South Shields railway station
South Shields railway station was the main railway station for South Shields, in Tyne and Wear, North-East England. The station was located on Mile End Road in the town centre; the station was opened by the NER in 1879 as the terminus of their newly extended Newcastle and South Shields Railway branch from Pelaw via Hebburn and had two platforms and an ornate overall roof. The town had been rail-served by some years prior to this - the Stanhope and Tyne Railway had opened their route from Washington back in 1834, whilst the Brandling Junction Railway followed with a branch from Brockley Whins five years later. Both these companies had though been purely concerned with mineral traffic and passenger provision was limited; the new route though was built to carry passengers from the outset as well as coal & iron ore to/from Tyne Dock and had regular services to both Newcastle Central via Gateshead and to Sunderland, these running via the old BJR route via Tyne Dock and East Boldon. It served as the western terminus or the South Shields and Whitburn Colliery Railway from its opening to public passenger traffic in 1888.
The 1923 Grouping saw the station pass from the NER into the control of the London and North Eastern Railway. Services on both routes remained well used and in 1938, the line from Newcastle was electrified on the 660 V DC system as an extension of the existing North Tyneside suburban network. Nationalisation in 1948 saw the station become part of British Railways North Eastern Region, but over the next few years services began to decline - those to Whitburn Colliery ended in November 1953, whilst the direct Sunderland trains fell victim to the Beeching Axe in May 1965; the Newcastle line was converted to diesel multiple unit operation in 1963, with BR stating that it was cheaper to remove the third rail than renew the electrical equipment on the route. Though it survived the Beeching cuts, by the 1970s the station had become run down and so it was a logical choice to be included in the planned Tyne & Wear Metro network, it was closed on 1 June 1981, when the line was temporarily shut down for conversion to Metro operation.
It was replaced by a new South Shields Metro station a short distance to the south, when the line reopened in 1984. The station building survived as an entrance to the Metro system until the 1990s, when it was demolished. Today, a Shopmobility centre stands on the site of the original station building; the new building was built to a similar style as the station. The platforms behind have been removed, but the rest of the site is still used by Metro as carriage & engineers' sidings. RAILSCOT - South Shields
North East England
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers Northumberland, County Durham and Wear, the area of the former county of Cleveland in North Yorkshire; the region is home to three large conurbations: Teesside and Tyneside, the last of, the largest of the three and the eighth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom. There are three cities in the region: Newcastle upon Tyne, the largest, with a population of just under 280,000. Other large towns include Darlington, Hartlepool, South Shields, Stockton-on-Tees and Washington; the region is hilly and sparsely populated in the North and West, urban and arable in the East and South. The highest point in the region is The Cheviot, in the Cheviot Hills, at 815 metres; the region contains the urban centres of Tyneside and Teesside, is noted for the rich natural beauty of its coastline, Northumberland National Park, the section of the Pennines that includes Teesdale and Weardale.
The regions historic importance is displayed by Northumberland's ancient castles, the two World Heritage Sites of Durham Cathedral and Durham Castle, Hadrian's Wall one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. In fact, Roman archaeology can be found across the region and a special exhibition based around the Roman Fort of Segedunum at Wallsend and the other forts along Hadrian's Wall are complemented by the numerous artifacts that are displayed in the Great North Museum Hancock in Newcastle. St. Peter's Church in Monkwearmouth, Sunderland and St. Pauls in Jarrow hold significant historical value and have a joint bid to become a World Heritage Site; the area has a strong religious past, as can be seen in works such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The work of the 7th-century Cuthbert and Hilda of Whitby were hugely influential in the early church, are still venerated by some today; these saints are associated with the monasteries on the island of Lindisfarne, Wearmouth – Jarrow, the Abbey at Whitby, though they are associated with many other religious sites in the region.
