The League of Militant Atheists. It consisted of party members, members of the Komsomol youth movement, those without specific political affiliation and military veterans; the league embraced workers, peasants and intelligentsia. It had its first affiliates at factories, collective farms, educational institutions. By the beginning of 1941 it had about 3.5 million members from 100 nationalities. It had about 96,000 offices across the country. Guided by Bolshevik principles of communist propaganda and by the Party's orders with regards to religion, the League aimed at exterminating religion in all its manifestations and forming an anti-religious scientific mindset among the workers, it propagated atheism and scientific achievements, conducted so-called "individual work". The League's slogan was "Struggle against religion is a struggle for socialism", meant to tie in their atheist views with the Communist drive to'build Socialism'. One of the slogans adopted at the 2nd congress proclaimed: "Struggle against religion is a struggle for the five-year plan!"
The League had international connections. By the mid-1930s, the Communist regime considered socialism to have been'built', the League adopted a new slogan: "Struggle against religion is a struggle for communism", communism being the next stage after socialism according to Marxist theory; the league was a "nominally independent organization established by the Communist Party to promote atheism". It published newspapers and other materials that lampooned religion; the newspaper Bezbozhnik and edited by Yemelyan Yaroslavsky, played a significant role in the League's establishment, had a wide network of correspondents and readers. Bezbozhnik appeared first in December 1922, the following year a Moscow monthly for industrial workers Bezbozhnik u Stanka formed the like-minded Moscow Society of the Godless in August 1924. In addition to the newspaper Bezbozhnik, the Central Soviet of the League of Militant Atheists published the illustrated magazine Bezbozhnik and the scientific and methodological journal Antireligioznik.
The scientific society «Ateist» arose in 1921 in Moscow. It published the magazine Ateist from 1923 to 1931; this magazine published works translated from foreign languages. Since 1931, the magazine Voinstvuiuschii ateizm, a periodical of the Central Soviet of the League of Militant Atheists, began to be published. Along with periodicals in Russian by the League of Militant Atheists published periodicals in other languages: «Bezvirnik» − in Ukrainian, «Xudasizlar» − in Uzbek, «Fen-em-Din» − in Tatar, «Der Apikoires» - in Yiddish, «Anastvats» – in Armenian, «Das Neuland» − in German, «Erdem ba Shazhan» – in Buryat, «Mebrdzoli Ateisti» – in Georgian, «Bezbożnik wojujący» – in Polish, «Allahsyz» – in Azerbaijani, «Allakhyz» – in Bashkir and a number of other magazines. By 1932, 10 anti-religious newspapers and 23 anti-religious magazines were published in the USSR; the Moscow group tended to support the leftist side of the debate on how to destroy religion, in 1924 it attacked Yaroslavsky, Anatoly Lunacharsky and Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich for differentiation between different religions, instead of genuine godlessness.
It accused Yaroslavsky of attacking only the clergy rather than religion in general. Yaroslavsky protested this and affirmed that all religions were enemies of socialism including the Renovationist schism in the Orthodox church, but that the methods of struggle against different religions should vary due to the large number of loyal Soviet citizens with religious beliefs who should be re-educated as atheists rather than treated as class enemies. Bezbozhnik argued that it was an oversimplification to treat religion as a kind of class exploitation to be attacked, forgetting the complex nature of religions, as well as the individual believers; the CPSU Central Committee supported Yaroslavsky's viewpoint on this issue, although this debate remained unresolved at the Union that came in 1925. The Moscow group merged with the Society of Friends of the Godless Newspaper in April 1925 to form the All-Union League of the Godless at its first congress. Between 1925 and 1929 a power struggle took place in
General elections were held in Guatemala on 7 November 1999, with a second round of the presidential elections on 26 December. Alfonso Portillo won the presidential elections, whilst his Guatemalan Republican Front won the Congressional elections. Voter turnout was 53.8 % on 40.4 % on 26 December. Media owner Remigio Ángel González gave more than $2.6 million and free airtime to Alfonso Portillo's campaign, which led to some political analysts to claim that the free adverts helped Portillo win the election. After becoming president, Portillo appointed Gonzalez's brother-in-law Luis Rabbé to the post of Minister of Communications and Housing, a post which included responsibility for overseeing the broadcast media; the presidential election established a pattern for the next 16 years in which the runner-up of the previous contest went on to win. Villagrán Kramer, Francisco. Biografía política de Guatemala: años de guerra y años de paz. FLACSO-Guatemala, 2004. Political handbook of the world 1999.
