The tantour was a form of cone-shaped woman's headdress similar to the hennin, popular in the Levant during the nineteenth century, but seen after 1850. The tradition persisted longer in Lebanon among the Druze, as evidenced by the 1870s photograph to the right; the tantour was held in place by ribbons tied around the head. A silk scarf was wound around the base with a white veil attached to the peak; the height and composition of the tantour were proportional to the wealth of its owner, with the most splendid tantours made of gold and reaching as high as thirty inches. Some were encrusted with pearls; the tantour was a customary gift presented to the bride by her husband on their wedding day. Hennin Pointed hat Ochipok Kokoshnik List of hats and headgear
Lebanese Maronite Christians
Lebanese Maronite Christians refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, the largest Christian denomination in the country. The Lebanese Maronite Christians are believed to constitute about 25% of the total population of Lebanon. Lebanon's constitution was intended to guarantee political representation for each of the nation's ethno-religious groups. Under the terms of an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, the president of the country must be a Maronite; the cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous Phoenician elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years. In a 2013 interview the lead investigator of the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project, Pierre Zalloua, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions: "Lebanon had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, religions came as layers of paint on top.
There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries more Phoenician than another."The followers of Jesus Christ first became known as "Christians" in the ancient Greek city of Antioch, the city became a center for Christianity - after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. According to Catholic tradition, the first Bishop was Saint Peter before his travels to Rome; the third Bishop was the Apostolic Father Ignatius of Antioch. Antioch became one of the five original Patriarchates after Constantine recognized Christianity; the Maronite Christianity derived its name and religious identity from Saint Maron whose followers migrated to the area of Mount Lebanon from their previous location of residence around the area of Antioch, establishing the nucleus of the Maronite Church. More Maron, a fourth-century monk and the contemporary and friend of St. John Chrysostom, left Antioch for the Orontes River to lead an ascetic life, following the traditions of Anthony the Great of the Desert and Pachomius.
Many of his followers lived a monastic lifestyle. Following the death of Maron in 410 AD, his disciples built a monastery in his memory and formed the nucleus of the Maronite Church; the Maronites held fast to the beliefs of the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD. When the Monophysites of Antioch slew 350 monks, the Maronites sought refuge in the mountains of Lebanon. Correspondence concerning the event brought the Maronites papal and orthodox recognition, solidified by Pope Hormisdas on February 10, AD 518. A monastery was built around the shrine of St. Maro after the Council of Chalcedon; the martyrdom of the Patriarch of Antioch in the first decade of the seventh century, either at the hands of Persian soldiers or local Jews, left the Maronites without a leader, a situation which continued because of the final and most devastating Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. In the aftermath of the war, the Emperor Heraclius propagated a new Christological doctrine in an attempt to unify the various Christian churches of the east, who were divided over accepting the Council of Chalcedon.
This doctrine, was meant as a compromise between supporters of Chalcedon, such as the Maronites, opponents, such as the Jacobites. Monothelitism was endorsed by Pope Honorius I of the Catholic Church to win back the Monophysites. Instead, this new doctrine caused greater controversy, was declared a heresy at the Sixth Ecumenical Council in 680-681. Contemporary Greek and Arab sources, claimed that the Maronites accepted monothelitism, rejected the sixth council, continued to maintain a belief in the discredited monothelete doctrine for centuries, only moving away from monothelitism in the time of the crusades in order to avoid being branded heretics by the crusaders; the modern Maronite Church, rejects the assertion that the Maronites were monothelites apart from the rest of the Catholic Church. In 687 AD, the Emperor Justinian II agreed to evacuate many thousand Maronites from Lebanon and settle them elsewhere; the chaos and utter depression which followed led the Maronites to elect their first Patriarch, John Maroun, that year.