Bede is regarded as the greatest Anglo-Saxon scholar. He worked at the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, translating some forty books on all areas of knowledge, including nature, astronomy and theological matters such as the lives of the saints, his best known work is "The Ecclesiastical History of the English People". One of the most famous pieces of art and literature created in the region is the Lindisfarne Gospels, are thought to be the work of a monk named Eadfrith, who became Bishop of Lindisfarne in 698; this body of work is thought to have been created in honour of Cuthbert, around 710–720. On 6 June 793 the Vikings arrived on the shores of north-east England with a raiding party from Norway who attacked the monastic settlement on Lindisfarne; the monks fled or were slaughtered, Bishop Higbald sought refuge on the mainland. A chronicler recorded: "On the 8th June, the harrying of the heathen miserably destroyed God's church by rapine and slaughter." There were three hundred years of Viking raids and settlement until William the Conqueror defeated King Harold at Hastings in 1066.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle notes the change from raiding to settlement when it records that in 876 the Vikings "Shared out the land of the Northumbrians and they proceeded to plough and support themselves" The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria extended from the Scottish borders at the Firth of Forth to the north, to the south of York, its capital, down to the Humber. The last independent Northumbrian king from 947–8 was Eric Bloodaxe, who died at the Battle of Stainmore, Westmorland, in 954. After Eric Bloodaxe's death, all England was ruled by the grandson of Alfred the Great. Today the Viking legacy can still be found in the language and place names of north-east England and in the DNA of its people; the name Newcastle comes from the castle built shortly after the conquest in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. North East England has an oceanic climate with narrower temperature ranges than the south of England. Summers and winters are mild rather than hot or cold, due to the strong maritime influence of the North Atlantic Current of the Gulf Stream.
The Met Office operates several weather stations in the region and are able they show the regional variations in temperature and its relation to the distance from the North Sea. The warmest summers in the region are found in Stockton-on-Tees and the Middlesbrough area, with a 1981-2010 July average high of 20.4 °C. Precipitation is low by English standards, in spite of the low levels of sunshine, with Stockton-on-Tees averaging only 574.2 millimetres annually, with the seaside town of Tynemouth recording 597.2 millimetres annually. The summers on the northern coastlines are cooler than in the southern and central inland areas: Tynemouth is only just above 18 °C in July. Further inland, frosts during winter are more common, due to the higher elevations and distance from the sea. After more than 2,000 years of industrial activity as a result of abundant minerals such as salt and coal the chemical industry of the Northeast England is today spread across the whole of the region with pharmaceuticals being produced in the north of the region and fine chemicals spread across the middle of the region and commodity chemicals and petrochemicals on Teessi
British Railways, which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the overground rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of the "Big Four" British railway companies and lasted until the gradual privatisation of British Rail, in stages between 1994 and 1997. A trading brand of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission, it became an independent statutory corporation in 1962 designated as the British Railways Board; the period of nationalisation saw sweeping changes in the national railway network. A process of dieselisation and electrification took place, by 1968 steam locomotion had been replaced by diesel and electric traction, except for the Vale of Rheidol Railway. Passengers replaced freight as the main source of business, one third of the network was closed by the Beeching Axe of the 1960s in an effort to reduce rail subsidies. On privatisation, responsibility for track and stations was transferred to Railtrack and that for trains to the train operating companies.
The British Rail "double arrow" logo is formed of two interlocked arrows showing the direction of travel on a double track railway and was nicknamed "the arrow of indecision". It is now employed as a generic symbol on street signs in Great Britain denoting railway stations, as part of the Rail Delivery Group's jointly-managed National Rail brand is still printed on railway tickets; the rail transport system in Great Britain developed during the 19th century. After the grouping of 1923 under the Railways Act 1921, there were four large railway companies, each dominating its own geographic area: the Great Western Railway, the London and Scottish Railway, the London and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway. During World War I the railways were under state control, which continued until 1921. Complete nationalisation had been considered, the Railways Act 1921 is sometimes considered as a precursor to that, but the concept was rejected. Nationalisation was subsequently carried out after World War II, under the Transport Act 1947.
