click links in text for more info

Lech, Czech, and Rus

Lech and Rus refers to a founding myth of three Slavic peoples: the Poles, the Czechs, the Rus' people. The three legendary brothers appear together in the Wielkopolska Chronicle, compiled in the early 14th century; the legend states that the brothers, on a hunting trip, followed different prey and thus travelled in different directions. There are multiple versions of the legend, including several regional variants throughout West Slavic, to lesser extent, other Slavic countries that mention only one or two brothers; the three figure into the origin myth of South Slavic peoples in some legends. In the Polish version of the legend, three brothers went hunting together but each of them followed a different prey and they all traveled in different directions. Rus went to the east, Čech headed to the west to settle on the Říp Mountain rising up from the Bohemian hilly countryside, while Lech traveled north. There, while hunting, he followed his arrow and found himself face-to-face with a fierce, white eagle guarding its nest from intruders.

Seeing the eagle against the red of the setting sun, Lech took this as a good omen and decided to settle there. He adopted the White Eagle as his coat-of-arms; the white eagle remains a symbol of Poland to this day, the colors of the eagle and the setting sun are depicted in Poland's coat of arms, as well as its flag, with a white stripe on top for the eagle, a red stripe on the bottom for the sunset. According to Wielkopolska Chronicle, Slavs are descendants of a Pannonian prince, he had three sons - Lech, Čech, who decided to settle west and east. A variant of this legend, involving only two brothers, is known in the Czech Republic; as in the Polish version, Čech is identified as the founder of the Czech nation and Lech as the founder of the Polish nation. The older chronicles from 14th century do not specify the location of Čech and Lech's homeland Charvaty, but in the Alois Jirásek retelling of Staré pověsti české it is more determined. However, numerous battles had made the country unfavorable for the people, who were accustomed to living in peace, cultivate the land and grow grain.

According to other versions, the reason was. They set off towards the sunset. According to the Chronicle of Dalimil, when Čech and his people climbed Říp Mountain, he looked upon the landscape and told his brothers that they have reached the promised land: a country where there are enough of beasts, birds and bees so that their tables will be always full, where they could defend themselves against enemies, he settled in the area with a tribe and, according to the Přibík Pulkava version, his brother Lech continued his journey to the lowlands over the snowy mountains of the north, where he founded Poland. Wenceslaus Hajek's version from 1541 adds many details not found in other sources. According to Hájek, the brothers were dukes who had owned castles in their homeland before their arrival in the region and dates their arrival to the year 644. A similar legend was registered in folk tales at two separated locations in Croatia: in the Kajkavian dialect of Krapina in Zagorje and in the Chakavian dialect of Poljica on the Adriatic Sea.

The Croatian variant was described and analysed in detail by S. Sakač in 1940. In the Bohemian chronicles, Čech appears on his own or only with Lech. Čech is first mentioned in Latin as Bohemus in the Cosmas' chronicle of 1125. The earliest Polish mention of Lech, Čech, Rus is found in the Chronicle of Greater Poland written at the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century; the legend suggests a common ancestry of the Poles and Rus people, illustrates the fact that as early as the 13th century at least three different Slavic peoples were aware of being ethnically and linguistically interrelated and, derived from a common root stock. The legends agree on the location of the homeland of the Early Slavic peoples in Eastern Europe; this area overlapped the region presumed by mainstream scholarship to be the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the general region of the Pontic-Caspian steppe. In the framework of the Kurgan hypothesis, "the Indo-Europeans who remained after the migrations became speakers of Balto-Slavic".

