Duane Eddy is an American guitarist. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, he had a string of hit records produced by Lee Hazlewood which were noted for their characteristically "twangy" sound, including "Rebel Rouser", "Peter Gunn", "Because They're Young", he had sold 12 million records by 1963. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994, the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum in 2008. Born in Corning, New York, he began playing the guitar at the age of five. In 1951, his family moved to Tucson, to Coolidge, Arizona. At the age of 16 he obtained a Chet Atkins model Gretsch guitar and formed a duo and Duane, with his friend Jimmy Delbridge. While performing at local radio station KCKY, they met disc jockey Lee Hazlewood, who produced the duo's single, "Soda Fountain Girl", recorded and released in 1955 in Phoenix. Hazlewood produced Sanford Clark's 1956 hit, "The Fool", featuring guitarist Al Casey, while Eddy and Delbridge performed and appeared on radio stations in Phoenix before joining Buddy Long's Western Melody Boys, playing country music in and around the city.
Eddy devised a technique of playing lead on his guitar's bass strings to produce a low, reverberant "twangy" sound. In November 1957, Eddy recorded an instrumental, "Movin' n' Groovin'", co-written by Eddy and Hazlewood; as the Phoenix studio had no echo chamber, Hazlewood bought a 2,000-gallon water storage tank which he used as an echo chamber to accentuate the "twangy" guitar sound. In 1958, Eddy signed a recording contract with Lester Sill and Lee Hazlewood to record in Phoenix at the Audio Recorders studio. Sill and Hazlewood leased the tapes of all the singles and albums to the Philadelphia-based Jamie Records. "Movin' n' Groovin'" reached number 72 on the Billboard Hot 100 in early 1958. S. A.". The follow-up, "Rebel'Rouser", featured overdubbed saxophone by Los Angeles session musician Gil Bernal, yells and handclaps by doo-wop group the Rivingtons; the tune became Eddy's breakthrough hit. It sold over one million copies. Eddy had a succession of hit records over the next few years, his band members, including Steve Douglas, saxophonist Jim Horn and keyboard player Larry Knechtel would go on to work as part of Phil Spector's Wrecking Crew.
According to writer Richie Unterberger, "The singles –'Peter Gunn','Cannonball','Shazam', and'Forty Miles of Bad Road' were the best – did their part to help keep the raunchy spirit of rock & roll alive, during a time in which it was in danger of being watered down." On January 9, 1959, Eddy's debut album, Have'Twangy' Guitar Will Travel, was released, reaching number 5, remaining on the album charts for 82 weeks. On his fourth album,'Songs of Our Heritage', each track featured him playing acoustic guitar or banjo. Eddy's biggest hit came with the theme of the movie Because They're Young in 1960, which featured a string arrangement, reached a chart peak of number 4 in America and number 2 in the UK in September 1960, it became his second million-selling disc. Eddy's records were even more successful in the UK than they were in his native US, in 1960, readers of the UK's NME voted him World's Number One Musical Personality, ousting Elvis Presley. In 1960, Eddy signed a contract directly with Jamie Records, bypassing Hazlewood.
This caused a temporary rift between Hazlewood. The result was that for the duration of his contract with Jamie, Eddy produced his own singles and albums. Duane Eddy and the Rebels became a frequent act on The Dick Clark Show. During the 1960s, Eddy launched an acting career, appearing in such films as A Thunder of Drums, The Wild Westerners, Kona Coast, The Savage Seven, two appearances on the television series Have Gun–Will Travel, he married singer Jessi Colter in 1961, the same year he signed a three-year contract with Paul Anka's production company, whose recordings were issued by RCA Victor. It was in the early days of recording in the RCA Victor studios that he renewed contact with Lee Hazlewood, who became involved in a number of his RCA Victor singles and albums. Eddy's 1962 single release, " Guitar Man", co-written with Hazlewood, earned his third gold disc by selling a million records. In the 1970s, he produced album projects for Waylon Jennings. In 1972, he worked with Al Gorgoni, rhythm guitar, on BJ Thomas's "Rock and Roll Lullaby".