This, was seen as a usurpation by the Orthodox churches. Thus, at a time when Islam was rising on the borders of the Byzantine Empire and a united front was necessary to keep out Islamic infiltration, the Maronites were focused on a struggle to retain their independence against imperial power; this situation was mirrored in other Christian communities in the Byzantine Empire and helped facilitate the Muslim conquest of most of Eastern Christendom by the end of the century. The Maronites belong to the Maronite Syriac Church of Antioch is an Eastern Catholic Syriac Church that had affirmed its communion with Rome since 1180 A. D. although the official view of the Church is that it had never accepted either the Monophysitic views held by their Syriac neighbours, which were condemned in the Council of Chalcedon, or the failed compromise doctrine of Monothelitism. The Maronite Patriarch is traditionally seated in Bkerke, north of Beirut. Lebanese Maronite Christians are concentrated in the north Beirut, northern part of Mount Lebanon Governorate, southern part of North Governorate, parts of Beqaa Governorate and South Governorate.
The last Census in Leban
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam; the month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths. The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means scorching heat or dryness. Fasting is fard for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, are elderly, breastfeeding, chronically ill or menstruating. Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha'ban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca, but the more accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should follow the timetable of the closest country to them in which night can be distinguished from day.
While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids and engaging in sexual relations. Muslims are instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech and fighting except in self-defense. Pre-fast meals before dawn are referred to as Suhoor, while the post-fast breaking feasts after sunset are called Iftar. Spiritual rewards for fasting are believed to be multiplied within the month of Ramadan. Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan includes the increased offering of salat, recitation of the Quran and an increase of doing good deeds and charity. Chapter 2, Verse 185, of the Quran states: The month of Ramadan is that in, revealed the Quran, and whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, a number of other days. Allah desires for you ease, it is believed that the Quran was first revealed to Muhammad during the month of Ramadan, referred to as the "best of times".
The first revelation was sent down on Laylat al-Qadr, one of the five odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. According to hadith, all holy scriptures were sent down during Ramadan, it is further believed that the tablets of Ibrahim, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel and the Quran were sent down on 1st, 6th, 12th, 13th and 24th Ramadan, respectively. According to the Quran, fasting was obligatory for prior nations, is a way to attain taqwa, fear of God. God proclaimed to Muhammad that fasting for His sake was not a new innovation in monotheism, but rather an obligation practiced by those devoted to the oneness of God; the pagans of Mecca fasted, but only on tenth day of Muharram to expiate sins and avoid droughts. The ruling to observe fasting during Ramadan was sent down 18 months after Hijra, during the month of Sha'ban in the second year of Hijra in 624 CE. Abu Zanad, an Arabic writer from Iraq who lived after the founding of Islam, in around 747 CE, wrote that at least one Mandaean community located in al-Jazira observed Ramadan before converting to Islam.
According to historian Philip Jenkins, Ramadan comes "from the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches", a postulation corroborated by other scholars, such as the theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler. This suggestion is based on the idea that the Quran itself has Syriac Christian origins, a claim to which some Muslim academics such as M. Al-Azami, object. With professional athletes sharing their experiences of fasting during this religious period, Ramadan is more in the public eye than before - and while tradition and religion remain at the forefront and more Muslims are finding ways to fit their lifestyle around their faith; the beginning and end of Ramadan are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar. Hilāl is a day after the astronomical new moon. Since the new moon marks the beginning of the new month, Muslims can safely estimate the beginning of Ramadan. However, to many Muslims, this is not in accordance with authenticated Hadiths stating that visual confirmation per region is recommended.
The consistent variations of a day have existed since the time of Muhammad. The Arabic Laylat al-Qadr, translated to English is "the night of power" or "the night of decree", is considered the holiest night of the year; this is the night in which Muslims believe the first revelation of the Quran was sent down to Muhammad stating that this night was "better than one thousand months ", as stated in Chapter 97:3 of the Qu'ran. Laylat al-Qadr is believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan, i.e. the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th. The Dawoodi Bohra Community believe; the holiday of Eid al-Fitr marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of the next lunar month, Shawwal. This first day of the following month is declared after another crescent new moon has been sighted or the completion of 30 days of fasting if no visual sighting is possible due to weather conditi
Job (biblical figure)
Job is the central figure of the Book of Job in the Bible. In rabbinical literature, Iyov is called one of the prophets of the Gentiles. In Islam, Job is considered a prophet. Job is presented as a good and prosperous family man, beset by Satan with God's permission with horrendous disasters that take away all that he holds dear, including his offspring, his health, his property, he begins a search for the answers to his difficulties. The Hebrew Book of Job is part of Ketuvim of the Jewish Bible. Not much is known about Job based on the Masoretic text of the Jewish Bible; the characters in the Book of Job consist of Job, his wife, his three friends, a man named Elihu and angels. It begins with an introduction to Job's character—he is described as a blessed man who lives righteously in the Land of Uz; the Lord's praise of Job prompts an angel with the title of'satan' to suggest that Job served God because God protected him. God removes Job's protection, gives permission to the angel to take his wealth, his children, his physical health.