The most well-known version of the legend is seen to be somewhat Polocentric, as it mentions a national symbol only for Lech and the Polish nation, while relegating the two other brothers Czech and Rus to secondary characters. Furthermore, this particular version does not address the origin of the South Slavonic peoples; the legend attempts to explain the etymology of the ethnonyms: Lechia, the Czech lands, Rus'. Jan Kochanowski, a prominent Renaissance Po

John Peter (critic)

John Anthony Peter is a Hungarian-born British theatre critic, who immigrated to Britain in 1956. He was chief drama critic of The Sunday Times from 1984 to 2003, The Sunday Times contributing drama critic through to 2010. In 1990 he founded the Ian Charleson Awards. Peter was born in Hungary in 1938, his father, an esteemed art historian and third-generation Catholic, fond of England, was killed by Hungarian Nazis in 1944 because of his Jewish ancestry. He attended various state schools in Hungary. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, when he was 18, Peter and his mother fled from Budapest to Austria hidden in a hay cart. Knowing no English, he and his mother received transport to England, which he had his heart set on, he anglicised his name upon arrival and began assiduously learning the English language, while he and his mother lived in one of the refugee camps that the 30,000 Hungarian refugees to Britain were placed in. Within two months they were settled in an East London flat. Peter worked at Forte's Milk Bar, continued to learn the English language and British customs.

Nine months after arriving in England, Peter entered Campion Hall, Oxford University, where he studied English Language and Literature. He worked as a part-time college servant and waiter in return for his fees and expenses, after one year he was given a grant. After graduation, he did post-graduate work at Lincoln College, receiving a Bachelor of Letters in Renaissance English Literature, his earlier degree was raised to a Master of Arts. In 1996, he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from De Montfort University in Leicester. Peter began his career while still a post-graduate student at Oxford writing a dissertation on Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. An undergraduate friend was writing theatre reviews for The Times, after his friend left the university Peter applied to The Times, he was asked to submit a few short reviews of university productions. He applied and was accepted as a reporter and editorial assistant for the Times Educational Supplement from 1964 to 1967; this was a three-year apprenticeship, during which he saw a lot of London theatre and became a freelance theatre critic, submitting reviews more and more to The Times.

From 1967 to 1979, Peter was on The Sunday Times editorial staff, contributing theatre reviews regularly. He became the newspaper's assistant arts editor in 1979. In September 1984 Peter became chief drama critic of The Sunday Times, he continued in this position through 2003, following which he was the Sunday Times contributing drama critic through to 2010. In February 2003, Theatregoer magazine listed and interviewed him as one of 11 critics called the "most powerful people in theatre". Peter saw and reviewed Ian Charleson's extraordinary Hamlet at the National Theatre in late 1989. Unbeknownst to the audience, Charleson performed it during the last weeks of his life while he was ill with AIDS, died in January 1990 at the age of 40 eight weeks after his final performance. In November 1990, in memory of Charleson's fine performance, Peter established the annual Ian Charleson Award, to recognise and reward the best classical stage performance by an actor under age 30; the awards are jointly sponsored by the National Theatre, where they are held.

Recipients receive a cash prize, as do third-place winners. Upon founding the awards, he noted: Classical work is the solid bedrock of all acting, it is classical acting, with its twin demands of psychological perception and formal excellence, which tests and proves the actor's ability and stamina, both physical and mental. The first annual Ian Charleson Award was presented in January 1991; the awards defined a classic play as one written prior to 1900. The awards are presented at a friendly, low-key private luncheon at one of the restaurants at the National Theatre. There is no filming and no outside press, there are no acceptance speeches. Prize recipients and shortlist nominees receive a plaque signed by the judges, who number four and until 2017 always included Peter; as the founding judge of the Ian Charleson Awards, Peter was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2019 Birthday Honours for services to theatre. Peter, John. Vladimir's Carrot: Modern Drama and the Modern Imagination.

London: André Deutsch, 1987. ISBN 0233980148 "The most powerful people in theatre?" Theatregoer Magazine. February 2003. Pp. 26–30

2010 FIRS Men's Inline Hockey World Championships

The 2010 FIRS Men's Inline Hockey World Championships was the 16th FIRS Men's Inline Hockey World Championships, an annual international inline hockey tournament organised by the International Roller Sports Federation. It took place between 17 July 2010 in Beroun, Czech Republic; the United States team was the defending champion. The tournament was won by the United States, who claimed their 12th world championship title by defeating Switzerland 6–1 in the World Championship final; the Czech Republic won against France 5–2 for the bronze medal. Spain won the World Cup tournament defeating Australia 1–0; the United States' Travis Fudge was named MVP of the tournament. Australia's Dean Dunstan and Michael Smart were the tournament's leading scorer and goaltender in save percentage respectively; the following 14 nations qualified for the tournament. One nation from Oceania, seven nations from Europe, three nations from North America, three nations from South America were represented. Fourteen participating teams were placed in the following four groups.