In 1975, a collaboration with hit songwriter Tony Macaulay and former founding member of The Seekers, Keith Potger, led to another UK top ten record, "Play Me Like You Play Your Guitar". The single, "You Are My Sunshine", featuring Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings, hit the country charts in 1977. In 1986, Eddy recorded with Art of Noise, remaking his 1960 version of Henry Mancini's "Peter Gunn"; the song was a Top Ten hit around the world, ranking number 1 on Rolling Stone's dance chart for six weeks that summer. "Peter Gunn" won the Grammy for Best Rock Instrumental of 1986. It gave Eddy the distinction of being the only instrumentalist to have had Top 10 hit singles in four different decades in the UK.. The following year, Duane Eddy was released on Capitol. Several of the tracks were produced by Paul McCartney, Jeff Lynne, Ry Cooder, Art of Noise. Guest artists and musicians included John Fogerty, George Harrison, Paul McCartney, Ry Cooder, James Burton, David Lindley, Phil Pickett, Steve Cropper, original Rebels, Larry Knechtel and Jim Horn.
The album included a cover of Paul McCartney's 1979
Dino Paul Crocetti, known famously as Dean Martin, was an American actor and singer. One of the most popular and enduring American entertainers of the mid-20th century, Martin was nicknamed "The King of Cool" for his effortless charisma and self-assurance, he and Jerry Lewis formed the immensely popular comedy duo Martin and Lewis, with Martin serving as the straight man to Lewis' slapstick hijinks. A member of the "Rat Pack", Martin went on to become a star of concert stages, audio recordings, motion pictures and television. Martin was the host of the variety programs The Dean Martin Show and The Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts, his relaxed, crooning voice earned him dozens of hit singles, including his signature songs "Memories Are Made of This", "That's Amore", "Everybody Loves Somebody", "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You", "Sway", "Ain't That a Kick in the Head?", "Volare". Martin was born Dino Paul Crocetti on June 7, 1917, in Steubenville, the son of Italian father Gaetano Alfonso Crocetti and Italian-American mother Angela Crocetti.
His parents were married in 1914. His father, a barber, was from Montesilvano and his mother's origins are believed to be from Abruzzo, although they are not known. Martin had an older brother named William Alfonso Crocetti, his first language was Italian and he did not speak English until he started school at the age of five. He attended Grant Elementary School in Steubenville; as a teenager, he played the drums as a hobby. He dropped out of Steubenville High School in the tenth grade because he thought he was smarter than his teachers, he bootlegged liquor, worked in a steel mill, served as a croupier at a speakeasy and a blackjack dealer, was a welterweight boxer. At 15, he was a boxer who billed himself as "Kid Crochet", his prizefighting earned him a broken nose, a scarred lip, many broken knuckles, a bruised body. Of his 12 bouts, he said that he "won all but 11". For a time, he shared a New York City apartment with Sonny King, starting in show business and had little money; the two charged people to watch them bare-knuckle box each other in their apartment, fighting until one was knocked out.
Martin knocked out King in the first round of an amateur boxing match. Martin gave up boxing to work as a roulette stickman and croupier in an illegal casino behind a tobacco shop, where he had started as a stock boy. At the same time, he sang with local bands, calling himself "Dino Martini", he got his break working for the Ernie McKay Orchestra. He sang among others. In the early 1940s, he started singing for bandleader Sammy Watkins, who suggested he change his name to Dean Martin. In October 1941, Martin married Elizabeth "Betty" Anne McDonald in Cleveland and the couple had an apartment in Cleveland Heights for a while, they had four children before the marriage ended in 1949. Martin worked for various bands throughout the early 1940s on looks and personality until he developed his own singing style, he flopped at the Riobamba nightclub in New York, when he followed Frank Sinatra in 1943. Martin attracted the attention of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, but a Hollywood contract was not forthcoming.
