The Illustrated London News
The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the worlds first illustrated weekly news magazine. Founded by Herbert Ingram, it appeared weekly until 1971, less frequently thereafter, the company continues today as Illustrated London News Ltd, a publishing and digital agency in London, which holds the publication and business archives of the magazine. As a newsagent, Ingram was struck by the increase in newspaper sales when they featured pictures. Ingram began to plan a weekly newspaper that would contain pictures in every edition, Ingram rented an office, recruited artists and reporters, and employed as his editor Frederick William Naylor Bayley, formerly editor of the National Omnibus. The first issue of The Illustrated London News appeared on Saturday,14 May 1842, Ingram hired 200 men to carry placards through the streets of London promoting the first edition of his new newspaper. Costing sixpence, the first issue sold 26,000 copies, despite this initial success, sales of the second and subsequent editions were disappointing.
Its circulation soon increased to 40,000 and by the end of its first year was 60,000, in 1851, after the newspaper published Joseph Paxtons designs for the Crystal Palace before even Prince Albert had seen them, the circulation rose to 130,000. Andrew Spottiswoodes Pictorial Times lost £20,000 before it was sold to Ingram by Henry Vizetelly, Ingram folded it into another purchase, The Ladys Newspaper, which became The Ladys Newspaper and Pictorial Times. Vitezelly was behind a competitor, The Illustrated Times in 1855. Ingrams other early collaborators left the business in the 1850s, nathanial Cooke, his business partner and brother-in-law, found himself in a subordinate role in the business and parted on bad terms around 1854. 1858 saw the departure of William Little, who, in addition to providing a loan of £10,000, was printer and publisher of the paper for 15 years, littles relationship with Ingram deteriorated over Ingrams harassment of their mutual sister-in-law. By 1863, The Illustrated London News was selling more than 300,000 copies every week, the death of Herbert and his eldest son left the company without a director and manager.
Control passed to Ingrams widow Ann, and his friend Sir Edward William Watkin, once Ingrams two younger sons and Charles, were old enough, they took over as managing directors, although it was William who took the lead. It was a period of expansion and increased competition for the ILN, as reading habits and the illustrated news market changed, the ILN bought or established a number of new publications, evolving from a single newspaper to a larger-scale publishing business. As with Herbert Ingrams purchases in the 1850s, this expansion was a way of managing competition, dominating markets. As too with the acquisitions of the 1850s, several similar illustrated publications were established in this period by former employees of The Illustrated London News. Serious competition for the ILN appeared in 1869, with the establishment of The Graphic, Thomas was a former wood engraver for The Illustrated London News, and brought his expertise in illustrated publishing to his new magazine. The Graphic was highly popular, particularly for its coverage of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, William Ingram became chief proprietor of The Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, and The Ladys Pictorial, which may have been a title of The Ladys Newspaper and Pictorial Times
Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London built in 1886–1894. The bridge crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London and has become a symbol of London. Tower Bridge is one of five London bridges now owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates and it is the only one of the Trusts bridges not to connect the City of London directly to the Southwark bank, as its northern landfall is in Tower Hamlets. The vertical components of the forces in the sections and the vertical reactions of the two walkways are carried by the two robust towers. The bascule pivots and operating machinery are housed in the base of each tower, before its restoration in the 2010s, the bridges colour scheme dated from 1977, when it was painted red and blue for Queen Elizabeth IIs Silver Jubilee. Its colours were restored to blue and white. The nearest National Rail stations are at Fenchurch Street and London Bridge, in the second half of the 19th century, an advertisement in the East End of London led to a hiring for a new river crossing downstream of London Bridge.
A Special Bridge or Subway Committee was formed in 1877, chaired by Sir Albert Joseph Altman and it opened the design of the crossing to public competition. Over 50 designs were submitted, including one from civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette, an Act of Parliament was pasesd in 1885 authorising the bridges construction. It specified the opening span must give a clear width of 61 metres, construction had to be in a Gothic style. Barry designed a bridge with two bridge towers built on piers. The central span was split into two equal bascules or leaves, which could be raised to allow traffic to pass. The two side-spans were suspension bridges, with the suspension rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained within the bridges upper walkways, E W Crutwell was the resident engineer for the construction. Two massive piers, containing over 70,000 tons of concrete, were sunk into the riverbed to support the construction, over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the towers and walkways.
