An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Dave Meros, is an American bass guitar player, best known as the bass player for progressive rock band Spock's Beard. Meros is currently the bass player for Iron Butterfly and has played or recorded with such artists as Gary Myrick, Bobby Kimball of Toto, Simon Phillips, Steve Lukather, Michael Landau, Glenn Hughes, Mark Lindsay of Paul Revere and the Raiders and Big Big Train, played for Eric Burdon and The Animals for nearly 16 years, he was tour manager for many of those years and has worked as a tour manager for further artists as well. As a bassist, Meros' musical influences are varied, including Paul McCartney, John Entwistle, Chris Squire, James Jamerson, Marcus Miller, Francis "Rocco" Prestia of Tower of Power, Chuck Rainey and David Hungate. Dave Meros was born in California, he has a Business Degree from U. C. Berkeley with Music Minor. Meros began studying classical piano at five years formal training. • Studied French Horn, Trombone, Tuba between the ages of 13 – 18. - Received Bank of America award for musical achievement, 1974.
- Received John Phillip Souza Band Award, 1974. - Played in Reno Jazz Festival All Star Band, 1974, as a member of the University of California Jazz Ensembles. • Played bass trombone and tuba in the University of California Jazz Ensembles, 1974–1977, under the direction of Dr. David W. Tucker. • Began playing electric bass in 1976 while at the University of California, Berkeley. Played professionally since 1978. Relocated to Los Angeles early 1985. • Played bass and tour managed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame member Eric Burdon and The Animals from January 1990 through November 2005, toured extensively worldwide with various bands since the late'80s. His main creative venture since 1994 has been recording and touring with the critically acclaimed progressive rock band Spock's Beard, that to date has released thirteen full-length studio CDs plus a large number of live CDs and EPs, Videos, DVDs, rarities collections, their 13th studio album, titled "Noise Floor" was released in May 2018. Meros plays in the Sacramento area based band Rolling Heads featuring Spock's Beard bandmate Ted Leonard and former Spock's Beard member Jimmy Keegan.
He is currently a member of Iron Butterfly, having performed with them as a substitute for the late Lee Dorman during the band's 2006 tour. - Mark Lindsay – 1986. - Gary Myrick – 1986 through 1989. - Bobby Kimball – 1989. - Eric Burdon – January 1990 through November 2005. - Spock's Beard – 1993 – current. - The Kings Of Classic Rock - 2007 - 2013. - Rolling Heads - 2010 - current. - Iron Butterfly - 2015 - current. Dave's current bass for Spock's Beard is a custom built hybrid between a Rickenbacker, it is an Alder Ric-shaped body, contoured like a Fender, with bolt-on Fender Jazz style neck. Dave used four Seymour Duncan Apollo Jazz Bass pickups to do this - two in the Rickenbacker locations and two in the positions where the P / J pickus on a Fender Jazz Bass would go. Further customizations include a Full Contact Hardware bridge and a Hipshot Xtender tuning key that will detune the E string down to a D at the flip of a lever. From 1992 through 2002 Dave used a stock white Rickenbacker in Spock's Beard.
From 2002 through the recording of "X" Dave's main bass was what he terms his "Fendenbacker". It's a Rickenbacker 4001 bass that's been modified to serve a variety of purposes. "A buddy of mine found a trashed Ric in a pawn shop, I turned it into a project bass to try to make a'one bass fits all' for myself" says Meros. It has a set of Fender Jazz Bass pickups set in mid-'70s-era spacing as well as the standard set of Rickenbacker pickups in the traditional Ric positions; this gives Meros four pickups total to choose from, with a switch that chooses between the two different "basses", Rickenbacker or Jazz. All four can be activated at the same time. A BadAss bridge, Hipshot Bass Xtender for its ability to downtune the low E-string of a bass to D at the flip of a lever) and a string mute that Meros can raise or lower with thumb screws were added. "I did the refinish on the front of the bass, made the pickguard and did a lot of the other little stuff myself, but I had John Carruthers do the stuff that mattered, like route the body for the two extra pickups, cause you only get one chance to do that, it has to be perfect.