He met comic Jerry Lewis at the Glass Hat Club in New York. Martin and Lewis formed a fast friendship which led to their participation in each other's acts and the formation of a music-comedy team. Martin and Lewis's debut together occurred at Atlantic City's 500 Club on July 24, 1946, they were not well received; the owner, Skinny D'Amato, warned them that if they did not come up with a better act for their second show that night, they would be fired. Huddling in the alley behind the club and Martin agreed to "go for broke", they divided their act between songs, ad-libbed material. Martin sang and Lewis dressed as a busboy, dropping plates and making a shambles of Martin's performance and the club's decorum until Lewis was chased from the room as Martin pelted him with breadrolls, they did slapstick, reeled off old vaudeville jokes, did whatever else popped into their heads. The audience laughed; this success led to a series of well-paying engagements on the Eastern seaboard, culminating in a run at New York's Copacabana.
The act consisted of Lewis interrupting and heckling Martin while he was trying to sing, with the two chasing each other around the stage. The secret, both said, is that they played to each other; the team made its TV debut on the first broadcast of CBS-TV network's The Ed Sullivan Show on June 20, 1948, with composers Rodgers and Hammerstein appearing. Hoping to improve their act, the two hired young comedy writers Norman Lear and Ed Simmons to write their bits. With the assistance of both Lear and Simmons, the two would take their act beyond nightclubs. A radio series began in 1949, the year Martin and Lewis signed with Paramount producer Hal B. Wallis as comedy relief for the movie My Friend Irma, their agent, Abby Greshler, negotiated one of Hollywood's best deals: although they received only $75,000 between them for their films with Wallis and Lewis were free to do one outside film a year, which they would co-produce through their own York Productions. They controlled their club, record and television appearances, through these they earned millions of dollars.
In Dean & Me, Lewis calls Mar
A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types. From the Greek βαρύτονος, meaning heavy sounding, music for this voice is written in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C in choral music, from the second A below middle C to the A above middle C in operatic music, but can be extended at either end; the baritone voice type is divided into the baryton-Martin baritone, lyric baritone, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, the bass-baritone. The first use of the term "baritone" emerged as baritonans, late in the 15th century in French sacred polyphonic music. At this early stage it was used as the lowest of the voices, but in 17th-century Italy the term was all-encompassing and used to describe the average male choral voice. Baritones took the range as it is known today at the beginning of the 18th century, but they were still lumped in with their bass colleagues until well into the 19th century.
Indeed, many operatic works of the 18th century have roles marked as bass that in reality are low baritone roles. Examples of this are to be found, for instance, in the operas and oratorios of George Frideric Handel; the greatest and most enduring parts for baritones in 18th-century operatic music were composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. They include Count Almaviva in The Marriage of Figaro, Guglielmo in Così fan tutte, Papageno in The Magic Flute and the lead in Don Giovanni. In theatrical documents, cast lists, journalistic dispatches that from the beginning of the 19th century till the mid 1820s, the terms primo basso, basse chantante, basse-taille were used for men who would be called baritones; these included the likes of Filippo Galli, Giovanni Inchindi, Henri-Bernard Dabadie. The basse-taille and the proper bass were confused because their roles were sometimes sung by singers of either actual voice part; the bel canto style of vocalism which arose in Italy in the early 19th century supplanted the castrato-dominated opera seria of the previous century.
It led to the baritone being viewed as a separate voice category from the bass. Traditionally, basses in operas had been cast as authority figures such as high priest. More than not, baritones found themselves portraying villains; the principal composers of bel canto opera are considered to be: Gioachino Rossini. The prolific operas of these composers, plus the works of Verdi's maturity, such as Un ballo in maschera, La forza del destino, Don Carlos/Don Carlo, the revised Simon Boccanegra, Aida and Falstaff, blazed many new and rewarding performance pathways for baritones. Figaro in Il barbiere is called the first true baritone role; however and Verdi in their vocal writing went on to emphasize the top fifth of the baritone voice, rather than its lower notes—thus generating a more brilliant sound. Further pathways opened up when the musically complex and physically demanding operas of Richard Wagner began to enter the mainstream repertory of the world's opera houses during the second half of the 19th century.
