Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
U.S. Route 1 in North Carolina
U. S. Route 1 is a north–south United States highway that runs for 174.1 miles from the South Carolina state line, near Rockingham, to the Virginia state line, near Wise. It serves as a strategic highway, connecting the North Carolina Sandhills and Research Triangle regions. From the South Carolina state line, US 1 passes through downtown Rockingham as a two-lane road with five-lane boulevard segments before and after downtown. North of Rockingham continues as a two-lane road. Between NC 177 and the Moore County line, begins the multilane highway where it is a five-lane rural highway with a continuous center turn lane. Near the Moore County line becomes a 4 lane divided arterial. In southern Moore County, it continues as a 4 lane arterial with five-lane boulevard segments in Pinebluff and the southern part of Southern Pines. After the Saunders Boulevard traffic signal, US 1 becomes an Expressway grade bypass in Southern Pines. After North May Street, it becomes a brief four-lane arterial before it becomes a four-lane Expressway after Aiken Road.
A mile south of the US 15/US 501` juncture, downgrades as a 4 lane arterial towards Tramway. After Tramway, it becomes a freeway bypassing Sanford and continues to Raleigh as a freeway, sharing with US 64 at Cary and 11 miles of the Raleigh Inner-Beltline with I-440. North of Raleigh, US 1 continues as an expressway through Wake Henderson. Exiting off the connector road before I-85, the highway reverts to a two-lane rural road, paralleling I-85 into Virginia. US 1 through North Carolina follows the Fall Line between the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Though the highway is known as "Highway 1" or "U. S. 1" throughout the state, the highway does have other known names. Capital Boulevard – Road name from I-440 north to the Franklin County line. Claude E. Pope Memorial Highway – Official North Carolina name of US 1, from I-40 in Cary south to the Chatham County line. Cliff Benson Beltline – Road name of Raleigh northern inner-beltline, cosigned with I-440. H. Clifton Blue Memorial Boulevard – Official North Carolina name of US 1 through Southern Pines.
Jefferson Davis Highway – Official North Carolina name of US 1, from South Carolina state line to Sanford. The general route of US 1 in North Carolina was first part of the Capital Highway, an auto trail organized in 1909 to encourage counties along the route to improve the road between Washington and Atlanta, it differed from US 1 north of Norlina, where it ran via Emporia and Roanoke Rapids, between Southern Pines and Rockingham, where a route via Pinehurst - where the association's president lived - was followed. The Quebec-Miami International Highway, organized in 1911 and renamed the Atlantic Highway in 1915 followed this corridor, overlapping many parts of the Capital Highway, it followed less of US 1 than the Capital Highway, only taking the same route between Raleigh and Cameron and south of Rockingham, but was modified to match the Capital Highway by 1920. In 1922, the route was designated as North Carolina Highway 50, from the South Carolina state line to Roanoke Rapids. In 1923, the route from Norlina to Roanoke Rapids was renumbered as NC 48.
In 1926, US 1 was established, it was assigned to overlap all of NC 50. Since its establishment, US 1 has not changed its route from the South Carolina state line to Pinebluff; the first change along the route happened in 1930 in Raleigh, where minor road changes were done in the downtown area. In 1933, US 1 was moved off Rocky Church Fork Road near Tramway onto new road to the west. Between 1937-1944, US 1 was rerouted in Aberdeen to its current routing and north of Wise where US 1 moved onto new road east of Mac Powell Road. In 1948, US 1 was removed from most of Wake Forest Road, in Raleigh, placed onto Louisburg Road. In 1953, US 1 was placed on a bypass west of Wake Forest, leaving the old route to become US 1A. Around 1956-1957, several changes along US 1 were made: A new bypass build west of Sanford, old route replaced by US 1A. In Raleigh, US 1 was redirected onto one-way streets Dawson and McDowell that connected to a new road called Capital Boulevard, which connected US 1 back onto Louisburg Road.
A new Super-2 bypass was built east of Henderson. In 1960, US 1 was placed on a Super-2. Around 1963, US 1 was placed onto new freeway between Apex in north Raleigh; the old route to Hillsborough Road became what is today Salem Street, Old Apex Road and East Chatham Street, while the routing through Raleigh became US 1 Business. Around 1965, the Super-2, from Moncure, extended north into Apex. In 1975, the Super-2, from Moncure, extended south to Sanford; the entire route between Sanford to Apex became a freeway by the mid-1990s. In June, 2005, a new freeway bypass was built east of Cameron; the NCDOT, in collaboration with the Department of Commerce and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, has designated US 1 as a Strategic Highway Corridor from Interstate 85 in Henderson to the South Carolina state line. From I-85 to I-540 in Raleigh, US 1 is recommended to be improved to a freeway. From I-540 to I-440 it is recommended be improved to an expressway. From I-440 to south of I-74/US
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
U.S. Route 421 in North Carolina
U. S. Route 421 traverses 328 miles across North Carolina; the highway is nominally labeled "north" and "south" throughout North Carolina, though it follows a general northwest-southeast path. The segments from Buies Creek to Sanford and from Greensboro to Boone are due east-west, with compass west corresponding to the signed north direction. A majority of the highway is part of the North Carolina Strategic Highway Corridors system; because of this designation, the state has made numerous changes converting a rural two-lane highway into a major freeway/expressway with 4 or more lanes. Numerous former segments of the highway named "Old U. S. Route 421" are found along the entire route. US 421 starts at a parking/dock area on the Cape Fear side of Pleasure Island. Within one-quarter mile, US 421 passes through its unsigned junction with NC 211 and the approach to the Fort Fisher Ferry Terminal, where travelers can board to cross the Cape Fear River toward Southport. After the ferry terminal is the Fort Fisher State Recreation Area, where the first and second battles of Fort Fisher took place.