This Act made provision for the nationalisation of the network, as part of a policy of nationalising public services by Clement Attlee's Labour Government. British Railways came into existence as the business name of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission on 1 January 1948 when it took over the assets of the Big Four. There were joint railways between the Big Four and a few light railways to consider. Excluded from nationalisation were industrial lines like the Oxfordshire Ironstone Railway; the London Underground – publicly owned since 1933 – was nationalised, becoming the London Transport Executive of the British Transport Commission. The Bicester Military Railway was run by the government; the electric Liverpool Overhead Railway was excluded from nationalisation. The Railway Executive was conscious that some lines on the network were unprofitable and hard to justify and a programme of closures began immediately after nationalisation. However, the general financial position of BR became poorer, until an operating loss was recorded in 1955.
The Executive itself had been abolished in 1953 by the Conservative government, control of BR transferred to the parent Commission. Other changes to the British Transport Commission at the same time included the return of road haulage to the private sector. British Railways was divided into regions which were based on the areas the former Big Four operated in. Notably, these included the former Great Central lines from the Eastern Region to the London Midland Region, the West of England Main Line from the Southern Region to Western Region Southern Region: former Southern Railway lines. Western Region: former Great Western Railway lines. London Midland Region: former London Midland and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines south of York. North Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines in England north of York. Scottish Region: all lines, regardless of original company, in Scotland; the North Eastern Region was merged with the Eastern Region in 1967.
In 1982, the regions were abolished and replaced by "business sectors", a process known as sectorisation. The Anglia Region was created in late 1987, its first General Manager being John Edmonds, who began his appointment on 19 October 1987. Full separation from the Eastern Region – apart from engineering design needs – occurred on 29 April 1988, it handled the services from Fenchurch Street and Liverpool Street, its western boundary being Hertford East and Whittlesea. The report, latterly known as the "Modernisation Plan", was published in January 1955, it was intended to bring the railway system into the 20th century. A government White Paper produced in 1956 stated that modernisation would help eliminate BR's financial deficit by 1962, but the figures in both this and the original plan were produced for political reasons and not based on detailed analysis; the aim was to increase speed, reliability and line capacity through a series of measures that would make services more attractive to passengers and freight operators, thus recovering traffic lost to the roads.
Important areas included: Electrification of principal main lines, in the Eastern Region, Birmingham to Liverpool/Manchester and Central Scotland Large-scale dieselisation to replace steam locomotives New passenger and freight rolling stock R
Newcastle railway station
Newcastle railway station is on the East Coast Main Line in the United Kingdom, serving the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and Wear. It is 268.633 miles down the line from London King's Cross and on the main line it is situated between Chester-le-Street to the south and Manors to the north. Its three-letter station code is NCL. Opened in 1850, it is a Grade I listed building and is located in the city centre at the southern edge of Grainger Town and to the west of the Castle Keep, it is a nationally important transport hub, being both a terminus and through-station on the main line between London and Edinburgh, the Durham Coast Line to Middlesbrough and Nunthorpe the Tyne Valley Line to Carlisle via Hexham. It is served by the adjoining Central Station on the Tyne and Wear Metro; as of September 2017, the main line station is managed by London North Eastern Railway. All London North Eastern Railway services between London and Edinburgh stop at Newcastle. CrossCountry supplements services to Scotland, operates trains southbound to the South West and South Coast of England via Birmingham and the wider Midlands region.
The station is a terminus for TransPennine Express, which connects Newcastle to Liverpool Lime Street, via Leeds and Manchester Victoria, with some services running to Manchester Airport. Northern variously combines three routes out of Newcastle in order to provide both terminating and through services. To the west, trains connect the city to the MetroCentre shopping centre and Carlisle with intermittent extensions to Whitehaven, north to Morpeth on the main line, with extensions to Chathill. To the south east, the Durham Coast Line connects to Sunderland via Heworth and County Durham and Teesside. Important stops include Hartlepool, Stockton and Nunthorpe the line is shared with the Tyne and Wear Metro to Sunderland. Additionally and Abellio ScotRail jointly operate a limited service to Glasgow Central via Carlisle. Together with the Tyne and Wear Metro and numerous local bus routes, the complex is one of the most important transport hubs in the North East. There are two Metro and 12 main line platforms seeing 13 million passengers annually, in light of increasing patronage the main line station has undergone a major refurbishment to increase retail space and enhance the station environment including the controversial pedestrianisation of the portico.
