click links in text for more info

Lee County, Texas

Lee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 16,612, its county seat is Giddings. The county is named for US and Confederate General. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 634 square miles, of which 629 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 77 U. S. Highway 290 State Highway 21 Milam County Burleson County Washington County Fayette County Bastrop County Williamson County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,657 people, 5,663 households, 4,150 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 6,851 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.59% White, 12.08% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 8.87% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 18.19 % of the population were Latino of any race. 35.5% were of German and 8.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000.

80.1 % spoke 14.4 % Spanish and 5.1 % German as their first language. There were 5,663 households out of which 35.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.00% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.80% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,280, the median income for a family was $42,073. Males had a median income of $30,635 versus $21,611 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,163.

About 9.70% of families and 11.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.70% of those under age 18 and 16.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, Lee County has a similar ethnic makeup relative to the overall United States. Lee County was Democratic, although less so than the majority of Texas as it was somewhat allied with the isolated Republican German-American Unionist stronghold centred upon Gillespie and Kendall Counties, it nonetheless voted Democratic in every election up to 1976 except the landslide Republican triumphs of 1956 and 1972, plus the war-influenced elections of 1916 and 1940 when its German-American population was suspicious of the Democratic Party's position towards Germany. Since 1980, like all of the rural White South, Lee County has become powerfully Republican. No Democratic Presidential candidate has won a majority in the county since Jimmy Carter in 1976, although during the drought- and farm crisis-dominated 1988 election Michael Dukakis won a fourteen-vote plurality.

In the past five elections the GOP candidate has always passed two third of the county's vote and Donald Trump exceeded three-quarters in 2016. Template:Begin The Texas Youth Commission operates the Giddings State School in unincorporated Lee County, near Giddings; as of 2004 the Giddings State School, a Texas Youth Commission facility, was Lee County's largest employer. Giddings Lexington Corinth Dime Box Hills Lincoln Old Dime Box Serbin List of memorials to Robert E. Lee National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Lee County Lee County Lee County from the Handbook of Texas Online

The Sam Loyd Company

The Sam Loyd Company is an organization based in the United States that specializes in puzzle games. The company was launched in 2002 after the work of Samuel Loyd and his son in the 1800 and 1900’s, he produced puzzles for a number of resources including the New York Saturday Courier, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Women’s Home Companion and created puzzle cards for advertising purposes. It was 2002 before the company was founded to protect Loyd's original work. Between the years of 1855 and 1910, Sam Loyd produced a number of puzzles and chess problems for a variety of newspapers and magazines; these included Our Puzzle Magazine. The White Horse Monument was his most successful puzzle, based on the White Horse Monument in Berkshire, UK. Other puzzles created by Sam Loyd still used today include, ‘Trick Donkey’s Puzzle’, ‘Get Off the Earth’ and ‘Puzzle of Teddy and the Lion’; the puzzles he created went on to be known as some of the best of all time. After his death in 1911, his son Walter L Loyd known as Sam Loyd Jnr, continued his work.

Walter L Loyd began by creating a puzzle book for children, something the company would focus on. He created the book ‘Sam Loyd’s Cyclopedia of 500 Puzzles and Conundrums. All the work created by Sam Loyd and his son is protected by the Sam Loyd Company. 71 years after the passing of Sam Loyd Jnr. work began on republishing the original ‘Get Off the Earth’ Puzzle. A website containing the puzzle was launched. In 2004, “Get Off the Earth Puzzle' is republished as a commemorative edition, 110 years after Sam Loyd had received his original patent for the puzzle. In 2005 The Sam Loyd Company was founded. In the same year both Trick Donkey’s and The Pony Puzzles are republished; the Sam Loyd Company recreated a number of puzzles including figurines, republished puzzles and advertising cards. The only figurine they have produced was of the Warrior action figure, taken from the ‘Get Off the Earth’ puzzle; this figurine was a limited edition and only 500 were produced. The company owns the rights to a number of silent movies that were created in 1917 after the success of the puzzles.