This was clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, both to protect the steelwork and to give the bridge a pleasing appearance. Jones died in 1886 and George D. Stevenson took over the project, the total cost of construction was £1,184,000. The bridge was opened on 30 June 1894 by The Prince of Wales. The bridge connected Iron Gate, on the bank of the river, with Horselydown Lane, on the south – now known as Tower Bridge Approach and Tower Bridge Road
2012 Summer Olympics
It took place in London and to a lesser extent across the United Kingdom from 25 July to 12 August 2012. The first event, the stage in womens football began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated, London is the first and only city thus far to host the modern Olympic Games three times, having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability, the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London. The Games made use of venues that already existed before the bid, the Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, saudi Arabia and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games.
Womens boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors and these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China, several world and Olympic records were set at the games. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a technical evaluation. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February, throughout the process, Paris was widely seen as the favourite, particularly as this was its third bid in recent years. London was initially seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin and its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between London and Paris, on 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities.
They did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive, London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be very close. Perhaps it will come down to a difference of say ten votes, on 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore. Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New York, the final two contenders were London and Paris
2012 Olympic Marathon Course
The 2012 Olympic Marathon Course is that of both the mens and womens marathon races at the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in London. The 42. 195-kilometre route consists of one circuit of 3.571 kilometres followed by three circuits of 12.875 kilometres. The 2012 Summer Olympics is the third to be held in London, the route, as confirmed in October 2010, starts on The Mall about 350 metres from the Victoria Memorial and has four laps, finishing at the start point. It follows the Victoria Embankment towards the City of London where it takes a winding route, at this point there is a U-turn and the route heads westwards, again using the Embankment as far as the Palace of Westminster and thence back to The Mall. The last three laps are identical and are exactly 8 miles each, the first lap, which only incorporates the south-western section of the route, is 2 miles and 385 yards long. The marathon route starts part way along The Mall and, heading away from Buckingham Palace proceeds through Admiralty Arch, a slight turn to the right onto Northumberland Avenue which drops down to near river-level over a distance of 350 metres.
The Embankment is the longest straight stretch in the race, about 1,500 m on the leg and 2,100 m on the return leg. It leads the runners past Cleopatras Needle and the lions that symbolically defend the limits of the City of London. The route passes around the west end of the cathedral, across Paternoster Square, behind St Bartholomews Hospital and eventually along a route including St. Martins Le Grand. On the third lap, runners cross the half way mark within sight of St Mary-le-Bow and within earshot of the Bow Bells. Leaving Cheapside, the route goes through the heart of the City, past the offices of many of the worlds best known banks into the Guildhall Yard. From the Guildhall, the passes the Bank of England at Bank junction and down Cornhill. At the end of Cornhill, continuing onto a portion of Leadenhall Street. Competitors make their way onto Eastcheap, via Fenchurch Street and Gracechurch Street, on Tower Hill, a short distance from the Towers moat, the course makes a U-turn back to Lower Thames Street at the start of the return leg.
Leaving Lower Thames Street, the route reaches The Monument dedicated to the Great Fire of London, an S-bend takes the runners back onto the Victoria Embankment, at the far end of which are the Houses of Parliament. About 600 m before the end of the Embankment they rejoin the route taken on the first lap, on the first lap, runners turn left onto Westminster Bridge, making a U-turn on the bridge before rejoining the main route. On the other laps, runners turn right at the end of the Embankment, as the runners approach the palace, another right turn brings the Victoria Memorial into view. The memorial, at the end of the kilometre-long Mall, brings them past the start line which
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone is the first novel in the Harry Potter series and J. K. Rowlings debut novel, first published in 1997 by Bloomsbury. It was published in the United States as Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone by Scholastic Corporation in 1998. The plot follows Harry Potter, a wizard who discovers his magical heritage as he makes close friends. With the help of his friends, Harry faces an attempted comeback by the dark wizard Lord Voldemort, who killed Harrys parents, the novel won most of the British book awards that were judged by children and other awards in the US. The book reached the top of the New York Times list of best-selling fiction in August 1999 and it has been translated into at least sixty-seven other languages and has been made into a feature-length film of the same name, as have all six of its sequels. Most reviews were favourable, commenting on Rowlings imagination, simple, direct style and clever plot construction. The series has used as a source of object lessons in educational techniques, sociological analysis.