New York, 2000
Clay Geerdes was a writer, photojournalist and teacher, who covered various events from anti-Vietnam war demonstrations in Berkeley, to productions of Freestore and The Cockettes, to the underground comics business. Geerdes was born in Sioux City, United States, was the oldest of three children, he grew up in Lincoln and was an avid collector of Batman and Bugs Bunny comic books. When Geerdes was in his mid-teens, his father died after a long illness. Geerdes worked in a number of small jobs at cafes and grocery stores in the Lincoln area. Geerdes enlisted in the U. S. Navy in served a 4-year tour, he visited numerous ports from Australia to Japan. San Francisco became his new home at the end of his Navy tour. In 1958, Geerdes enrolled at San Francisco State College and received his B. A. in literature. He continued his enrollment at SF State College to complete a M. A. in English. Geerdes enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley, to study for a doctorate in English literature, his dissertation was complete, but he was more interested in the growing political movement at Berkeley than completing his last few classes.
Geerdes got a teaching job in 1965 in the English department at Fresno State College. His classes were for the freshmen student body, covering standard college literature. Geerdes left Fresno State College after nearly three years to teach at Sonoma State College in their English department, an appointment which had ended by 1972. Geerdes's first published work was in Michael Corrigan's Pillar, but his photojournalism career started in 1968 with the Los Angeles Free Press, his articles covered a variety of subjects from the demonstrations in People's Park to the personalities in underground comic books. Geerdes wrote for other underground newspapers such as The Staff, Berkeley Barb, The Village Voice, the S. F. Phoenix from 1968 through the mid-1970s, he was a long-time contributor to Adam and Knight magazines. Geerdes's interest in the people within the underground comix scene started from a chance meeting with Roger Brand in 1970. Geerdes wrote articles on Brand, Ron Turner, Robert Crumb, Fred Schrier, Dave Sheridan, Gilbert Shelton, other personalities in underground comix.
The articles appeared in the Los Angeles Free Press, The Staff, the Berkeley Barb newspapers throughout the early-to-mid 1970s. Geerdes's Comix World newsletter began in 1973 and ended in 1984; the newsletter focused on newly released books and related activities. By 1980, Comix World was being mailed to every state in 14 countries, he was involved with Berkeleycon, the first comic book convention that highlighted underground comix. Geerdes started the Comix Wave newsletter in 1983, which concentrated on the “newave” era with minicomics. Minicomics were self-published books by the artists, many new artists were inspired from Geerdes's newsletters to publish their own work. Comix Wave ended regular publication in 1995, he worked with numerous people in this new era of underground comics, such as Kevin Eastman, Jim Valentino, Par Holman, Bob Vojtko, David Miller, Brad Foster, many others. The last publication Geerdes wrote for was the Anderson Valley Advertiser from 1995-1997, he was a frequent contributor, writing about aspects of his life and his observations of current events.
Geerdes's photographs have appeared in numerous publications after his death in 1997. The Underground Comix Family Album by Malcolm Whyte, from 1998, has 50 of Geerdes' photographs of the people associated with shaping the underground comix business. A book about the San Diego Comic Cons, Comic-Con: 40 Years of Artists, Fans, & Friends published some of Geerdes's photographs; the Snatch Comics Treasury from Apex Joint Ventures reprinted Robert Crumb's work while adding some photographs from Geerdes. Geerdes shot the cover photograph for Michael Corrigan's hybrid memoir, Confessions of a Shanty Irishman. Geerdes died on July 1997, in San Francisco from liver cancer. Clay Geerdes Database Par Holman on Clay Geerdes David Miller on Clay Geerdes Clay Geerdes Photography Clay Geerdes information from Steve Willis