These videos have close links with Thomas Edison. The idea was to create educational films; the videos included the railroad mix up, the puzzling board. The Sam Loyd Company has close links to education; the puzzles are aimed at making geographical problems more interesting. The idea is; the influences came from Samuel Loyd, quoted saying, “We see how the average boy, who abhors square root or algebra, will find delight in working out puzzles which involve identically the same principles

Battle of Kilinochchi (2008–2009)

The Battle of Kilinochchi was a land battle fought between the Sri Lankan Military and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam for the control of the town of Kilinochchi in the Northern Theater of Eelam War IV during the Sri Lankan civil war between November 2008 and January 2009. The town of Kilinochchi was the administrative center and de facto capital of the LTTE's proposed state of Tamil Eelam; the Sri Lankan Army conducted an offensive through the months of November and December 2008 during which three attempts were made to capture the town during the month of December. These were thwarted by the LTTE, both sides claimed that they suffered minimal casualties while inflicting maximum damage on the other during these assaults; the Sri Lanka Air Force launched air strikes against LTTE positions in Kilinochchi throughout this period. On 2 January 2009, divisions of the Sri Lanka Army advanced into Kilinochchi from the northern and western directions of the town, the LTTE fighters withdrew into positions in nearby jungles.

Mahinda Rajapaksa, the president of Sri Lanka announced that the military had taken control of the town and urged the LTTE to lay down arms and surrender. However, the LTTE stated that the SLA captured a "ghost town" after they withdrew, described it as an insignificant loss. After Kilinochchi was captured, several foreign governments urged both parties to seek a political solution; the Colombo Stock Exchange recorded a rise and the rupee stabilised, while celebrators lit firecrackers on the streets soon after the capture was declared. Amidst the celebrations, a suicide bomb attack occurred in the evening in front of the air force headquarters in Colombo, killing 3 and wounding about 30 people; the SLA continued to advance into LTTE held territory, capturing some more strategically important locations, including Elephant Pass and the entire A9 Highway soon after the fall of Kilinochchi. The Sri Lanka Army withdrew from Kilinochchi in 1990, enabling the LTTE to take control of the town for the first time.

The SLA recaptured it during operations Sathjaya I, II, III in September 1996. However, the LTTE launched Operation Unceasing Waves II in September 1998 and captured the town again, forcing the SLA to vacate it; this battle caused heavy casualties to both sides, the loss was described by the military spokesman, Brigadier Sunil Tennakoon, as "the largest blow after Mullaitivu". Although Kilinochchi is not a strategically important location in terms of military operations, it bears a symbolic importance because of the LTTE using it as the de facto capital of Tamil Eelam, the separate state that the LTTE is fighting for. Vinayagamoorthy Muralitharan alias Colonel Karuna, a former commander of the LTTE, claimed that the town of Kilinochchi was important for the LTTE because it was the showcase of the organisation According to government claims, all civil administrative affairs were handled by government authorities despite the LTTE being in control of the town. After 2002, the LTTE used Kilinochchi as the administrative hub of the area under its control.

The LTTE established a Police force, named Tamil Eelam Police Force, Peace Secretariat and Bank in areas under its control and Kilinochchi housed the headquarters for these entities. The Tamil Tigers established and implemented a Judicial system which consisted of district courts, high courts and supreme court as well as a court of appeal; the supreme court was located in Kilinochchi. After the Sri Lankan military captured the Eastern Province from the LTTE, it advanced into LTTE-held territory in the Northern Province; the town of Kilinochchi was a major target for the troops during this offensive. With the SLA advancing on several fronts, the 57 Division and Task Force 1 operated on the Kilinochchi front with the objective of capturing the town; the overall operation was led by Major General Jagath Jayasuriya, the Wanni Security Forces Commander. Both divisions advanced from the west of the country, with 57 Division approaching Kilinochchi from the south and west, while the Task Force 1 advanced further northwards, capturing other key strongholds of the LTTE in order to converge on Kilinochchi from the north.

