Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worms that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea. They are related to the oligochaetes, which include the earthworms, like them have soft, segmented bodies that can lengthen and contract. Both groups are hermaphrodites and have a clitellum, but leeches differ from the oligochaetes in having suckers at both ends and in having external annulations that do not correspond with their internal segmentation; the body is solid, the spacious body cavity found in other annelids, the coelom, is reduced to small channels. The majority of leeches live in freshwater environments, while some species can be found in terrestrial and marine environments; the best-known, such as the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, are hematophagous, attaching themselves to a host with a sucker and feeding on blood, having first secreted the peptide hirudin to prevent the blood from clotting. A minority of leech species are predatory preying on small invertebrates.
In aquatic species, the eggs are enclosed in a cocoon, attached to something solid, but terrestrial species conceal the cocoon under a log or in a crevice. 700 species of leech are recognised, of which some 100 are marine, 90 terrestrial and the remainder freshwater. Leeches were used in medicine from ancient times until the 19th century to draw blood from patients. In modern times, leeches find medical use in treatment of joint diseases such as epicondylitis and osteoarthritis, extremity vein diseases, microsurgery, while hirudin is a valuable anticoagulant drug for some blood-clotting disorders; some 700 species of leech have been described, of which some 100 are marine, 90 terrestrial and the remainder freshwater. The name for the subclass, comes from the Latin hirudo, hirudinis, a leech; the more primitive Acanthobdellidea are included with the leeches, but some authors treat them as a separate clitellate group. The Branchiobdellida include cleaning symbionts such as Xironodrilus appalachius, which lives on the crayfish Cambarus chaugaensis.
Both groups live in freshwater. True leeches of the infraclass Euhirudinea have both posterior suckers, they are traditionally divided into two groups: Rhynchobdellida. "Rhynchobdellida" are jawless leeches, armed with a muscular, straw-like proboscis puncturing organ in a retractable sheath. The Rhynchobdellae consist of two families: Glossiphoniidae are flattened freshwater leeches parasitic on vertebrates such as turtles, unique among annelids in carrying their young under their bodies. Piscicolida are marine or freshwater ectoparasites of fish, with cylindrical bodies and well-marked, bell-shaped, anterior suckers. Arhynchobdellida may or may not have jaws armed with teeth. Arhynchobellids are divided into two orders: Hirudiniformes are jawed leeches, armed with teeth, including the blood-feeding European medical leech, Hirudo medicinalis. Within this order, the Hirudidae are aquatic and the Haemadipsidae are terrestrial and blood-feeders, including Haemadipsa sylvestris, the Indian leech and Haemadipsa zeylanica, the Japanese mountain leech.
Erpobdelliformes: The freshwater or amphibious worm-leeches are carnivorous and equipped with a large, toothless mouth to ingest insect larvae and other annelid worms, which are swallowed whole. The Pharyngobdella have six to eight pairs of eyes; the Erpobdellidae live in freshwater habitats. The phylogenetic tree of the leeches and their annelid relatives is based on molecular analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. Both the former classes "Polychaeta" and "Oligochaeta" are paraphyletic; the most ancient annelid group is the free-living polychaetes that evolved in the Cambrian period, being plentiful in the Burgess Shale about 500 million years ago. Oligochaetes evolved from the leeches branched off from the oligochaetes. Both the oligochaetes and the leeches, having no hard parts, do not fossilise well; the first leech fossils are found in the Jurassic period around 150 million years ago, but an annulate fossil found in Wisconsin in the 1980s, with what appears to be a large sucker, seems to extend the group's evolutionary history back to the Silurian, some 437 million years ago.
Leeches show a remarkable similarity to each other in morphology different from typical annelids which are cylindrical, with a fluid-filled space, the coelom. In leeches, the coelom is reduced to four slender longitudinal channels, the interior of the body is filled with a solid dermis in between the various organs; the body is dorso-ventrally flattened and tapers at both ends. Longitudinal and circular muscles in the body wall are supplemented by diagonal muscles, giving the leech the ability to adopt a large range of body shapes and show great flexibility. Most leeches have a sucker at both the anterior and posterior ends, but some primitive leeches have a single sucker at the back. Like other annelids, the leech is a segmented animal, but unlike other annelids, the segmentation is masked by the external annulation, with the body surface being divided into 102 annuli, whereas its internal structure consists of 32 segments. Of these segments, the first five are designated as the head and include the anterior brain, several ocelli dorsally and the sucker ventrally.
The following 21 mid-body segments each contain a nerve ganglion, between them contain two reproductive organs, a single female gonopore and nine pairs of testes. The last seven segments contain the post
Jean-Baptiste Languet de Gergy was parish priest at Eglise Saint-Sulpice in Paris from 1714 to 1748. He was the initiator of the construction of the Gnomon of Saint-Sulpice. Languet de Gergy wished to establish the exact astrological time in order to ring the bells at the most appropriate time of day. For this, he commissioned the English clockmaker Henry Sully to build the gnomon. A staunch moralist, Languet is famous for denying the sacraments to Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, Duchess of Berry, eldest daughter of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. At the end of March 1719, the young widow became critically "ill", shut up in a little chamber of her Luxembourg Palace. In fact, she was deep in the pangs of childbirth and as she seemed close to dying, Languet was called upon to administer her the sacraments, he refused unless the royal princess would part with her lover, the count of Riom, captain of her guard. The Regent tried to intervene on behalf of his suffering daughter but the inflexible curé did not yield.
