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Led Zeppelin

Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of vocalist Robert Plant, guitarist Jimmy Page, bassist/keyboardist John Paul Jones, drummer John Bonham. With their heavy, guitar-driven sound, they are cited as one of the progenitors of heavy metal, although their style drew from a variety of influences, including blues and folk music. After changing their name from the New Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin signed a deal with Atlantic Records that afforded them considerable artistic freedom. Although the group were unpopular with critics, they achieved significant commercial success with eight studio albums released over ten years, from Led Zeppelin to In Through the Out Door, their untitled fourth studio album known as Led Zeppelin IV, featuring the song "Stairway to Heaven", is among the most popular and influential works in rock music, helped to secure the group's popularity. Page wrote most of Led Zeppelin's music early in their career, while Plant supplied the lyrics.

Jones's keyboard-based compositions became central to the group's catalogue, which featured increasing experimentation. The latter half of their career saw a series of record-breaking tours that earned the group a reputation for excess and debauchery. Although they remained commercially and critically successful, their output and touring schedule were limited during the late 1970s, the group disbanded following Bonham's death from alcohol-related asphyxia in 1980. In the decades that followed, the former members sporadically collaborated and participated in one-off Led Zeppelin reunions; the most successful of these was the 2007 Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert in London, with Bonham's son Jason Bonham on drums. Many critics consider Led Zeppelin one of the most successful and influential rock groups in history, they are one of the best-selling music artists in the history of audio recording. With RIAA-certified sales of 111.5 million units, they are the third-best-selling band and fifth-best-selling act in the US.

Each of their nine studio albums placed in the top 10 of the Billboard album chart and six reached the number-one spot. They achieved eight consecutive UK number-one albums. Rolling Stone magazine described them as "the heaviest band of all time", "the biggest band of the Seventies", "unquestionably one of the most enduring bands in rock history", they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995. In 1966, London-based session guitarist Jimmy Page joined the blues-influenced rock band the Yardbirds to replace bassist Paul Samwell-Smith. Page soon switched from bass to lead guitar. Following Beck's departure in October 1966, the Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, began to wind down. Page wanted to form a supergroup with him and Beck on guitars, the Who's Keith Moon and John Entwistle on drums and bass, respectively. Vocalists Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were considered for the project; the group never formed, although Page and Moon did record a song together in 1966, "Beck's Bolero", in a session that included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones.

The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968 at Luton College of Technology in Bedfordshire. They were still committed to several concerts in Scandinavia, so drummer Jim McCarty and vocalist Keith Relf authorised Page and bassist Chris Dreja to use the Yardbirds' name to fulfill the band's obligations. Page and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Page's first choice for the lead singer was Terry Reid, but Reid declined the offer and suggested Robert Plant, a singer for the Band of Joy and Hobbstweedle. Plant accepted the position, recommending former Band of Joy drummer John Bonham. John Paul Jones inquired about the vacant position of bass guitarist, at the suggestion of his wife, after Dreja dropped out of the project to become a photographer. Page had known Jones since they were both session musicians, agreed to let him join as the final member; the four played together for the first time in a room below a record store on Gerrard Street in London. Page suggested that they attempt "Train Kept A-Rollin'" a jump blues song popularised in a rockabilly version by Johnny Burnette, covered by the Yardbirds.

"As soon as I heard John Bonham play", Jones recalled, "I knew this was going to be great... We locked together as a team immediately". Before leaving for Scandinavia, the group took part in a recording session for the P. J. Proby album Three Week Hero; the album's track "Jim's Blues", with Plant on harmonica, was the first studio track to feature all four future members of Led Zeppelin. The band completed the Scandinavian tour as the New Yardbirds, playing together for the first time in front of a live audience at Gladsaxe Teen Clubs in Gladsaxe, Denmark, on 7 September 1968; that month, they began recording their first album, based on their live set. The album was recorded and mixed in nine days, Page covered the costs. After the album's completion, the band were forced to change their name after Dreja issued a cease and desist letter, stating that Page was allowed to use the New Yardbirds moniker for the Scandinavian dates only. One account of how the new band's name was chosen held that Moon and Entwistle had suggested that a supergroup with Page and Beck would go down like a "lead balloon", an idiom for disastrous results.

The group dropped the'a' in lead at the suggestion of their manager, Peter Grant, so that those unfamiliar wit

Classes of computers

Computers can be classified, or typed, in many ways. Some common classifications of digital computers are summarized below. For others see Category:Classes of computers. Microcomputers became the most common type of computer in the late 20th century; the term “microcomputer” was introduced with the advent of systems based on single chip microprocessors. The best-known early system was the Altair 8800, introduced in 1975; the term "microcomputer" has become an anachronism. These computers include: Desktop computers -- A case put on a desk; the display may be optional, depending on use. The case size may vary, depending on the required expansion slots. Small computers of this kind may be integrated into the monitor. Rackmount computers – The cases of these computers fit into 19-inch racks, may be space-optimized and flat. A dedicated display and mouse may not exist, but a KVM switch or built-in remote control can be used to gain console access. In-car computers – Built into automobiles, for entertainment, etc.