The most evil and powerful wizard in history, Lord Voldemort, murdered James and Lily Potter but mysteriously disappeared after failing to kill their infant son. For ten years, living at number Four Privet Drive, Harry is treated by the Dursleys more like a servant than a member of the family and is forced to live in a cupboard under the stairs. Shortly before his birthday, a series of letters addressed to Harry arrive. To evade the pursuit of these letters, Vernon first takes the family to a hotel, but when the letters arrive there too, he hires a boat out to a hut on a small island. Hagrid takes Harry to a hidden London street called Diagon Alley, where he is surprised to discover how famous he is among the witches and wizards and he finds that his parents inheritance is waiting for him at Gringotts Wizarding Bank. Guided by Hagrid, he buys the equipment he will need for his first year at Hogwarts, a month later, Harry leaves the Dursleys home to catch the Hogwarts Express from Kings Cross railway station.
There he meets the Weasley family, who show him how to pass through the wall to Platform 9¾. While on the train, Harry meets two fellow first years, Ron Weasley, who becomes his friend, and Hermione Granger. Harry makes an enemy of yet another first-year, Draco Malfoy, Draco offers to advise Harry, but Harry dislikes Draco for his arrogance and prejudice and rejects his offer of friendship. At Hogwarts, the first-years are assigned by the magical Sorting Hat to houses that best suit their personalities. While Harry is being sorted, the Hat suggests that he be placed into Slytherin which is known to house potential dark witches and wizards, but when Harry objects and Hermione are sorted into Gryffindor
A peddler, in British English pedlar, known as a canvasser, cheapjack, higler, monger, or solicitor, is a traveling vendor of goods. In England, the term was used for travellers hawking goods in the countryside to small towns and villages. In London more specific terms were used, such as costermonger, Peddlers have a long and colourful history. From antiquity, peddlers filled the gaps in the market economy by providing consumers with the convenience of door-to-door service. They operated alongside town markets and fairs where they often purchased surplus stocks which were resold to consumers. Thus, peddlers played an important role in linking these consumers, some peddlers worked as agents or travelling salesmen for larger manufacturers, thus were the precursor to the modern travelling salesman. In Europe, suspicions of dishonest or petty criminal activity was associated with peddlers and travellers. From the 16th century, peddlers were often associated with negative connotations - attitudes which persisted well into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The origin of the word, known in English since 1225, is unknown, peddlers travelled on foot, carrying their wares, or by means of a person- or animal-drawn cart or wagon. Peddlers were known by a variety of names throughout the ages, including Arabber, hawker), chapman, typically, peddlers operated door-to-door, plied the streets or stationed themselves at the fringes of formal trade venues such as open air markets or fairs. Peddlers sometimes doubled as performers, healers, or fortune-tellers, as market towns flourished in medieval Europe, peddlers found a role operating on the fringes of the formal economy. They called directly on homes, delivering produce to the door thereby saving customers time travelling to markets or fairs, customers paied a higher price for this convenience. Some peddlers operated out of inns or taverns, where they acted as an agent rather than a reseller. Peddlers played an important role providing services to geographically isolated districts, such as in the regions of Europe, thereby linking these districs with wider trading routes.
”By the eighteenth century, some peddlers worked for industrial producers. In England, these peddlers were known as “Manchester men. ”Employed by a factory or entrepreneur and they were the precursors to the modern sales representative. In the United States, the era of the traveling peddler probably peaked in the decades just before the American Civil War, the large advances in industrial mass production and freight transportation as a result of the war laid the groundwork for the beginnings of modern retail and distribution networks. Further, the rise of mail order catalogues offered another way for people in rural or other remote areas to obtain items not readily available in local stores. In the United States, the travelling salesman became a character in countless jokes
A butcher is a person who may slaughter animals, dress their flesh, sell their meat or do any combination of these three tasks. They may prepare standard cuts of meat and poultry for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments, a butcher may be employed by supermarkets, grocery stores, butcher shops and fish markets, slaughter house, or may be self-employed. An ancient trade, whose duties may date back to the domestication of livestock, many jurisdictions offer trade certifications for butchers. Some areas expect a three-year apprenticeship followed by the option of becoming a master butcher, butchery is a traditional line of work. In the industrialized world, slaughterhouses use butchers to slaughter the animals, the steps include stunning, skinning or scalding and dehairing and splitting. Secondary butchery involves boning and trimming primal cuts in preparation for sale, historically and secondary butchery were performed in the same establishment, but the advent of methods of preservation and low cost transportation has largely separated them.