Despite his difficult circumstances, he does not curse God, but rather curses the day of his birth. And although he anguishes over his plight, he stops short of accusing God of injustice. Job's miserable earthly condition is God's will. In the following, Job debates three friends concerning Job's condition, they argue whether it was justified, they debate solutions to his problems. Job condemns all their counsel and critiques of him as false. God appears to Job and his friends out of a whirlwind, not answering Job's central questions. Job, by staying silent before God, stresses the point that he understands that his affliction is God's will though he despairs at not knowing why. Job appears faithful without direct knowledge of God and without demands for special attention from God for a cause that all others would declare to be just, and the text gives an allusion to Job 28:28 "And unto man he said, the fear of the Lord, wisdom. God rebukes the three friends and gives them instruction for remission of sin, followed by Job being restored to an better condition than his former wealthy state.
Job 42:10–17 Job is blessed to have seven sons, three daughters named Jemimah and Keren-happuch. His daughters were said to be the most beautiful women in the land; the Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, has a revised and updated final verse that claims Job's genealogy, asserting him to be a grandson of Esau and a ruler of Edom. This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausis, on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab, and he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, of his mother Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam. And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he ruled over: first, the son of Beor, the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, called Job, after him Asom, governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab, and his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites, Baldad sovereign of the Sauchaeans, Sophar king of the Minaeans.
In addition to the Book of Job, Job is mentioned in several religious texts: Judaism He is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel. Christianity He is cited as someone "who held fast to all the ways of justice" in the deuterocanonical Sirach, he is praised for his perseverance in the Christian Epistle of James. He is the protagonist of a pseudepigraphal book called the Testament of Job. Mormonism He is mentioned in the Doctrine and Covenants, one of the four sacred texts of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Islam He is discussed as a prophet in the Quran. Bahai In the Bahá'í writings: A lengthy tablet was written by Bahá'u'lláh, the first part of, focused on Job; the Tablet is referred to as the Tablet of Patience or the Tablet of Job. A clear majority of rabbis saw Job as having in fact existed as a factual figure. According to a minority view, Job never existed. In this view, Job was a literary creation by a prophet who used this form of writing to convey a divine message. On the other hand, the Talmud goes to great lengths trying to ascertain when Job lived, citing many opinions and interpretations by the leading sages.
Job is further mentioned in the Talmud. When Job was prosperous, anyone who associated with him to buy from him or sell to him, was blessed. Job's reward for being generous David and Ezekiel described the Torah's length without putting a number to it. Job was in fact one of three advisors that Pharaoh consulted, prior to taking action against the multiplying Israelites in the Book of Exodus; as described in the Talmud: Balaam urged Pharaoh to kill the Hebrew new-born boys. It is for Job's silence. However, the Book of Job itself contains no indication of this, to the prophet Ezekiel, Yahweh refers to Job as a righteous man of the same cal
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
Chouf is a historic region of Lebanon, as well as an administrative district in the governorate of Mount Lebanon. Located south-east of Beirut, the region comprises a narrow coastal strip notable for the Christian town of Damour, the valleys and mountains of the western slopes of Jabal Barouk, the name of the local Mount Lebanon massif, on which the largest forest of Cedars of Lebanon is found; the Emirs of Lebanon used to have their residence in Chouf, most notably Bachir Chehab II, who built the magnificent palace of Beiteddine during the first half of the 19th century. Another historical town, just facing Beiteddine, is Deir al Qamar. Chouf is the heartland of the Lebanese Druze community, with Druze leader Walid Jumblatt residing at the Jumblatt palace in the town of Moukhtara. Several violent clashes have occurred between Druze and Christians, as in 1848, 1860 and most 1983-1984, during the Lebanese Civil War. Reconciliation between the Druze and Christian communities came to fruition on August 8, 2001, when the Maronite Patriarch of Antioch, Cardinal Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir made a historic visit to the Chouf and met with the Druze and Chouf leader, Walid Jumblatt.