After playing a round-robin, the top three teams from Group A and Group B advanced to World Championship round. The last team in Group A and B advanced to the World Cup round. Teams in Group C competed in a round-robin with the top two teams advancing to the World Championship round; the teams who finished third and fourth advanced to the World Cup round and the two teams who finished fifth and sixth are sent to compete in the 13th-14th placement game. The World Championship round is the top level playoff where the winning team finishes first overall for the tournament and wins the gold medal, it comprises the top three teams from Group A and B and the top two teams from Group C. The winning teams in the quarter-finals move on to compete in the semi-finals, while the losing teams are sent to the 5th-8th placement round; the two winning teams in the semi-finals advance to the gold medal game leaving the losing teams to compete for the bronze medal and third and fourth spot overall. The 5th-8th placement round comprises the four teams who lost in the quarter-finals of the World Championship round.

The teams play a qualifier against one other team, with the winners advancing to play-off for the fifth place and the losers compete against each other for seventh place. The World Cup round is the second level playoff in the tournament where the winner finishes ninth overall and wins the World Cup gold medal, it acts as a placement round for the places nine to twelve. The teams compete in a semi-final with the winners moving on to compete for the World Cup gold medal and the losers competing for the World Cup bronze; the 13th-14th placement game consists of the two teams who finished last and second last in Group C. A single game is played with the winner receiving 13th place in the overall standings and the loser receiving 14th. List shows the top skaters sorted by points goals. Only the top five goaltenders, based on save percentage. FIRS Inline Hockey World Championships List of FIRS Senior Men's Inline Hockey World Championships medalists Official site

Lauren B. Davis

Lauren B. Davis is a Canadian writer, she is best known for her novels Our Daily Bread, named one of the best books of 2011 by The Globe and Mail and The Boston Globe. and The Empty Room, a semi-autobiographical novel about alcoholism. She lives in Princeton, New Jersey with her husband, Zurich Financial executive, Ron Davis, their dog, Bailey Born in Montreal, Quebec, on September 5, 1955, Davis lived in France for over a decade, now resides in Princeton, New Jersey. Early in her career, Davis was mentored by Timothy Findley, at the Humber College School for Writers, where she went on to be a mentor, she was past European editor for the Literary Review of Canada from 1999 to 2002. Davis has been a mentor with the Humber College School for Writers and Guelph University's MFA program, she taught fiction writing at the WICE. Davis has lectured on writing at Trent University, Rider University, Humber College and The Paris Writers' Workshop. Davis ran a community writing program in Princeton called Sharpening the Quill from 2006-2018.

Her novel The Grimoire of Kensington Market was named one of the "Best Books of 2018" by The Globe and Mail and was short-listed for the Canadian Authors Association Fred Kerner Award. Our Daily Bread was long-listed for the Scotiabank Giller Prize, named as one of the "Very Best Books of 2011" by The Globe and Mail, "Best of 2011" by The Boston Globe; the Stubborn Season, was chosen for the Robert Adams Lecture Series and named one of the best-selling books of the year by Adams's lecture was televised on TVOntario's program Imprint. An Unrehearsed Desire was longlisted for the ReLit Awards, her short fiction has been shortlisted for the CBC Literary Awards and she is the recipient of two Mid-Career Writer Sustaining grants from the Canada Council for the Arts, in 2000 and 2006. Rat Medicine and Other Unlikely Curatives. Oakville, ON: Mosaic, 2000; the Stubborn Season. Toronto: HarperCollins Canada, 2002; the Radiant City. Toronto: HarperCollins Canada, 2005. An Unrehearsed Desire. Toronto: Exile Editions Canada, 2008.

