SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Leap year

A leap year is a calendar year that contains an additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical year or seasonal year. Because astronomical events and seasons do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year, not a leap year is a common year. For example, in the Gregorian calendar, each leap year has 366 days instead of 365, by extending February to 29 days rather than the common 28; these extra days occur in each year, an integer multiple of 4. In the lunisolar Hebrew calendar, Adar Aleph, a 13th lunar month, is added seven times every 19 years to the twelve lunar months in its common years to keep its calendar year from drifting through the seasons. In the Bahá'í Calendar, a leap day is added when needed to ensure that the following year begins on the March equinox.

The term leap year comes from the fact that a fixed date in the Gregorian calendar advances one day of the week from one year to the next, but the day of the week in the 12 months following the leap day will advance two days due to the extra day, thus leaping over one day in the week. For example, Christmas Day fell on a Tuesday in 2012, Wednesday in 2013, Thursday in 2014, Friday in 2015, but leapt over Saturday to fall on a Sunday in 2016; the length of a day is occasionally corrected by inserting a leap second into Coordinated Universal Time because of variations in Earth's rotation period. Unlike leap days, leap seconds are not introduced on a regular schedule because variations in the length of the day are not predictable. Leap years can present a problem in computing, known as the leap year bug, when a year is not identified as a leap year or when February 29 is not handled in logic that accepts or manipulates dates. In the Gregorian calendar, the standard calendar in most of the world, most years that are multiples of 4 are leap years.

In each leap year, the month of February has 29 days instead of 28. Adding one extra day in the calendar every four years compensates for the fact that a period of 365 days is shorter than a tropical year by 6 hours; some exceptions to this basic rule are required since the duration of a tropical year is less than 365.25 days. The Gregorian reform modified the Julian calendar's scheme of leap years as follows: Every year, divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, 1900 are not leap years, but the years 1600 and 2000 are. Over a period of four centuries, the accumulated error of adding a leap day every four years amounts to about three extra days; the Gregorian calendar therefore drops three leap days every 400 years, the length of its leap cycle. This is done by dropping February 29 in the three century years that cannot be divided by 400; the years 1600, 2000 and 2400 are leap years, while 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200 and 2300 are not leap years.

By this rule, the average number of days per year is 365 + ​1⁄4 − ​1⁄100 + ​1⁄400 = 365.2425. The rule can be applied to years before the Gregorian reform, if astronomical year numbering is used; the Gregorian calendar was designed to keep the vernal equinox on or close to March 21, so that the date of Easter remains close to the vernal equinox. The "Accuracy" section of the "Gregorian calendar" article discusses how well the Gregorian calendar achieves this design goal, how well it approximates the tropical year; the following pseudocode determines whether a year is a leap year or a common year in the Gregorian calendar. The year variable being tested is the integer representing the number of the year in the Gregorian calendar; the algorithm applies to proleptic Gregorian calendar years before 1, but only if the year is expressed with astronomical year numbering. It is not valid for the BCE notation; the algorithm is not valid for years in the Julian calendar, such as years before 1752 in the British Empire.

The year 1700 was a leap year in the Julian calendar, but not in the Gregorian calendar. February 29 is a date that occurs every four years, is called the leap day; this day is added to the calendar in leap years as a corrective measure, because the Earth does not orbit the sun in 365 days. The Gregorian calendar is a modification of the Julian calendar first used by the Romans; the Roman calendar originated as a lunisolar calendar and named many of its days after the syzygies of the moon: the new moon and the full moon. The Nonae or nones was not the first quarter moon but was one nundina or Roman market week of nine days before the ides, inclusively counting the ides as the first of those nine days; this is. In 1825, Ideler believed that the lunisolar calendar was abandoned about 450 BC by the decemvirs, who implemented the Roman Republican calendar, used until 46 BC; the days of these calendars were counted down to

Comfort Food (novel)

Comfort Food: A Novel by Noah Ashenhurst contains a cast of characters: a romantic academic, a self-assured young writer, an enigmatic musician, a slacker, a wealthy mountaineer, a former heroin addict—characters whose lives intersect in the unique, award-winning debut novel. Stan Gillman-Reinhart is a graduate student at a small university in Bellingham, Washington in 1993. Through his experiences and frustrations we meet Delany Richardson, a budding writer and old friend of Stan's. Successive sections of the novel focus on John's earlier trip through Eastern Europe, Delany's previous summer in Alaska, Brian's life after college, Bridgette's earlier road trip through Utah, Dave's ascent of Denali, a tragic accident that illuminates their lives. Set in the verdant Pacific Northwest, the sandstone deserts of Utah, the gritty streets of Budapest, the snow-covered wasteland of Denali, Comfort Food is a literary work with an emphasis on the importance of human relationships and a sense of place.

The major themes include: The inescapable ability of death the difficulties of growing up and asserting one's individuality, the interconnectedness and power of relationships, addictions as a means to deal with the discomforts of being human, the power and impact of decisions in a morally bankrupt society, the influence of place. Comfort Food: A Novel won the 2006 Independent Publisher Book Award for Best Regional Fiction

No Escape (1953 film)

No Escape is a 1953 American film noir crime film directed by Charles Bennett starring Lew Ayres, Sonny Tufts and Marjorie Steele. The action is set in San Francisco; when the evidence in a murder case points to a young woman as the main suspect, both her boyfriend and a struggling songwriter who plays piano in a bar, decide to withhold evidence from the police. Both of them ostensibly act to protect the woman, who believes that she accidentally killed the victim after an attempted sexual assault; the girl, knowing that the songwriter did not commit the murder, helps him to escape from a police dragnet when he becomes the main suspect. She and the songwriter fall in love and compare notes about the events surrounding the murder, leading them to realize that someone else must be the culprit; the boyfriend is revealed as the actual murderer, is arrested after he attempts to kill them to hide his guilt. Lew Ayres as John Howard Tracy Sonny Tufts as Det. Simon Shayne Marjorie Steele as Pat Peterson Lewis Martin as Lt. Bruce Gunning Gertrude Michael as Olga Valerie Lewis Charles Cane as Wilbur K. Grossett Renny McEvoy as Turnip Bobby Watson as Claude Duffy James Griffith as Peter Hayden Robert Bailey as Detective Bob Robert Carson as Dr. Seymour The film was based on an original story by Charles Bennett.

It was to be the first production from Associated Film Artists, a company formed in 1948 by publicist Whitney Bolton, actor Louis Hayward and director Edgar G. Ulmer. In December 1949 it was announced Freddie Bisson of Independent Artists would make the film, was hoping to star Dana Andrews and Robert Cummings; the film was made by Mattugh Productions, produced by Hugh McKenzie and Mat Freed. It was picked up for release by United Artists; the film was going to star Louis Hayward but he dropped out when filming shifted to Los Angeles. Shooting started in January 1953. TV Guide gave the film a lukewarm review; the editors wrote, "The plot seems suspenseful but the lackluster direction has no feel for thriller pacing. Things move too with overwritten dialog mouthed in only average performances by the ensemble. However, the music captures the film's potential mood nicely. It's a pity the film does not live up to the score." No Escape at the American Film Institute Catalog No Escape on IMDb No Escape at AllMovie No Escape at the TCM Movie Database No Escape information site and DVD review at DVD Beaver