In parts of the world, it is common for butchers to perform many or all of the butchers duties, where refrigeration is less common, these skills are required to sell the meat of slaughtered animals. Some butchers sell their goods in specialized stores, commonly termed a butcher shop, butchers at a butcher shop may perform primary butchery, but will typically perform secondary butchery to prepare fresh cuts of meat for sale. These shops may sell related products, such as food supplies, baked goods. Butcher shops can have a variety of animal types, meat cuts. Additionally, butcher shops may focus on a culture, or nationality. Some butcher shops, termed meat delis, may include a delicatessen. In the United States and Canada, butcher shops are becoming common because of the increasing popularity of supermarkets. A primal cut is a piece of meat initially separated from the carcass during butchering, different countries and cultures make these cuts in different ways, and primal cuts differ between type of carcass.
The British and French primal cuts all differ in some respects, a notable example is fatback, which in Europe is an important primal cut of pork, but in North America is regarded as trimmings to be used in sausage or rendered into lard. The primal cuts may be complete or cut further. See Butcher In various periods and cultures, the butcher has been applied to people who act cruelly to other human beings or slaughter them
Costermonger, coster, or costard is a street seller of fruit and vegetables, in London and other British towns. Costermongers were ubiquitous in mid-Victorian England, and some are found in markets. As usual with street-sellers, they would use a loud sing-song cry or chant to attract attention, the costermongers cart might be stationary at a market stall, or mobile. The term is derived from the words costard and monger, costers met a need for rapid food distribution from the central markets. Their membership as a coster was signalled by their large neckerchief, known as a kingsman and their hostility towards the police was legendary. The term, was coined during the sixteenth century. It first appeared in the English language in around 1510, the term, coster is a corruption of costard, a kind of apple and the term monger meaning a trader or broker. Although the literal meaning refers to an itinerant apple-seller, the term was used generally to refer to anyone who sold fresh fruit or vegetables from a hand cart.
Technically, costermongers were hawkers since they rarely traded from fixed stalls and they purchased produce from the wholesale markets and sold it at retail. Their fruit and vegetables were placed in baskets, barrows or carts, although the term, was used to describe any hawker of fresh produce, the term became strongly associated with London-based street vendors. Costermongers were known to have been in London from at least the 16th century, both Shakespeare and Marlowe mention costermongers in their writings. They probably were most numerous during the Victorian era, when there were said to be over 30,000 in 1860, weights were flattened to make them look bigger and heavier, measures were fitted with thick or false bottoms, in order to give false readings. However, crimes such as theft were actually rare among costermongers themselves, even common thieves preferred to prey on shop owners rather than costers, who were inclined to dispense street justice. The activities and lifestyles of 19th century costermongers are among the subjects documented in London Labour and the London Poor, by the end of the 19th century, the costermongers were in gradual decline.
They did not disappear as mobile street-sellers until the 1960s, when the few that remained took pitches in local markets and they were portrayed in the music halls by vocal comedians such as Albert Chevalier, Bessie Bellwood and Gus Elen. Costermongers had their own dress code, in the mid nineteenth century, men wore long waistcoats of sandy coloured corduroy with buttons of brass or shiny mother of pearl. Trousers, made of corduroy, had the distinctive bell-bottomed leg, footwear was often decorated with a motif of roses and thistles. Neckerchiefs — called kings men — were of silk or red
Billingsgate Fish Market
Billingsgate Fish Market is located in Poplar in London. It is the United Kingdoms largest inland fish market and it takes its name from Billingsgate, a ward in the south-east corner of the City of London, where the riverside market was originally established. In its original location in the 19th century, Billingsgate was the largest fish market in the world. Billingsgate Wharf, close to Lower Thames Street, became the centre of a market during the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1850, the according to Horace Jones, consisted only of shed buildings. In that year the market was rebuilt to a design by J. B. Bunning, the new site covered almost twice the area of the old, incorporating Billingsgate Stairs and Wharf and Darkhouse Lane. Work began in 1874, and the new market was opened by the Lord Mayor on 20 July 1877. The new buildings, Italianate in style, had on their long frontages towards Thames Street the river, a pedimented centre and continuous arcade, flanked at each end by a pavilion tavern. The general market, on a level with Thames Street, had an area of about 30,000 square feet, a gallery 30 feet wide was allocated to the sale of dried fish, while the basement, served as a market for shellfish.