The Chouf is one of the best-preserved Lebanese districts and its nature has been spared from the intense building of neighboring Metn and Kesrouan. Despite the historical feuds between Christian Maronites and Druze, the Chouf district is still one of the most religiously diverse regions in Lebanon; the region hosts equal proportions of Druze, Sunni Muslims, Christians populations. The Druze and Sunnis each make up 30% of the population, the remaining 40% is Christian
The Druze are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as Al-Muwaḥḥidūn. Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of all people from the Mountain of Druze region, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet, it is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith; the Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam, Neoplatonism and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to interpret esoterically religious scriptures, to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. The Druze follow theophany, believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul. At the end of the cycle of rebirth, achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind.
Although dwarfed by other, larger communities, the Druze community played an important role in shaping the history of the Levant, where it continues to play a large political role. As a religious minority in every country, they have experienced persecution, except in Lebanon and Israel, where Druze judges, parliamentarians and doctors occupy the highest echelons of society. Though the faith developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze are not considered Muslims, although Al Azhar of Egypt recognizes them as one of the Islamic sects, akin to Shia. Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir, whose father al-Hakim is a key figure in the Druze faith, was harsh, causing the death of many Druze in Antioch and northern Syria. Persecution flared up during the rule of the Ottomans. Most Druze were targeted by the ISIL and Al-Qaeda in order to cleanse Syria and neighboring countries of non-Islamic influence; the Druze faith is one of the major religious groups in the Levant, with between 800,000 and a million adherents. They are found in Syria and Israel, with small communities in Jordan.
The oldest and most densely-populated Druze communities exist in Mount Lebanon and in the south of Syria around Jabal al-Druze. The Druze's social customs differ markedly from those of Muslims or Christians, they are known to form close-knit, cohesive communities which do not allow non-Druze in, though they themselves integrate in their adopted homelands. Druze people reside in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan; the Institute of Druze Studies estimates that forty to fifty percent of Druze live in Syria, thirty to forty percent in Lebanon, six to seven percent in Israel, one or two percent in Jordan. About two percent of the Druze population are scattered within other countries in the Middle East. Large communities of Druze live outside the Middle East, in Australia, Europe, Latin America, the United States, West Africa, they use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern similar to those of the other peoples of the Levant. The number of Druze people worldwide is between 800,000 and one million, with the vast majority residing in the Levant.
The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazī, an early preacher. Although the Druze consider ad-Darazī a heretic, the name has been used to identify them. Before becoming public, the movement was secretive and held closed meetings in what was known as Sessions of Wisdom. During this stage a dispute occurred between ad-Darazi and Hamza bin Ali concerning ad-Darazi's ghuluww, which refers to the belief that God was incarnated in human beings and to ad-Darazi naming himself "The Sword of the Faith", which led Hamza to write an epistle refuting the need for the sword to spread the faith and several epistles refuting the beliefs of the ghulat. In 1016 ad-Darazi and his followers proclaimed their beliefs and called people to join them, causing riots in Cairo against the Unitarian movement including Hamza bin Ali and his followers; this led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. Although the Druze religious books describe ad-Darazi as the "insolent one" and as the "calf", narrow-minded and hasty, the name "Druze" is still used for identification and for historical reasons.
In 1018, ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings. Some authorities see in the name "Druze" a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic dārisah. Others have speculated that the word comes from the Persian word Darazo or from Shaykh Hussayn ad-Darazī, one of the early converts to the faith. In the early stages of the movement, the word "Druze" is mentioned by historians, in Druze religious texts only the word Muwaḥḥidūn appears; the only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the eleventh century Christian scholar Yahya of Antioch, who refers to the heretical group created by ad-Darazī, rather than the followers of Hamza ibn'Alī. As for Western sources, Benjamin of Tudela, the Jewish traveler who passed through Lebanon in or around 1165, was one of the first European writers to refer to the Druzes by name; the word Dogziyin occurs in an early H