A leaf miner is any one of numerous species of insects in which the larval stage lives in, eats, the leaf tissue of plants. The vast majority of leaf-mining insects are moths and flies, though some beetles exhibit this behavior. Like woodboring beetles, leaf miners are protected from many predators and plant defenses by feeding within the tissues of the leaves, selectively eating only the layers that have the least amount of cellulose; when attacking Quercus robur, they selectively feed on tissues containing lower levels of tannin, a deterrent chemical produced in great abundance by the tree. The pattern of the feeding tunnel and the layer of the leaf being mined is diagnostic of the insect responsible, sometimes to species level; the mine contains frass, or droppings, the pattern of frass deposition, mine shape, host plant identity are useful to determine the species and instar of the leaf miner. Some mining insects feed in other parts such as the surface of a fruit, it has been suggested that some patterns of leaf variegation may be part of a defensive strategy employed by plants to deceive adult leaf miners into thinking that a leaf has been preyed upon.
One common leaf-mining species in New Zealand is Scaptomyza flava. The species is problematic for plants in the family Brassiceae, more known as mustard plants. Leaf miners are regarded as pests by many farmers and gardeners as they can cause damage to agricultural crops and garden plants, can be difficult to control with insecticide sprays as they are protected inside the plant's leaves. Spraying the infected plants with spinosad, an organic insecticide, can control some leaf miners. Spinosad must be ingested by the leaf miner. Two or three applications may be required in a season. However, this will have harmful ecological effects if sprayed when bees or other beneficial insects are present. Leaf miner infection can be reduced or prevented by planting trap crops near the plants to be protected. For example and columbine will distract leaf miners, drawing them to those plants and therefore reducing the incidence of attack on nearby crops; this is a method of companion planting. Agromyzidae Pegomya hyoscyami Douglasiidae Gracillariidae Liriomyza sativae Liriomyza Trifolii Nepticulidae Horse-chestnut leaf miner Tenthredinidae Tischerioidea Folivore British leafminers - many of which are distributed across Europe.
The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects. Includes illustrated keys for identification of mines by host-plant genus and detailed descriptions of over 900 species along with their distribution in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and elsewhere. Leafminers of Europe - covers over 1800 leafmining insect species. Leafminers of southeastern U. S. woody ornamentals on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site Liriomyza trifolii, American serpentine leafminer Liriomyza sativae, vegetable leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella, citrus leafminer CISR: Citrus Leaf Miner Center for Invasive Species Research page on Citrus Leaf Miner
The Nadisee is a lake with an integrated well system in the Olympic Village, in the Munich district Am Riesenfeld in the city district 11 Milbertshofen-Am Hart. With an area of about 0.16 ha, it is Munich's smallest bathing lake. The approximate extent in the north-south direction is 50 m, in the east-west direction 80 m, it was built together with the Athletes village for the Olympic Games in 1972 and is located between Nadistraße and Connollystraße. The Nadisee, named after the road, which referees to the Italian Athlete Nedo Nadi, is only knee deep and the water level does not go over an adults head at any point. Making it suitable for children and families in summer and for ice skating in winter. Festivals take place at the lake; when the water is drained for cleaning, the empty concrete tub is used by mountain bikers and, of course, by skateboarders
Kate Rebecca "Katie" Bender is an Australian film producer, director. She made her feature-length directing debut with the 2016 documentary The Will To Fly about Australian Olympic freestyle skier gold medalist Lydia Lassila. Bender is a former gymnast and freestyle skier, trained on the Australian freestyle aerial ski team. Bender attended Methodist Ladies College in Victoria, Melbourne where she could study and train at a high-performance gymnastics center based on campus. At 16 years old, Bender was recruited by The Olympic Winter Institute of Australia to join an athlete talent pathway program which converted gymnasts into freestyle aerial skiers. Bender studied film and digital media at Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising based in Los Angeles, California. After graduation, she began working in the movie trailer industry at Trailer Park Inc, a motion picture marketing firm in Hollywood. Bender was the producer and director of the 2016 feature documentary The Will To Fly about Australian Olympic freestyle skier gold medalist Lydia Lassila.
Bender is an ex-teammate of Lydia and was inspired to make The Will To Fly in 2012 while visiting Lydia at a training camp in Utah. Lydia was the defending Olympic champion at the time and had just returned to the sport as a first-time mother. Bender realised the potential for a feature-length film when Lydia explained her sporting aspirations to narrow the gap between male and female capabilities by performing a "quad triple twisting, triple somersault" at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. In February 2017, Bender performed at the TED conference "Finding Our Fire" in Canberra, her talk "Conquering Uncertainty With Tenacity" was about her life, missed Olympic dreams, re-discovering the "driving force that exists within all of us when we find that one thing we love". The Will To Fly was five years in the making and one of Australia's first feature-length sports documentaries about the life and tumultuous sports career of freestyle aerial skiing Olympic Champion, Lydia Lassila; the film made its Australian premiere in Melbourne on International Women's Day 2016 followed by a theatrical release, where it was positively received by critics.
The film was quoted "The Most Inspirational Movie of the Year" by The Huffington Post Australia. In October 2015, before the release of The Will To Fly, the film was used as a catalyst in convincing the Government of New South Wales to invest in a $10 million Olympic training facility so that the Australian Winter Olympic team could train on home soil. In August 2017, Olympic champion hurdler Sally Pearson made headlines worldwide after coming out of retirement to win the 2017 world championship title. Pearson told the media that her comeback to the sport was motivated after watching The Will To Fly on a plane in 2016; the Will To FlyWinner, Best World Documentary Award, Whistler Film Festival 2016 Winner, Best Mountain Culture Film Award, Whistler Film Festival 2016 Nomination, EDA Award for Best Female-Directed Documentary from the Alliance of Women Film Journalists, Whistler Film Festival 2016 Nomination, APRA AMCOS award for Best Music in Documentary, APRA AMCOS Awards Australia 2016 Katie Bender on IMDb Official website