In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins, the station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars. A scheme for a central station was proposed by Richard Grainger and Thomas Sopwith in 1836 but was not built; the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway had agreed to relinquish their insistence on using their Redheugh terminus on the south bank of the River Tyne. They agreed with George Hudson near the Spital. Instead of crossing the Tyne by a low level bridge and climbing to the Spital by a rope-worked incline, they would build an extension crossing at Scotswood and approaching on the north bank, they opened this line and a temporary station at Forth, passenger trains started using that on 1 March 1847. Hudson, known as the "Railway King" was concentrating on connecting his portfolio of railways so as to join Edinburgh with the English network, his Newcastle and Berwick Railway obtained its authorising Act of Parliament in 1845, but for the time being it was to use the Newcastle and North Shields Railway's station at Carliol Square.
Building a crossing of the Tyne was going to be a lengthy process, so that he gave the construction of the general station a low priority. The Tyne crossing became the High Level Bridge. In February 1846 the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway exerted pressure for the general station to be built, the architect John Dobson was appointed by Hudson to design it, in association with the engineer T E Harrison, Robert Stephenson. By now the general alignment of Hudson's railways was becoming clear: a main line from the south via Gateshead would approach over the High Level Bridge and enter the general station from the east. Newcastle and Carlisle Railway trains would of course enter from the west. Dobson produced general plans for the station, now being referred to as the Central station, on a broad curve to front Neville Street so as to accommodate the alignment of the approaching railways at east and west, it was to a "Romano-Italien design with ornamental work of the Doric order". Two through platform lines were shown, with two at the east end.
There were to be three trainshed roofs with spans of 60 feet. Extensive offices as well as refreshment facilities were shown, there was to be a covered carriage drive on the Neville Street side extending from the porte-cochère at each end. On 7 August 1847 a contract was let for the main part of the work to Mackay and Blackstock, for £92,000. A considerable amount of groundworks was necessary on the large site prior to the actual building work; the work did not progress speedily, in 1849 Hudson's collection of railway companies suffered a financial shock. At a time of more difficult trading and a tighter money market, Hudson's personal dealings were exposed as shady; the York and Berwick Railway had been formed by merger of the previous smaller companies, the YN&BR wished to reduce the financial commitment to the Central Station substantially. One of the through platforms was removed f
Tyne and Wear Metro
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as the Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. It has been described as the first modern light rail system in the United Kingdom; the initial network opened between 1980 and 1984, using converted former railway lines, linked with new tunnel infrastructure. Extensions to the original network were opened in 1991 and 2002. In 2017/18 over 36 million passenger journeys were made on the network, which spans 77.5 kilometres and has two lines with a total of 60 stations, nine of which are underground. It is the second-largest of the four metro systems in the United Kingdom, after the London Underground; the system is operated by the local transport authority Nexus. Between 2010 and 2017 it was operated under contract by DB Regio Tyne & Wear Limited, a subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains. On 1 April 2017, this contract ended, Nexus took over direct operation of the system for a planned period of two years.
The present system uses much former railway infrastructure constructed between 1834 and 1882, with one of the oldest parts being the Newcastle & North Shields Railway which opened in 1839. In 1904, in response to tramway competition, taking away passengers, the North Eastern Railway started electrifying parts of their local railway network north of the River Tyne with a 600 V DC third-rail system, forming one of the earliest suburban electric networks, known as the Tyneside Electrics. In 1938, the line south of the Tyne between Newcastle and South Shields was electrified. In the 1960s under British Rail, the decision was made to de-electrify the Tyneside Electric network, convert it to diesel operation due to falling passenger numbers, the cost of renewing end of life electrical infrastructure and rolling stock; the Newcastle-South Shields line was de-electrified in 1963, the north Tyneside routes were de-electrified in 1967. This was viewed as a backward step, as the diesel trains were slower than the electric trains they replaced.