The major international baritone of the first half of the 19th century was the Italian Antonio Tamburini. He was a famous Don Giovanni in Mozart's eponymous opera as well as being a Bellini and Donizetti specialist. Commentators praised his voice for its beauty and smooth tonal emission, which are the hallmarks of a bel canto singer. Tamburini's range, was closer to that of a bass-baritone than to that of a modern "Verdi baritone", his French equivalent was Henri-Bernard Dabadie, a mainstay of the Paris Opera between 1819 and 1836 and the creator of several major Rossinian baritone roles, including Guillaume Tell. Dabadie sang in Italy, where he originated the role of Belcore in L'elisir d'amore in 1832; the most important of Tamburini's Italianate successors were all Verdians. They included: Giorgio Ronconi, who created the title role in Verdi's Nabucco Felice Varesi, who created the title roles in Macbeth and Rigoletto as well as Germont in La traviata Antonio Superchi, the originator of Don Carlo in Ernani Francesco Graziani, the original Don Carlo di Vargas in La forza del destino Leone Giraldoni, the creator of Renato in Un ballo in maschera and the first Simon Boccanegra Enrico Delle Sedie, London's first Renato Adriano Pantaleoni, renowned for his performances as Amonasro in Aida as well as other Verdi roles at La Scala, Milan Francesco Pandolfini, whose singing at La Scala during the 1870s was praised by Verdi Antonio Cotogni, a much lauded singer in Milan and Saint Petersburg, the first Italian Posa in Don Carlos and a great vocal pedagogue, too Filippo Coletti, creator of Verdi's Gusmano in Alzira, Francesco in I masnadieri, Germont in the second version of La traviata and for whom Verdi considered writing the opera'Lear'.
Miles Peter Kane is an English musician, best known as a solo artist and the co-frontman of the Last Shadow Puppets. He was the former frontman of the Rascals, before the band announced their break-up in August 2009, he is pursuing a solo career, continues to be a part of the Last Shadow Puppets with Arctic Monkeys frontman Alex Turner. His debut solo album, Colour of the Trap, was released on 9 May 2011 and the follow-up, Don't Forget Who You Are was released on 3 June 2013, his latest solo album, Coup De Grace, was released on 10 August 2018 via Virgin EMI. Born in Birkenhead, Wirral, an only child, he was raised in nearby Meols; as a child, before learning the guitar, Kane played the saxophone. Harry Boon, Kanes cousin, from the band Embankment, was a big influence on his sound and helped him pursue his career in music. Kanes maternal cousins and Ian Skelly, two founding members of The Coral had a great influence on his music taste whilst growing up, he grew up supporting Manchester United before becoming a Liverpool F.
C. fan in his mid 20s. Aged 18, Kane joined The Little Flames as guitarist alongside Eva Petersen, Greg Mighall, Joe Edwards and Matt Gregory in December 2004; the band signed to Deltasonic and were compared to label mates the Coral and high-profile bands such as the Arctic Monkeys. They went on to tour with bands like the Coral, the Zutons, the Dead 60s and the Arctic Monkeys; the band split in 2007 prior to releasing their debut album, released in 2016. Kane, on vocals and lead guitar, was joined by Greg Mighall on drums and Joe Edwards on bass guitar and occasional backing vocals. Kane took on the main songwriting duties for the band; the band, who have known each other from childhood, continued. They were adamant to keep their own distinct sound of'awesome rockin beats' with a'psychedelic quirk' and a'compelling and unique dark underlying spirit'1; the Rascals released their debut EP in December 2007. Entitled Out of Dreams it did not achieve chart success, yet they soon became tipped to be one of the bands of 2008, championed in particular by NME, following a well received support slot on the Arctic Monkeys' 2007 tour.