The opening of the changed the nature of the trade. The infamously coarse language of London fishmongers made Billingsgate a byword for crude or vulgar language, one of its earliest uses can be seen in a 1577 chronicle by Raphael Holinshed, where the writer makes reference to the foul tongues of Billingsgate oyster-wives. The market is depicted during Tudor times in Rosemary Sutcliffs 1951 childrens historical novel The Armourers House, the writer George Orwell worked at Billingsgate in the 1930s, as did the Kray twins in the 1950s. In 1982, the market was relocated to a new 13-acre building complex on the Isle of Dogs in Poplar, close to Canary Wharf. Most of the fish sold through the market now arrives there by road, from ports as far afield as Aberdeen, Billingsgate Market is open from Tuesday to Saturday. Trading commences at 4 a. m. and finishes at 8,30 a. m, security for the market is provided by the private Market Constabulary. Traditionally, the people allowed to move fish around the market were licensed fish porters.
The role dates back at least to Henry VIII, and was recognised by the Corporation of London in 1632. In 2012, a battle was fought between modernisers, citing facts such as porters getting £700 for a 17-hour week, and traditionalists
The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus
The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus is a 2009 British-Canadian-French fantasy film directed by Terry Gilliam and written by Gilliam and Charles McKeown. Ledgers role was recast with Johnny Depp, Jude Law, the Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus interweaves several plot lines in a nonlinear arrangement. The film made its premiere during the 62nd Cannes Film Festival. The film, which was budgeted at $30 million, grossed more than $60 million in its theatrical release. The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus was nominated for two Academy Awards in the categories Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design, Doctor Parnassus theater troupe, which includes sleight of hand expert Anton, confidant Percy, and Parnassus daughter Valentina, performs outside a London pub. The troupes main attraction is a magical Imaginarium, which offers whoever enters it a choice between difficult self-fulfillment or easy ignorance, after a drunkard is swayed to the latter, Parnassus says he has lost another one to Mr. Nick, a suave personification of the Devil.
Mr. Nick reminds Parnassus that in three days Valentina turns 16, and her soul will be his, hundreds of years ago Mr. Nick tricked Parnassus into gaining immortality, after making a wager similar to his current predicament. As the troupe crosses a bridge, Anton spies someone hanging beneath it and they rescue the man, who spits out a golden pipe when revived. Claiming to have amnesia, he joins the troupe as a barker, Parnassus becomes despondent over the impending loss of his daughter. Mr. Nick visits Parnassus, revealing the man is a disgraced philanthropist named Tony. He offers Parnassus a wager, Valentina can stay with whoever wins five souls first, Tony convinces the troupe to remodel the show into a more modern act. While performing, Tony lures a posh woman into the Imaginarium and follows her, the womans imagination changes Tonys face, upon discovering this, he dances elegantly with her, and they spy a motel run by Mr. Nick. Tony convinces the woman to take a gondola toward a pyramid alone, Tony falls back out of the Imaginarium, returning his face to normal, the woman exits shortly after and gives the troupe a vast sum of money.