Our Daily Bread. Wordcraft of Oregon, 2011. HarperCollins Canada 2012 The Empty Room. HarperCollins Canada, 2013 Against A Darkening Sky." HarperAvenue Canada, 2015 and Chizine Publications, 2015 The Grimoire of Kensington Market." Wolsak and Wynn/Buckrider Book, 2018==References== Official Site of Lauren B. Davis

Kirovabad pogrom

The Kirovabad pogrom or the pogrom of Kirovabad was an Azeri-led pogrom that targeted Armenians living in the city of Kirovabad in Soviet Azerbaijan during November 1988. An unidentified Armenian press editor said the commander of the Soviet troops asked the Interior Ministry in Moscow for permission to evacuate some of the city's Armenian population of 100,000; the conflict intensified in the fall of 1988, as the Armenians of Kirovabad and the surrounding countryside were driven from their homes and forced to seek safe haven in Armenia. According to Los Angeles Times, an article published on November 27, 1988, "Soviet soldiers have blocked dozens of Azerbaijani attempts to massacre Armenians in their homes in the continuing communal violence in the southern Soviet republic of Azerbaijan, a senior military commander there said Saturday."On November 23, martial law was declared in Kirovabad, meaning that troops could now respond with rifle fire. That same day, an attempt of pogrom against the building of the city's Executive committee took place.

During the clashes between the aggressive crowd and the armed forces who tried to keep the order and to defend the Armenian citizens three soldiers were killed, 67 people were wounded. Hooligans damaged the military machines. Yuri Rost mentions sources reporting that the number of fatalities had risen to forty by 24 November, one third of whom were Azerbaijanis killed in clashes with the Soviet troops. Human rights activists reported, that up to 130 Armenians were killed in Kirovabad alone and "with warnings of possible genocide, they have appealed for swift action by the government to halt Azerbaijani attacks on Armenians." On 25 November 1988, Soviet human rights activist Andrei Sakharov, in Massachusetts during the unrest, said he had received reports from the Soviet Union that more than 130 Armenians were killed and more than 200 wounded in the violence. However the Soviet authorities denied Sakharov's claims, with Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennady Gerasimov saying that the information about the casualties was not accurate.

The New York Times reported that "official and unofficial informants in the two republics who have provided reliable reports during the last nine months of unrest discounted the higher figures, saying they were based on second- and third-hand accounts". Sakharov admitted in his memoirs that his statement was a mistake and that he should not have used concrete figures about the numbers of Armenian casualties in Kirovabad, he wrote: During this time Armenian – Azerbaijani problems aggravated again. Pogroms and violence started in Kirovabad; the situation there was terrible – hundreds of women and children were hiding in a church, which with much difficulty was protected by soldiers, who were armed only with mine shovels. Soldiers indeed were having a hard time, they behaved heroically. There were casualties among them. Soon we received information; as it turned out the reports came from one person, who let's say was not quite accurate and responsible. But they appeared to be independent and trustworthy.

Lusya, who trusted these reports transmitted them to me in the USA by telephone, I used the received figures in a telephone message to Mitterrand and in a public statement. This was one of the annoying errors. Of course, I should not have at least used the specific figures; the Soviet authorities confirmed the death of 7 people at the time of the events. This figure included 3 Azerbaijanis and 1 Armenian. Angus Roxburgh during the violence reported that at least six more Armenians were killed due to ethnic rioting in Kirovabad. Sumgait pogrom Pogrom of Armenians in Baku Maraga Massacre Anti-Armenianism List of massacres in Azerbaijan Participant of self-defense operations in Kirovabad: In critical situations, we always win if we are united Pogroms in Kirovabad - MIATSUM

Lenne (Schmallenberg)

Lenne is a locality in the municipality Schmallenberg in the High Sauerland District in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The village has 350 inhabitants and lies in the west of the municipality of Schmallenberg at a height of around 350 m. Through the village leads the Bundesstraße 236. In the village flows the stream Uentrop coming from the Uentroptal in the river Lenne. Lenne borders on the villages of Fleckenberg, Hundesossen and Harbecke; the first written document mentioning Leno dates from 1072 in a charter from Grafschaft Abbey of bishop Anno of Cologne. The village used to belong to the municipality of Lenne in Amt Schmallenberg until the end of 1974.