He's the man, totally. He did a versatile wiring thing for me and one of the most amazing fret jobs I've seen." More after the neck began delaminating from the body, it was rebuilt and refinished by Ed Roman Guitars, a company based in Las Vegas, NV. In 2007 Ed Roman built Dave a custom instrument designed with most of the same features and specs as the "Fendenbacker", with a Rickenbacker-like body shape but with a Fender scale length and neck width and more of a Fender body contouring. Other basses Meros uses are various Fender Jazz and Precision models, a Carruthers five string, other fretted and fretless basses. Live and Studio setups: Live: Bass Custom "Fenderbacker" with a Babicz Full Contact Hardware Bridge, 4 pickups: 2 in the usual Rickenbacker positions and 2 in the Fender P/J positions Strings DR Hi Beams or Sunbeams Bas
Laguna Niguel, California
Laguna Niguel is a suburban city in Orange County, California in the United States. The name Laguna Niguel is derived from the words "Laguna" and "Niguili"; as of the 2010 census, the population was 62,979. Laguna Niguel is located in the San Joaquin Hills in the southeastern corner of Orange County, close to the Pacific Ocean, borders the cities of Aliso Viejo, Dana Point, Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Mission Viejo, San Juan Capistrano. Laguna Niguel has its origins in the Rancho Niguel Mexican land grant, acquired in 1959 by the Laguna Niguel Corporation to develop one of California's first master-planned communities; as a predominantly residential city, Laguna Niguel serves as a bedroom community for the job centers of northern and central Orange County. Laguna Niguel has a median household income 31 percent above the Orange County average and nearly double the U. S. average. It is known for its mild coastal climate, low crime rate, its numerous parks and public trails; the first recorded inhabitants of the Laguna Niguel area were the Acjachemem Native Americans, who may have had a village called "Niguili" near the confluence of Aliso Creek and Sulphur Creek.
Aliso Creek marked the boundary between the Tongva people. In the 1700s, during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish missionaries established the nearby Mission San Juan Capistrano to convert the Acjachemem to Christianity; the Mission lands, which included the present-day boundaries of Laguna Niguel, were divided into private land grants in 1821 upon Mexico's independence from Spain. In 1842, the 13,316-acre Rancho Niguel was granted to Juan Avila. In 1895 Lewis Moulton and Jean Pierre Daguerre bought the Rancho Niguel and other portions of the surrounding area from farmers who were struggling due to persistent drought conditions; the Moulton Company was established to oversee 19,000 acres of local land, used for orchards and sheep ranching, well into the mid-20th century. In 1951 the land was divided between the Moulton and Daguerre families, the latter inheriting 8,056 acres in the future location of Laguna Niguel. In 1954 the Daguerres sold 7,200 acres to the Shumaker Group and 856 acres of oceanfront to George Capron, a former Major League Baseball player who established the Capron Ranch.
The completion of Interstate 5 in 1959 enabled easy access to job centers in Los Angeles County, creating a boom in the Orange County housing market. In 1959, Cabot & Forbes and Paine Webber partnered to form the Laguna Niguel Corporation, which purchased the Daguerre land to develop one of California's first master planned communities; the initial 7,100-acre town plan was created by Viennese architect Victor Gruen and expanded beginning in 1971 by AVCO Community Developers after they acquired the Laguna Niguel Corporation. The name of the city was created from "Laguna", a reference to the tidal lagoon that once formed at the mouth of Aliso Creek, the name of the Acjachemem village Niguili that once occupied the area; as the city would be developed in stages and farmers signed annual leases with the Laguna Niguel Corporation to use the land until the planned communities were built. In contrast to a traditional bedroom community, Laguna Niguel was designed so that "families should have most of their economic needs and their social and cultural interests met by facilities within the community".