By early October, Kilinochchi had been vacated by its residents and units of the Kilinochchi hospital and several government institutions were relocated at Tharmapuram, a village 13 kilometres away.57 Division, led by Major General Jagath Dias, captured Akkarayankulam on 18 October 2008, a large village located to the southwest of Kilinochchi. The capture of this village enabled the SLA to attack Kilinochchi from the southwest; the Iranamadu junction, located to the south of Kilinochchi was captured enabling the SLA to advance towards Kilinochchi from the south. Troops from the 57 Division earlier captured several LTTE strongholds such as Adampan and KokavilThe Task Force 1, led by Brigadier Shavendra Silva, advanced along the western coast, capturing several strategically important locations including the Mannar "Rice Bowl" area and Nachchikuda; the Task Force 1 launched an attack on Pooneryn on 15 November 2008, spearheaded by troops from the 2nd and 3rd Commando Regiments and a squadron of Special Forces, captured the area.

From there, the Task Force 1 moved west and captured Paranthan on 31 December 2008, enabling the SLA to attack Kilinochchi from the north. The LTTE constructed earth bunds and trenches around the town to halt the advance of the Sri Lankan military. One such earth bund was constructed to the south. Another stretched across the B69 Pooneryn – Paranthan road, along the western side of the town; the LTTE had deployed their elite units, the Charles Anthony and Imran Pandiyan brigades along with other regular units under the command of Theepan and Lawrence for t


Mudford is a village and parish in Somerset, situated 3 miles from Yeovil in the South Somerset district on the River Yeo. The village has a population of 696; the parish includes the hamlets of West Mudford and Up Mudford. The village lies on the Monarch's Way, a 615 miles long-distance footpath that approximates the escape route taken by King Charles II in 1651 after being defeated in the Battle of Worcester. At the time of the Domesday Book in 1086 there were five manors; the largest, given with the church to Montacute Priory in 1192, became Mudford Monachorum and was centred on the present hamlet of Up Mudford. The parish of Mudford was part of the Stone Hundred. At the eastern end of the parish on the border with Dorset, the village of Nether Adber was held by Siward the Fowler before and after the Battle of Hastings, had a chapel in 1351 but the village was abandoned in the mid-16th century. Manor Farm House, the Manor house of Up Mudford, was built in 1630 on the site of an earlier building after a fire.

The parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of South Somerset, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Yeovil Rural District. The district council is responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism.

Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning. It is part of the Yeovil county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, it elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election. Mudford is served by the church of St Mary The Virgin, which dates back to the 12th century and is a Grade I listed building, it has a three-stage tower divided by string courses with clasping corner buttresses, a battlemented parapet with small corner and intermediate pinnacles, corner gargoyles. There is a stair turret on the north-east corner with a weathervane finial, a clock face on the east side, it contains five bells dated 1582, 1621, 1623, 1664 and 1666, all by the Purdue family of nearby Closworth. It was granted by Montacute Priory to the Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1339.

Mudford Parish Council Website Media related to Mudford at Wikimedia Commons

University of California, San Diego

The University of California, San Diego is a public research university in San Diego, California. Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh-oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling 30,800 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students; the university occupies 2,141 acres near the coast of the Pacific Ocean, with the main campus resting on 1,152 acres. UC San Diego is organized into seven undergraduate residential colleges, four academic divisions, seven graduate and professional schools. UC San Diego Health, the region's only academic health system, provides patient care, conducts medical research and educates future health care professionals at the UC San Diego Medical Center, Jacobs Medical Center, Moores Cancer Center, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center, Shiley Eye Institute, Koman Family Outpatient Pavilion and various express care and urgent care clinics throughout San Diego.

The university operates 19 organized research units, including the Center for Energy Research, Qualcomm Institute, San Diego Supercomputer Center and the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, as well as eight School of Medicine research units, six research centers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and two multi-campus initiatives, including the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. UC San Diego is closely affiliated with several regional research centers, such as the Salk Institute, the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, the Scripps Research Institute. According to the National Science Foundation, UC San Diego spent $1.133 billion on research and development in fiscal year 2017, ranking it 7th in the nation. UCSD is considered one of the country's Public Ivies; as of August 2018, UC San Diego faculty and alumni have won 27 Nobel Prizes and three Fields Medals, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, two Pulitzer Prizes.

Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 70 to the National Academy of Sciences, 45 to the Institute of Medicine and 110 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. When the Regents of the University of California authorized the San Diego campus in 1956, it was planned to be a graduate and research institution, providing instruction in the sciences and engineering. Local citizens supported the idea, voting the same year to transfer to the university 59 acres of mesa land on the coast near the preexisting Scripps Institution of Oceanography; the Regents requested an additional gift of 550 acres of undeveloped mesa land northeast of Scripps, as well as 500 acres on the former site of Camp Matthews from the federal government, but Roger Revelle director of Scripps Institution and main advocate for establishing the new campus, jeopardized the site selection by exposing the La Jolla community's exclusive real estate business practices, which were antagonistic to minority racial and religious groups.

This outraged local conservatives, as well as Regent Edwin W. Pauley. UC President Clark Kerr satisfied San Diego city donors by changing the proposed name from University of California, La Jolla, to University of California, San Diego; the city voted in agreement to its part in 1958, the UC approved construction of the new campus in 1960. Because of the clash with Pauley, Revelle was not made chancellor. Herbert York, first director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was designated instead. York planned the main campus according to the "Oxbridge" model. UC San Diego was the first general campus of the University of California to be designed "from the top down" in terms of research emphasis. Local leaders disagreed on whether the new school should be a technical research institute or a more broadly based school that included undergraduates as well. John Jay Hopkins of General Dynamics Corporation pledged one million dollars for the former while the City Council offered free land for the latter.

The original authorization for the San Diego campus given by the UC Regents in 1956 approved a "graduate program in science and technology" that included undergraduate programs, a compromise that won both the support of General Dynamics and the city voters' approval. Nobel laureate Harold Urey, a physicist from the University of Chicago, Hans Suess, who had published the first paper on the greenhouse effect with Revelle in the previous year, were early recruits to the faculty in 1958. Maria Goeppert-Mayer the second female Nobel laureate in physics, was appointed professor of physics in 1960; the graduate division of the school opened in 1960 with 20 faculty in residence, with instruction offered in the fields of physics, biology and earth science. Before the main campus completed construction, classes were held in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. By 1963, new facilities on the mesa had been finished for the School of Science and Engineering, new buildings were under construction for Soc

Kennerley Old Style

Kennerley Old Style is a serif typeface designed by Frederic Goudy. Kennerley is an "old-style" serif design, loosely influenced by Italian and Dutch printing traditions of the Renaissance and early modern period, it was named for New York publisher Mitchell Kennerley, who advanced Goudy money to complete the design. While Goudy had designed 18 other typefaces, it was one of Goudy's most successful early designs in his own style; the regular or roman style was designed in 1911, the italic in 1918. Goudy was a fine art printer and a prolific typeface designer, he designed Kennerley out of dissatisfaction with the Caslon typefaces in use in fine art printing. Goudy described the design as loosely based on the'Fell Types', a set of type in the Dutch style collected by Bishop John Fell of Oxford for the Oxford University Press, although he conceded that "comparison of my type with the Fell letter will disclose little more than an identity of spirit" and Walter Tracy found the claim of influence implausible.

It has been compared in some details, notably the tilted understroke on the'e', to the type of late 15th century Venetian printer Nicolas Jenson by Walter Tracy and others. The italic is somewhat florid, with swashes on some letters, additional swashes were available for other capitals. Cast in metal type, Kennerley was made available on sale in metal type and for Monotype's hot metal typesetting system. During the 1910s and 1920s it was licensed in Britain by the Caslon foundry, who marketed it extensively, it has been digitised several times. Kennerley Old Style Kennerley Italic Kennerley Bold + Bold Italic Caslon advertisement, 1922 H. W. Caslon & Co. Ltd, specimen book, 1915