When three other women enter, each emerges elated, and thus Parnassus wins three more souls, four Russian gangsters, to whom Tony owes money, are taken by Mr. Nick when they chase Tony into the Imaginarium. The score becomes four souls apiece, in exchange, any child he fathered would become Mr. Nicks property at age 16. Valentina attempts to run away, but Tony enters the Imaginarium to give his soul to Parnassus, in exchange, Valentina returns as he tries to enter the mirror, but Anton blocks them, having discovered that Tony is a fraudulent charity scammer. Tony fights off Anton, pushes Valentina into the Imaginarium and joins her, influenced by Valentinas desires, Tonys face changes again, and they float along a beautiful river in a gondola. After an impoverished child disrupts their boat trip, Tony transforms into a philanthropist speaking at a fundraiser, following the pair into the Imaginarium, appears as an outspoken child and exposes Tony as a fraud
Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges
The Hungerford Bridge crosses the River Thames in London, and lies between Waterloo Bridge and Westminster Bridge. The north end of the bridge is Charing Cross railway station, and is near Embankment Pier, the south end is near Waterloo station, County Hall, the Royal Festival Hall, and the London Eye. Each pedestrian bridge has steps and lift access, the first Hungerford Bridge, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, opened in 1845 as a suspension footbridge. It was named after the Hungerford Market, because it went from the South Bank to Hungerford Market on the side of the Thames. In 1859 the original bridge was bought by the railway company extending the South Eastern Railway into the newly opened Charing Cross railway station. The railway company replaced the bridge with a structure designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, comprising nine spans made of wrought iron lattice girders. The chains from the old bridge were re-used in Bristols Clifton Suspension Bridge, the buttress on the South Bank side still has the entrances and steps from the original steamer pier Brunel built on to the footbridge.
Walkways were added on each side, with the one being removed when the railway was widened. Another walkway was added in 1951 when an Army Bailey bridge was constructed for the Festival of Britain. In 1980 a temporary walkway was erected on the side while the downstream railway bridge. It is one of three bridges in London to combine pedestrian and rail use, the others being Fulham Railway Bridge. The footbridge gained a reputation for being narrow and dangerous, in the mid-1990s a decision was made to replace the footbridge with new structures on either side of the existing railway bridge, and a competition was held in 1996 for a new design. It was felt, especially following the Marchioness disaster, that these should be clad in concrete at water level, the Golden Jubilee Bridges achieved this protection at no cost to Railtrack. The concept design for the new footbridges was won by architects Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, detailed design of the two bridges was carried out by consulting engineers Gifford, now Ramboll UK.
Despite extensive surveys of the riverbed, London Underground was unwilling to accept these risks and preliminary works were stopped in 2000. The design was modified so that the structure on the north side. Excavation near the lines was carried out when the tube was closed. The two new 4-metre wide footbridges were completed in 2002 and they were named the Golden Jubilee Bridges, in honour of the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Elizabeth IIs accession, although in practice they are still referred to as the Hungerford Footbridges
Leadenhall Street is a road in London that is about 0.3 miles long and links Cornhill and Bishopsgate in the west to St. Botolph Street and Aldgate in the east. It is situated in the City of London, which is the nucleus of modern London as well its primary financial district. It was formerly the start of the A11 road from London to Norwich, the Aldgate Pump is located at the east end of the street. During much of the 18th and 19th centuries its name was synonymous with the East India Company, the nearest London Underground station is Aldgate, and the closest mainline railway station is Fenchurch Street. The Leadenhall Press was established following a move of the publisher Field & Tuer to No.50 Leadenhall Street in 1868, in 1879 a telephone exchange was installed at No.101 Leadenhall Street by the Telephone Company Ltd. — one of the first in London. The street was home to East India House from 1729 until its demolition in 1861, Leadenhall Market is accessible via Whittington Avenue, a small side-road off Leadenhall Street.
The London Metal Exchange is located at No,56, opposite the church of St. Katharine Cree, which dates from 1631 and was made a Grade I listed building in 1950. Several major companies are headquartered on Leadenhall Street, including Xchanging, Ace European Group, Verdasyss EMEA, due to the proximity of Lloyds, a number of other insurance firms and brokers have offices on Leadenhall Street. The Leadenhall Building, located at No.122 and opposite the Lloyds building, is a 48-storey skyscraper, a 38-storey skyscraper at 52-54 Lime Street has been approved for construction at the junction of Leadenhall Street and Lime Street. A new office development including a tower of 34 storeys has been proposed for 40 Leadenhall Street, Fenchurch Street Lime Street St Mary Axe Google Maps Media related to Leadenhall Street at Wikimedia Commons