The plan was notable for its emphasis on parks and open space – comprising nearly a third of the land to be developed. The Laguna Niguel Corporation went public in April 1959 and raised an initial $8.2 million from investors. In 1962 the first tracts of Monarch Bay and Niguel Terrace were completed. In 1960, the Moulton Niguel Water District was established by a conglomerate of ranchers, to import water from the Colorado River Aqueduct as the area lacked a sufficient natural water supply. In 1964, Crown Valley Parkway was completed from I-5 to the Pacific Coast Highway, facilitating transport through the growing city. By 1965 the population of Laguna Niguel reached 1,000; the Laguna Niguel Homeowner's Association was formed in 1966 as an advisory to the Orange County Board of Supervisors. In 1973 Laguna Niguel Regional Park opened to the public; the Chet Holifield Federal Building, designed by William L. Pereira, was constructed for Rockwell International and was meant to bring 7,000 jobs to the area.
After the end of the Vietnam War, Rockwell lost a defense contract with the federal government and the building was left unoccupied. It was traded to the US General Services Administration in exchange for industrial facilities elsewhere; the Ziggurat, completed in 1971 well before the development of residential communities in the area, is one of Laguna Niguel's most noticeable landmarks. The Orange County Register described it as "the only constant in an developing locale." It houses millions of microfilms as documents of land agreements between the American government and Native American tribes of the southwest United States. It is home to the Western Regional Department of Homeland Security and the California Service Center of the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services; the building was featured in an ending scene for the 1975 sci-fi movie Death Race 2000 and as the headquarters
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Scorching Beauty is the fifth studio album released by Iron Butterfly. Released four years after their original breakup, it was recorded by a reformed lineup with only one member remaining from their previous album. In addition to Bushy, this lineup includes Erik Brann, the guitarist from the classic lineup, Phil Kramer, Howard Reitzes; the album cover was illustrated by Drew Struzan. This album, along with Steel, failed commercially. Tracks from this album tend to be ignored on Iron Butterfly compilations/greatest hit collections. AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine called the album "undistinguished" and said that it "fell between the group's heavy acid rock and mid-'70s arena rock conventions." Erik Brann – guitars, vocals Ron Bushy – drums, backing vocals Philip Taylor Kramer – bass guitar, vocals Howard Reitzes – keyboards, vocals "Searchin' Circles" b/w "Pearly Gates" "High on a Mountain Top" b/w "Before You Go"
In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida is the second studio album by the American rock band Iron Butterfly, released in 1968. It is most known for the title track which occupies the whole of Side B; the album is available in a deluxe edition CD. The In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida LP peaked at number 4 on the Billboard albums chart It was first certified a Platinum and 4× Multi-Platinum album in the United States on January 26, 1993, achieved worldwide sales of over 30 million copies, it was the biggest selling album for the year 1969 in the US. It was Atlantic Records' biggest selling album until it was surpassed by Led Zeppelin IV. In a retrospective review for AllMusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine calls the title track "the epitome of heavy psychedelic excess", feels that the rest of the songs "qualify as good artifacts". Iron Butterfly Erik Brann – guitars, vocals Ron Bushy – drums, percussion Lee Dorman – bass guitar, backing vocals Doug Ingle – Vox Continental organ, vocalsAll arrangements by Iron Butterfly Technical Jim Hilton – producer, engineer Bill Cooper – mixing engineer Don Casale – engineer Loring Eutemey – artwork Stephen Paley – photography A "Deluxe Edition" of In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida was released in 1995.
It included material from newly discovered first-generation master tapes, bonus recordings, a 36-page booklet with photos. This re-release includes three versions of "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida": the 17:05 studio version; the Deluxe Edition includes a new cover, similar to the original, but with a moving butterfly flapping its wings and the band members jamming to the song. US singles"In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida" b/w "Iron Butterfly Theme" – Atco 6606 "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida" b/w "Soul Experience" – Atlantic Oldies Series 13076Overseas singles"In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida", "Flowers and Beads" b/w "My Mirage" "Termination" b/w "Most Anything You Want"