The highway continues north, going through popular tourist destinations in New Hanover county: Kure Beach, Carolina Beach. US 421 enters Wilmington along the river side of the city. At Wooster Street, it goes west, overlapping with several other highways and funnels through Brunswick County before returning in northwestern New Hanover County. From about three miles north of the I-140 interchange, the road remains a four-lane divided highway for another ten miles. After its intersection with NC 210, it becomes a rural two-lane highway for much of its remainder until Dunn; the exception is in Clinton, where it follows Faircloth Freeway to bypass the city, running concurrent to US 701 for about four miles. There is one rest area located just north of Delway. US 421 meets I-95 in Dunn. From Wilmington to Dunn, the route parallels I-40 ten miles to US 421's east. After crossing downtown Dunn and Erwin to the east, US 421 becomes a four-lane divided highway again until reaching Lillington, with a short segment in Buies Creek containing a center lane and reduced speed limit as it crosses Campbell University.
Upon reaching the junction with US 401, NC 27, NC 210, all four routes collect onto a thoroughfare heading south over the Cape Fear River into downtown Lillington. US 421 splits off to the west, becoming a two-lane expressway until Sanford. Upon reaching Sanford, US 421 followed Horner Boulevard with NC 87 to cross downtown, but it is now rerouted onto the completed Sanford Bypass, the entirety of, freeway, it runs concurrent with NC 87 Bypass until the US 1/US 15/US 501/NC 87 interchange, from which it continues until the end of the bypass near Cumnock. For the rest of its route until Greensboro, US 421 remains entirely free-flowing, it is an expressway from Sanford to just south of Siler City, bypassing Goldston, Bear Creek, Siler City. From here to the Greensboro Urban Loop, US 421 becomes a freeway, bypassing Staley and Julian. All of these cities/places were connected by US 421's old alignment, now called some variant of Old US 421 for the majority of its route. Near Pleasant Garden, US 421 joins I-85 on the Greensboro Urban Loop, staying with the loop as I-85 leaves and I-73 joins it.
Another six miles US 421 leaves the Greensboro Urban Loop to join I-40 and continue westward towards Winston-Salem. Near Kernersville, US 421 remains with I-40 Business, a former alignment of I-40, going through downtown Winston-Salem. West of Winston-Salem, I-40 Business ends at an interchange with mainline I-40 and US 421 continues as a freeway towards Yadkinville and Wilkesboro; when the highway nears North Wilkesboro, the highway passes North Wilkesboro Speedway. As US 421 enters Wilkesboro city limits, it downgrades to an expressway with various stores and restaurants along it; as it leaves Wilkesboro, US 421 begins a gradual climb in elevation, until five miles from Deep Gap, where it climbs up the steep escarpment along the eastern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Access to the Blue Ridge Parkway is located at Deep Gap; as US 421 approaches Boone, the expressway comes to an end just before an intersection with Old US 421. The road continues into Boone as four lane boulevard, becoming two lanes at the intersection with US 321.
US 321 north, US 421 north, NC 194 south all run concurrent through the downtown area via King Street. After leaving Boone, US 421 continues on as a two-lane road to the Tennessee state line, heading on to Mountain City. US 421 overlaps with two state scenic byways: the Cape Fear Historic Byway, in downtown Wilmington, the U. S. 421 Scenic Byway, between Deep Gap and Boone. Two of North Carolina's Bicycle Routes run concurrent for portions of US 421. North Carolina Bicycle Route 5 is concurrent from US 421's southern terminus at Fort Fisher to north of Snows Cut, through downtown Wilmington to Blueberry Road near Montague, North Carolina, a short portion near Coats. A small part of North Carolina Bicycle Route 3 is concurrent with US 421 in downtown Wilmington. 1931 - US 421 appears on highway maps starting from Winston-Salem to Boone at Ki
Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States. Raleigh is the second-largest city in the state, after Charlotte. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees, which line the streets in the heart of the city; the city covers a land area of 142.8 square miles. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population as 479,332 as of July 1, 2018, it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the country. The city of Raleigh is named after Sir Walter Raleigh, who established the lost Roanoke Colony in present-day Dare County. Raleigh is home to North Carolina State University and is part of Research Triangle Park, together with Durham and Chapel Hill; the "Triangle" nickname originated after the 1959 creation of the Research Triangle Park, located in Durham and Wake counties, among the three cities and their universities. The Research Triangle region encompasses the U. S. Census Bureau's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 2,037,430 in 2013.