In the early 1970s, the poor local transport system was identified as one of the main factors holding back the region's economy, in 1971 a study was commissioned by the created Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority into how the transport system could be improved. This new system was intended to be the core of a new integrated transport network, with buses acting as feeders to purpose-built transport interchanges; the plans were approved by the Tyneside Metropolitan Railway Bill, passed by Parliament in July 1973. Around 70% of the funding for the scheme came from a central government grant, with the remainder coming from local sources. Three railway lines, totalling 26 miles were to be converted into Metro lines as part of the initial system; the converted railway lines were to be connected by around six miles of new infrastructure, built both to separate the Metro from the existing rail network, to create the new underground routes under Newcastle and Gateshead. Around four miles of the new infrastructure was in tunnels, while the remainder was either at ground level or elevated.
The elevated sections included the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge. Construction work began in October 1974, it was intended to be opened in stages between 1979 and 1981, however the first part of the original network opened in August 1980, the remainder opened in stages until March 1984. The final cost of the project in 1984 prices was £265 million; some extensions to the original system have since been built. A short 3.5 km extension from Bank Foot to Newcastle Airport was opened in 1991, using a further part of the former Ponteland branch. In 2002 an 18.5 km extension was opened from Pelaw to South Hylton via Sunderland. Costing £100 million, this extension used part of the existing Durham Coast Line to Sunderland, but did not take it over. Three intermediate stations on the route were rebuilt, three new ones were added. Within Sunderland, 4.5 km of a former freight line, abandoned in 1984 was reused for the route between Sunderland station and South Hylton, becoming the second Metro segment to be built on a disused line.
The opening dates of the services and stations are as follows: The Tyne and Wear Metro was the first railway in the UK to operate using the metric system
Washington, Tyne and Wear
Washington is a new town in the City of Sunderland local government district of Tyne and Wear and part of historic County Durham. Washington is located geographically at an equal distance from the centres of Newcastle and Sunderland, hence it has close ties to all three cities. Washington was designated a new town in 1964 and became part of the City of Sunderland in 1974, it expanded by the creation of new villages and the absorption of areas of Chester-le-Street, to house overspill population from surrounding cities. At the 2011 census, Washington had a population of 67,085, compared to 53,388 in 2001. Early references appear around 1096 in Old English as Wasindone; the etymological origin is disputed and there are several proposed theories for how the name "Washington" came about. Early interpretations included Wassyngtona; the origins of the name Washington are not known. The most supported theory is that Washington is derived from Anglo-Saxon Hwæsingatūn, which means "estate of the descendents of Hwæsa".
Hwæsa is an Old English name meaning "wheat sheaf", the Swedish House of Vasa being a more famous cognate. Due to the evolution of English grammar, modern English lacks the Germanic grammatical features that permeated Anglo-Saxon English; this adds an air of confusion for most in regards to the name Hwæsingatūn. It is composed of three main elements: "Hwæsa" – most the name of a local Anglo-Saxon chieftain or farmer. "ing" – a Germanic component that has lost its original context in English: ing means " of/from". In the name Hwæsingatūn, "ing" is conjugated to "inga" in accordance with the genitive plural declension of OE. "tūn" – root of the modern English "town", is a cognate of German Zaun, Dutch tuin and Icelandic tún. The word means "fenced off estate" or more "estate with defined boundaries"; the combined elements therefore create the name Hwæsingatūn with a full and technical meaning of "the estate of the descendants of Hwæsa". However, there has been no evidence found of any chieftain/land owner/farmer in the area by the name of Hwæsa, although any such records from the time would have been long lost by now.