Their first album'Rascalize' was released on 23 June 2008. The Rascals have a small role in the film Awaydays playing the Bunnymen cover. Whilst touring with the Arctic Monkeys and front man Alex Turner began to play together backstage, which resulted in the composition of new tracks, realizing there was a future in their songwriting partnership, the Last Shadow Puppets were born; the duo decided to travel to the West Coast of France with producer James Ford where they recorded their debut album The Age of the Understatement in just two weeks. Their album went straight to number 1 in the UK Album Charts with the single of the same name reaching number 1 in the Indie Single Charts, subsequent singles reaching high spots, they first played together live in the UK, doing a secret set at Glastonbury with a special guest appearance from Jack White, to whom Kane lent his iPod so White could learn the solo. The band's album missed out on the Nationwide Mercury Music Prize, but won the Mojo Breakthrough Award.
In December 2015 it was confirmed on the band's official Facebook and YouTube accounts, that the second album was due in spring 2016. After mooted rumours of a new album with Alex Turner in Kane's other band The Last Shadow Puppets. On 19 October 2015 Owen Pallett, who contributed the string arrangements on The Age of the Understatement, confirmed work on a second The Last Shadow Puppets album. In November 2015, producer James Ford confirmed. On 10 January 2016, the band released their first single since 2008; the song, "Bad Habits", was accompanied with a music video filmed in the same style as the first two teaser trailers. On 21 January 2016, the band announced that their second album would be entitled Everything You've Come to Expect, would feature the return of all three previous band members, as well as the addition of bass player Zach Dawes; the title track was released as a single on 10 March 2016. It was followed by the release of "Aviation" on 16 March 2016 and the release of "Miracle Aligner" on 28 March 2016.
The album was released on 1 April 2016. In early 2009, after his last tour with the Rascals, Miles Kane left the band to focus on a solo career. Inspired by a classic, smart'60s Mod theme he signed with Columbia Records and began recording his solo album with Dan Carey and Dan the Automator, who had worked with Gorillaz and Kasabian. Kane's debut single, "Inhaler" was released on 22 November 2010, he did a series of solo shows throughout November, as well as supported the Courteeners at several shows in December, he continued solo performances in January and February 2011, before supporting Beady Eye at eight shows in March. Kane released another single, "Come Closer" on 20 February 2011, reaching No. 85 on the UK Singles Chart. "Rearrange", the third single from his debut album, was released on 27 March 2011 and reached No. 149 on the UK Singles Chart. The album, titled Colour of the Trap, was released on 9 May 2011. One track, "My Fantasy" features backing vocals from Noel Gallagher, while another, "Happenstance" is a duet between Kane and French actress Clémence Poésy.
Half of the tracks on the album were co-written by Alex Turner, Kane's partner in the Last Shadow Puppets. Kane supported the Arctic Monkeys at two shows in Sheffield in June 2011, was their support act on their Australian tour in January 201
Deana Martin is an American singer and actress. She is the daughter of singer Dean Martin. Martin was born in Manhattan to his first wife, Elizabeth MacDonald, she moved to California with her family by the age of one. She went to live with her father and his second wife, Jeanne Biegger. During her childhood, it was not unusual for his Rat Pack friends, Frank Sinatra and Sammy Davis Jr. to visit. Being around them persuaded her to pursue a career in entertainment. Martin trained professionally at the Dartington College of Arts in the United Kingdom, her theatrical credits include Romeo and Juliet, The Taming of the Shrew, A Taste of Honey. She co-starred in the National Broadway tour of Neil Simon's play Star Spangled Girl with George Hamilton and Jimmy Boyd. Other starring roles include Wait Until Dark, 6 Rms Riv Vu, A Shot in the Dark, The Tunnel of Love, she made her major motion picture debut in Young Billy Young with Robert Mitchum, David Carradine, Angie Dickinson. This debut led to starring roles in the films Strangers at Sunrise with George Montgomery and A Voice in the Night with Vito Scotti.
