1562 due to the threat of war with France, her first duty, in autumn of that year, was to help supply the English garrison at Le Havre. This continued until the port was captured by French loyalist forces from the Huguenots in August the following year. Anthony Jenkinson was sent in Aid to Scotland during the political crisis of the Chaseabout Raid, he sailed into the Firth of Forth on 25 September 1565. Jenkinson had intended to blockade Leith to prevent Lord Seton bringing munitions for Mary, Queen of Scots from France, he was instructed not to declare. An adverse wind brought him within range of the cannon of the fortress isle of Inchkeith and he returned to Berwick-upon-Tweed. Jenkinson's failure resulted in a dispute with the Earl of Bedford, England's leading diplomat in Scottish affairs.

The ship's next major duty was in 1577, when the ship was granted to Martin Frobisher as part of his second expedition what is now the far north islands of Canada. The expedition was made up of Aid, commanded by Frobisher, two barks and Michael, commanded by Edward Fenton and Gilbert Yorke respectively; the fleet, consisting over about 120 men, departed Harwich on 31 May 1577. The expedition brought back 200 tons of ore, although the value of this was less than Frobisher's investors had hoped, they brought back a family of Inuit, but all three. Another voyage ensued, with Frobisher this time taking some fifteen vessels to explore the Northwest Passage, mine ore and establish a manned settlement in the area; the journey was tough, with strong winds and thick ice preventing them from travelling beyond the Hudson Strait, they returned to Frobisher Bay. There, Aid was hulled below the waterline by an ice floe, they abandoned plans to establish a settlement in the area and returned to England with over 1,000 tons of ore.

Aid was rebuilt in 1580 as relations with the Spanish deteriorated. Under the command of Frobisher, Aid was involved in the Siege of Smerwick, as part of the English fleet sent to remove a combined Spanish-Papal force taking refuge at Dún an Óir. Remaining under Frobisher's command, Aid was one of two ships contributed by Queen Elizabeth I to Sir Francis Drake's expedition to the Spanish West Indies in 1585, she was part of Drake's fleet at Plymouth to meet the Spanish Armada, remaining with the fleet from the arrival of the Armada on 31 July until the defeat of the Spanish at the Battle of Gravelines, eight days later. Aid was involved in the ill-fated Counter Armada the following year. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of Discovery and Exploration. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-98415-7

Hadleigh Castle (painting)

Hadleigh Castle is an oil painting by the English painter John Constable. John Constable made a drawing of the castle; this he developed into a full-sized oil sketch in preparation for a finished painting, executed in 1829 and exhibited at the Royal Academy in the same year. The sketch is displayed at the Tate Gallery, while the finished painting now hangs in the Yale Center for British Art at New Haven, United States. Constable's painting, "one of his most monumental works" according to art historians Tammis Groft and Mary Mackay, shows Hadleigh Castle as a decaying man-made structure, succumbing to the elemental power of nature. Groft, Tammis Kane and Mary Alice Mackay. Albany Institute of History & Art: 200 years of collecting. New York: Hudsdon Hills Press. ISBN 978-1-55595-101-6