Although this is by no means the definite theory of origin, most scholars and historians agree that it is the most likely. Another of the popular origin theories is that Washington is in fact derived from the Old English verb wascan and the noun dūn meaning "hill"; this theory originates from the proximity of the river Wear to the actual Anglo-Saxon hall at the time. This idea is not backed by linguistic evidence. Combining the two Old English words "wascan" and "dūn" would have meant "washed hill" and not "washing hill"; the Old English "dūn" meant a range of rolling hills, as evidenced by the naming of the North and South Downs in southern England. William de Wessyngton was a forebear of George Washington, the first President of the United States, after whom the US capital and many other places in the United States are named. Though George Washington's great-grandfather John Washington left for Virginia from Hertfordshire, Washington Old Hall was the family home of George Washington's ancestors.
The present structure incorporates small parts of the medieval home. American Independence Day is marked each year by a ceremony at Washington Old Hall; the Old Hall may have been built by William de Hertburn, who moved to the area in 1183. As was the custom, he took the name of his new estates, became William de Wessyngton. By 1539, when the family moved to Sulgrave Manor in Northamptonshire, the spelling "Washington" had been adopted; the present Hall is an early 17th-century small English manor house of sandstone. Only the foundations and the arches between the Kitchen and the Great Hall remain of the original house. Sir Isaac Bell and his wife Margaret, parents of Gertrude Bell, lived in Washington New Hall on The Avenue. After Margaret's death in 1871, Sir Isaac set up an orphanage in the house, named Dame Margaret Home in his late wife's honour, it became a Barnardo's home until World War II. After the war, it was taken over by the National Coal Board as a training centre, it is now a private residence.
Washington's design was developed through the New Towns concept aiming to achieve sustainable socio-economic growth. The new town is divided into small self-sufficient "villages", it was also divided into the 15 numbered districts, a fate that confused many visitors to the area. These numbered districts have been removed as well as increased, now road signs indicate the villages' names instead of district number. Washington's villages are called: Donwell Usworth Concord Sulgrave Albany Glebe Barmston Biddick Washington Village Columbia Blackfell Oxclose Ayton Lambton Fatfield Harraton RickletonMount Pleasant was added to the list of numbered districts, despite being out of the Town "boundary line" of the River Wear and having a DH4 Postcode. Built on industry, Washington contains several industrial estates, named after famous local engineers, such as Parsons, Stephenson, Pattinson and Emerson. A lot of the land that makes up the town was purchased from the Lambton family
Newcastle Airport Metro station
Airport is a terminus station of the Green line of the Tyne and Wear Metro that serves Newcastle Airport, Newcastle upon Tyne. The station's platforms and ticket hall are situated a short distance south of the airport's terminal building, with a covered walkway running between them; the Airport extension, encompassing both Airport station and the intermediate Callerton Parkway station, was opened on 17 November 1991, having cost £12 million to construct. Prior to this date the Metro's Green line terminated 2 miles to the south-east at Bank Foot, with passengers heading to the airport having to alight there and take the M77 shuttle bus to the airport; the vast majority of the route of the extension was in place, having been opened in 1905 as part of the Ponteland and Darras Hall Branch of the North Eastern Railway. Although the line no longer reached Ponteland or Darras Hall, enough of it remained that building the extension only required around 0.2 miles of new right-of-way. In 2014 a survey conducted by the Consumers Association found that the Metro service from the Airport was one of the highest rated airport rail links in the country for customer satisfaction.
Only the Intercity train link to Birmingham International Airport was rated higher. Services towards South Hylton via Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland city centres operate every 12 minutes during the daytime and every 15 minutes during the evening and on Sundays, with trains taking around 24 minutes to reach central Newcastle and 55 minutes to reach Sunderland station. Services commence at 05:37 on weekdays, with starts on Saturday and Sunday; the last service to run the full length of the Green line to South Hylton departs at 22:39. Additional trains depart until 00:01, only taking passengers as far as Regent Centre before continuing empty to the Metro depot. Airport station information