She made her television debut in 1966 on The Dean Martin Show She was a frequent guest, performing in musical and comedy numbers with a wide array of entertainers, including Frank Sinatra. She appeared on A&E Biography, Access Hollywood, CBS Sunday Morning, Country Music Television, E! Entertainment Television, Entertainment Tonight, Larry King Live, Live with Regis & Kelly, Sky Italia, The Bonnie Hunt Show, The Monkees, The Today Show, The Tony Danza Show, The Big Breakfast, Bruce Forsyth On Vegas. For four seasons she hosted The Deana Martin Show. In 2003, Martin appeared with Jerry Lewis on The Jerry Lewis MDA Labor Day Telethon. Martin and Lewis sang "Time After Time". Martin began her recording career with producer Lee Hazlewood at Reprise Records; the recordings included. Other tunes were "When He Remembers Me", "Baby I See You", "The Bottom of My Mind", all recorded during the 1960s. Musicians from the Wrecking Crew, including Glen Campbell, played on these recordings. Memories Are Made of This was released in 2006.
She covered some of her father's hit songs, including the title cut and "Everybody Loves Somebody," "That's Amore", "Just Bummin' Around", "For Your Love" written by her mother Betty Martin. She sang a duet with her father's former comedy partner Jerry Lewis on "Time After Time." The album was produced by her husband John Griffeth and reached the iTunes Top 10 chart, where it remained for 40 weeks throughout 2006 and 2007. By 2008, after her tour, she was ready to record again, she went into the studio at Capitol Records with the same personnel to record Volare, released in 2009. It debuted at number seven on the Billboard magazine Heat Seek chart, reached No. 22 on the magazine's Jazz Albums Chart, appeared in the iTunes Top 10 chart. The song "Volare" peaked at No. 40 in Billboard magazine. In 2011, Martin released her first album of holiday favorites. Joined by Andy Williams on the title track, Martin covered 10 of her favorite tunes, including "I've Got My Love to Keep Me Warm", "Let It Snow!
Let It Snow! Let It Snow", "Winter Wonderland", she recorded with Al Schmitt, John Griffeth, Charles Calello. The album was re-released the following year. Martin discussed this re-release with Brad "Martini" Chambers on his show Martini in the Morning on November 20, 2012. A year Martin was back in the studio working on Destination Moon, her fourth album includes "Break It to Me Gently", "I Love Being Here With You", "Beyond the Sea" and four new songs: "Read Between the Lines", "Where Did You Learn to Love Like That", "Paradise", "Stuck in a Dream with Me". She sang a duet with her father on the Cole Porter song "True Love". Swing Street was released in 2016, she talked to Doug Miles about the album on his show. For many years and her husband worked to encourage the state of Ohio to recognize the achievements of her father. In 2001 Ohio Governor Bob Taft signed a bill Dean Martin Day. Martin performs her father's songs as well as favorite classic pop hits in symphony halls, performing arts centers, blues clubs, jazz clubs, festivals.
She has performed at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, the Paramount Theatre in New York City, Coral Springs Center for the Arts in Florida, Harrah's Atlantic City, Rrazz Room in San Francisco, Salt Lake City Jazz Festival, Whiskey A Go Go in Hollywood, The Sands in Macao or Benaroya Hall, Symphony Hall in Seattle. In an interview with The Los Angeles Times Martin said, "There's, of course, a lot of Dean Martin music plus'Uncle' Frank Sinatra,'Uncle' Sammy Davis Jr. Bobby Darin, a little Ella Fitzgerald," she said. "It's all the great songs and of course, my own songs. I always honor my dad and all of the music of the Great American Songbook." She performed a concert in honor of her father's 100 birthday. In her book Memories Are Made of This: Dean Martin Through His Daughter's Eyes she shares stories about the Rat Pack from a perspective of a young girl growing up around them, she talks about how her father handled his busy career, public performances, his role as husband and father. She talks about losing Dino, in a plane crash.
Martin writes about growing up around Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, the Beatles, going ballroom dancing with a young Jeff Bridges, dating Davy Jones of The Monkees. Her book reached the bestseller list at The New York Times. In 2005, Martin was hired by Sirius/XM Satellite Radio. In 2013, she joined Tina Sinatra for her Father's Day Special with Natalie Cole, Monica Mancini, Daisy Tormé reminiscing about their famous fathers. Martin i
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University is a private research university in metropolitan Dallas, Texas with its main campus located in University Park. SMU operates satellite campuses in Plano and Taos, New Mexico. Founded in 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, SMU is owned by the South Central Jurisdiction of what is now the United Methodist Church; as of the Fall 2018 semester, the university's 11,649 students are 6,479 undergraduates and 5,170 postgraduates from all 50 states and 83 countries. The leading states are in order of descending are Texas, Florida, Connecticut, Missouri, New York, Louisiana without including non-resident aliens; the university grants degrees from eight schools, the Dedman College of Humanities and Sciences, Bobby B. Lyle School of Engineering, Meadows School of the Arts, Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development, Perkins School of Theology, Cox School of Business, Dedman School of Law, the Guildhall, as well as Research and Graduate Studies.
SMU's national ranking rose to #59, according to US News. The university was chartered on April 17, 1911, by the southern denomination of the Methodist Episcopal Church. At the time of the charter, church leaders saw a need to establish a Methodist institution within a metropolitan area; this new institution was intended to be created in Fort Worth through a merger between Polytechnic College and Southwestern University. However, the church's education commission instead opted to create a new institution in Dallas to serve this purpose after extensive lobbying by the Dallas Chamber of Commerce. Robert Stewart Hyer president of Southwestern University, was appointed as the first president of the new university; the effort to establish a new university in Dallas drew the attention of the General Conference of the Methodist Church, seeking to create a new connectional institution in the wake of a 1914 Tennessee Supreme Court decision stripping the church of authority at Vanderbilt University. The church decided to support the establishment of the new institution while increasing the size of Emory University at a new location in DeKalb County, Georgia.
At the 1914 meeting of the General Conference, Southern Methodist University was designated the connectional institution for all conferences west of the Mississippi River. SMU named its first building Dallas Hall in gratitude for the support of Dallas leaders and local citizens, who had pledged $300,000 to secure the university's location, it remains the university's symbol and centerpiece, it inspired "the Hilltop" as a nickname for the school. It was designed by Shepley and Coolidge after the Rotunda at the University of Virginia. Dallas Hall opened its doors in 1915 and housed the entire university along with a bank and a barbershop; the hall is registered in the National Register of Historic Places. Classes were planned to begin in 1913, but construction delays on the university's first building prevented classes from starting until 1915. In the interim, the only functioning academic department at SMU was the medical college it had acquired from Southwestern University; as the first president of Southern Methodist University, Hyer selected Harvard crimson and Yale blue as the school colors in order to associate SMU with the high standards of ivy league universities.
Several streets in University Park and adjacent Highland Park were named after prominent universities, including Harvard, Cornell, Princeton, Purdue, Sewanee, Bryn Mawr, Hanover, Southwestern and Villanova. In 1927, Highland Park United Methodist Church, designed by architects Mark Lemmon and Roscoe DeWitt, was erected on campus. During World War II, SMU was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission; the university drew considerable media attention in 1987 when the NCAA administered the death penalty against the SMU football program for repeated, flagrant recruiting violations. The punishment included cancellation of the 1987 and most of the 1988 football season and a two-year ban from Bowl Games and all televised sports coverage. On February 22, 2008, the university trustees unanimously instructed President R. Gerald Turner to enter into an agreement to establish the George W. Bush Presidential Center on 23 acres on the southeast side of the campus.
The center which includes a presidential library, museum and the offices of the George W. Bush Foundation was dedicated on April 25, 2013, in a ceremony which featured all living former U. S. Presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, then-incumbent U. S. President, Barack Obama; the library and museum are administered by the National Archives and Records Administration, while the university holds representation on the independent public policy institute board. The project raised over $500 million for the construction and endowment of the George W. Bush presidential center; the administration, led by President Turner, raised the university's endowment to above $1 billion for the time in the University's history as of July 30th 2005. and through its "Second Century Campaign" from 2008 to 2015, the university raised $1.15 billion and celebrated the centennial of i