Game consoles – Fixed computers built for entertainment purposes. Laptops and notebook computers – Portable and all in one case. Tablet computer – Like laptops, but with a touch-screen replacing the physical keyboard. Smartphones, smartbooks, PDAs and palmtop computers – Small handheld computers with limited hardware.(Internal storage Programmable calculator– Like small handhelds, but specialized on mathematical work. Handheld game consoles – The same as game consoles, but small and portable. Minicomputers are a class of multi-user computers that lie in the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the smallest mainframe computers and the largest single-user systems; the term superminicomputer or supermini was used to distinguish more powerful minicomputers that approached mainframes in capability. Superminis were 32-bit at a time when most minicomputers were 16-bit; these traditional minicomputers in the last few decades of the 20th Century, found in small to medium-sized businesses and embedded in hospital CAT scanners would be rack-mounted and connect to one or more terminals or tape/card readers, like mainframes and unlike most personal computers, but require less space and electrical power than a typical mainframe.

The contemporary term for minicomputer is midrange computer, such as the higher-end SPARC, POWER and Itanium-based systems from Oracle Corporation, IBM and Hewlett-Packard, the size is now smaller, such as a tower case. The term mainframe computer was created to distinguish the traditional, institutional computer intended to service multiple users from the smaller, single user machines; these computers are capable of handling and processing large amounts of data quickly. Mainframe computers are used in large institutions such as government and large corporations, they can respond to hundreds of millions of users at a time. A Supercomputer is focused on performing tasks involving intense numerical calculations such as weather forecasting, fluid dynamics, nuclear simulations, theoretical astrophysics, complex scientific computations. A supercomputer is a computer, at the front-line of current processing capacity speed of calculation; the term supercomputer itself is rather fluid, the speed of today's supercomputers tends to become typical of tomorrow's ordinary computer.

Supercomputer processing speeds are measured in floating point operations per second, or FLOPS. An example of a floating point operation is the calculation of mathematical equations in real numbers. In terms of computational capability, memory size and speed, I/O technology, topological issues such as bandwidth and latency, supercomputers are the most powerful, are expensive, not cost-effective just to perform batch or transaction processing. Server refers to a computer, dedicated to providing one or more services. For example, a computer dedicated to a database may be called a "database server". "File servers" manage a large collection of computer files. "Web servers" process web pages and web applications. Many smaller servers are personal computers that have been dedicated to provide services for other computers. A server is expected to be reliable, fit for running for several years, giving useful diagnosis in case of an error. For increased security, the server may be mirrored These provide GUI sessions that can be used by client PCs that work someway like a remote control.

Only the screen output is shown on the client. The GUI applications run on the server, data would be stored in the same LAN, thus avoiding problems, should a client PC be damaged or stolen. A server may run several virtual machines for different activities, supplying the same environment to each VM as if it ran on dedicated hardware. Different operating systems can therefore be run at the same time; this technology approach needs special hardware support to be useful and was first the domain of mainframes and other large computers. Nowadays, most personal computers are equipped for this task, but for long-term operation or critical systems, specialized server hardware may be needed. Another approach is to implement VMs on the operating system level, so all VMs run on the same OS instance, but are fundamentally separated to not interfere with each other. Workstations are computers that are intended to

Ranshima Station

Ranshima Station is a railway station on the Hakodate Main Line in Otaru, Japan, operated by Hokkaido Railway Company. The station is numbered S17. Ranshima Station is served by the Hakodate Main Line and is 237.9 km from the start of the line at Hakodate. The station has two side platforms connected by an overpass. Kitaca is not available. A Kan ` sells some types of tickets. Ranshima Station opened on 12 December 1902 when the private Hokkaido Railway established a track between it and Shikaribetsu. By 28 June 1903, the track had been extended north from here to Otaru Chūō. By 19 Oct 1904, link ups to the track south of Shikaribetsu had allowed through traffic all the way to Hakodate. After the Hokkaido Railway was nationalized on 1 July 1907, Japanese Government Railways took over control of the station. On 12 October 1909 the station became part of the Hakodate Main Line. On 1 April 1987, with the privatization of Japanese National Railways, the successor of JGR, the station came under the control of JR Hokkaido.

From 1 October 2007, station numbering was introduced on JR Hokkaido lines, with Ranshima Station becoming "S17"