At last, the Duchess was delivered, ending the crisis but not the scandal provoked by Languet's refusal to turn a blind eye to her clandestine childbearing. Rougé, Michel The Gnomon of the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, 2009
Asunción Ocotlán is a town and municipality in Oaxaca in south-western Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 12.76 km². It is part of the Ocotlán District in the south of the Valles Centrales Region, its name "Asunción" alludes the assumption of Mary and Ocotlán means between ocotes -Oco and tlan in Nahuatl. It borders at north and west with Ocotlán de Morelos, south with San Pedro Apóstol and east with San Pedro Mártir. All the lands are plains and its water sources come from the Mijangos and Atoyac rivers, its economy is based in agriculture in spite of its semi-desert climate. The largest part of population isCatholic, its main celebration is The Assumption of Virgin Mary on August 15, moreover they celebrate with a fair and calendas (celebrations of the patron saints of the oaxacans churches. As of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 3257. Asunción Ocotlán's culture is shaped by celebrations and art; the main celebration is The Assumption of Virgin Mary. As in many small towns or villages, a wedding party tradition is that the couple and their families dance with the presents they have received.
Music and crafts are integral parts of the city. Traditional music, called Banda music, is still the most played genre in the area. People make. Traditional foods include Mole over a turkey called the Ocellated Turkey and white rice, tlayudas and empanadas. Beverages include hot chocolate, atole with chocolate and mezcal, its government takes care of the hospitals, paved roads and others, though not all of the population take advantage of these amenities. There is one preschool, two elementary schools, one middle school, one hospital. There are 781 houses, most of them are owned. 96 percent of people take advantage of street lighting, 70 percent of the cities water, 10 percent take advantage of the sewer and garbage pickup service. The paved roads connect the town with San Pedro Apóstol; the media channels are local although people can pay to get SKY
Timothy John Rushton MBE is a British choreographer and artistic leader of the Copenhagen-based Danish Dance Theatre, Denmark's largest modern dance company. Tim Rushton was trained at The Royal Ballet School in Covent Garden, from 1979 to 1982, studying with Erik Bruhn, Frederick Ashton and Kenneth MacMillan, he danced with the Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet, now known as the Birmingham Royal Ballet. He was engaged at Deutsche Oper am Rhein between 1982 and 1986, Malmö Stadsteater 1986-1987 and the Royal Danish Ballet 1987-1992. While a dancer at the Royal Danish Ballet he became interested in pursuing a choreographic career and decided to quit dancing. Tim Rushton made his marks as a choreographer, combining classical ballet technique with modern dance, in 2001 he was appointed Artistic Director of the Danish Dance Theatre; as one of Northern Europe's leading choreographers, his choreographies have received thirteen nominations for — and four times won: 1999, 2005, 2006 and 2009 — that country's Reumert Prize.
Rushton collaborates with writers, visual artists and composers. He has worked with a wide range of music spanning diverse genres, from classical masterpieces through to beat and newly commissioned compositions. Further to Danish Dance Theatre's performances in Denmark, the company is touring extensively worldwide in Europe, Asia as well as in the United States. Tim Rushton was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2011 New Year Honours for services to dance, he is listed in Kraks Blå Bog, the Danish Who's Who
Daniel Everett "Dan" Wathen is a Maine lawyer and politician. He was Chief Justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court from March 1992 until October 2001, when he resigned to run for Governor of Maine as a Republican. At the time of his announcement, many pollsters and academics did not believe Wathen would factor into the 2002 gubernatorial election, he was replaced as Chief Justice by Leigh Saufley. Wathen is a native of Easton in Maine, he graduated from Ricker College in Houlton and earned his law degree from the University of Maine School of Law. He holds a Master of Laws degree from the University of Virginia School of Law; as of 2010, Wathen oversaw court-ordered improvements in mental health services. Wathen testified before the Health and Human Services committee of the Maine legislature that cuts to mental health services would be "illusory" and the proposed cuts would be spent elsewhere, such as in prison services for mentally ill people. Attorney General Janet Mills defended Governor John Baldacci's plan to cut mental health services.
As of 2011, Wathen was the Board Chairman of the Maine Turnpike Authority. Since 2002, he has served as Of Counsel for Pierce Atwood LLP, a law firm which has an office based in Augusta, Maine. In April of 2013, Governor Paul R. LePage nominated him to serve as Co-Chair of the Maine Unemployment Investigation Commission
The 2016–17 Campionato Sammarinese di Calcio season was the 32nd since its establishment. It is the only level in San Marino; the season began on 9 September 2016 and ended with the play-off final on 20 May 2017. Tre Penne were the defending champions; the fixtures and group compositions were announced on 27 August 2016. Because there is no promotion or relegation in the league, the same 15 teams who competed in the league last season competed in the league this season. S. P. Cailungo S. S. Cosmos F. C. Domagnano S. C. Faetano F. C. Fiorentino S. S. Folgore Falciano Calcio A. C. Juvenes/Dogana S. P. La Fiorita A. C. Libertas S. S. Murata S. S. Pennarossa S. S. San Giovanni S. P. Tre Fiori S. P. Tre Penne S. S. Virtus The 15 clubs will be split into two groups. All teams played twice against the teams within their own group and once against the teams from the other group; this meant that the clubs in the eight-club group played 21 matches each while the clubs in the seven-club group played 20 matches each during the regular season.
The top three teams from each group advanced to a play-off which determined the season's champion and qualifiers for the 2017–18 UEFA Champions League and the 2017–18 UEFA Europa League. The play-offs were played in a double-eliminination format with both group winners earning byes in the first and second round. All matches were decided over one leg with extra time and penalties used to break ties; the schedule was announced on 10 April 2017. Virtus eliminated. Juvenes/Dogana eliminated. Libertas eliminated. Folgore eliminated and qualified for 2017–18 Europa League first qualifying round La Fiorita qualified for 2017–18 Champions League first qualifying round and Tre Penne qualified for 2017–18 Europa League first qualifying round. Official website