The Raleigh metropolitan statistical area had an estimated population of 1,214,516 in 2013. Most of Raleigh is located within Wake County, with a small portion extending into Durham County; the towns of Cary, Garner, Wake Forest, Holly Springs, Fuquay-Varina, Wendell and Rolesville are some of Raleigh's primary nearby suburbs and satellite towns. Raleigh is an early example in the United States of a planned city. Following the American Revolutionary War when the US gained independence, this was chosen as the site of the state capital in 1788 and incorporated in 1792 as such; the city was laid out in a grid pattern with the North Carolina State Capitol in Union Square at the center. During the American Civil War, the city was spared from any significant battle, it fell to the Union in the closing days of the war, struggled with the economic hardships in the postwar period related to the reconstitution of labor markets, over-reliance on agriculture, the social unrest of the Reconstruction Era. Following the establishment of the Research Triangle Park in 1959, several tens of thousands of jobs were created in the fields of science and technology, it became one of the fastest-growing communities in the United States by the early 21st century.
Bath, the oldest town in North Carolina, was the first nominal capital of the colony from 1705 until 1722, when Edenton took over the role. The colony had no permanent institutions of government until the new capital New Bern was established in 1743. In December 1770, Joel Lane petitioned the North Carolina General Assembly to create a new county. On January 5, 1771, the bill creating Wake County was passed in the General Assembly; the county was formed from portions of Cumberland and Johnston counties. The county was named for the wife of Governor William Tryon; the first county seat was Bloomsbury. New Bern, a port town on the Neuse River 35 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, was the largest city and the capital of North Carolina during the American Revolution; when the British Army laid siege to the city, that site could no longer be used. Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital in 1788, as its central location protected it from attacks from the coast, it was established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital.
The city was named for sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island. The city's location was chosen, in part, for being within 11 mi of Isaac Hunter's Tavern, a popular tavern frequented by the state legislators. No known city or town existed on the chosen city site. Raleigh is one of the few cities in the United States, planned and built to serve as a state capital, its original boundaries were formed by the downtown streets of North, East and South. The plan, a grid with two main axes meeting at a central square and an additional square in each corner, was based on Thomas Holme's 1682 plan for Philadelphia; the North Carolina General Assembly first met in Raleigh in December 1794, granted the city a charter, with a board of seven appointed commissioners and an "Intendant of Police" to govern it. In 1799, the N. C. Minerva and Raleigh Advertiser was the first newspaper published in Raleigh. John Haywood was the first Intendant of Police. In 1808, Andrew Johnson, the nation's future 17th President, was born at Casso's Inn in Raleigh.
The city's first water supply network was completed in 1818, although due to system failures, the project was abandoned. In 1819 Raleigh's first volunteer fire company was founded, followed in 1821 by a full-time fire company. In 1817, the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina was headquartered in Raleigh. In 1831, a fire destroyed the North Carolina State House. Two years reconstruction began with quarried gneiss being delivered by the first railroad in the state. Raleigh celebrated the completions of the new State Capitol and new Raleigh & Gaston Railroad Company in 1840. In 1853, the first State Fair was held near Raleigh; the first institution of higher learning in Raleigh, Peace College, was established in 1857. Raleigh's Historic Oakwood contains many houses from the 19th century that are still in good condition. North Carolina seceded from the Union. After the Civil War began, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance ordered the construction of breastworks around the city as protection from
U.S. Route 15 in North Carolina
U. S. Route 15 is a north–south United States highway that traverses the majority of North Carolina in concurrency with U. S. Route 501, known as "15-501". From the South Carolina state line, US 15 is in concurrency with US 401 to Laurinburg. Merging with US 501, it becomes what is known as "15-501", a concurrency that extends for 106 miles across central North Carolina. After Laurinburg it goes north to Aberdeen, linking with US 1 before continuing to Pinehurst. In Pinehurst, 15-501 goes through a rare roundabout continues north, through Carthage, back to US 1. After another brief concurrency with US 1 through Sanford, it exits off the freeway and goes due north to Pittsboro. After Pittsboro, 15-501 becomes an expressway, connecting the cities of Chapel Hill and Durham. Though the road is a symbol of the separation of the Carolina-Duke rivalry, NCDOT has been trying to remedy that by making the route a superstreet for better traffic flow. In Durham, 15-501 upgrades to an urban freeway, allowing for quick access from south Durham to north.
At exit 176B, US 501 splits off towards Roxboro. After Durham, US 15 continues to follow I-85 till exit 186A, where it goes first to Creedmoor on into Oxford. After going through downtown Oxford, it continues north, near Mayo Lake, to Virginia. Established in 1927, it was aligned along NC 75 from the South Carolina state line, through Rockingham and Durham, to the Virginia state line. Special routes of U. S. Route 15 Media related to U. S. Route 15 in North Carolina at Wikimedia Commons NCRoads.com: U. S. 15
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif