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Leeds Castle

Leeds Castle is a castle in Kent, England, 5 miles southeast of Maidstone. It is built on islands in a lake formed by the River Len to the east of the village of Leeds. A castle has existed on the site since 1119, the first being a simple stone stronghold constructed by Robert de Crevecoeur which served as a military post in the time of Norman intrusions into England. In the 13th century it came into the hands of King Edward I, for whom it became a favourite residence; the present castle dates from the 19th century. It has been open to the public since 1976. From 857 the site was owned by a Saxon chief called Led or Leed who built a wooden structure on two islands in the middle of the River Len. In 1119 Robert de Crevecoeur rebuilt it in stone as a Norman stronghold and Leeds Castle descended through the de Crevecoeur family until the 1260s. What form this Norman stronghold took is uncertain because it was rebuilt and transformed in the following centuries. Adrian Pettifer speculates that it may have been a bailey.

In 1278, the castle was bought by King Edward I's Eleanor of Castile. As a favoured residence of Edward's, it saw considerable investment; the king enhanced its defences, it was Edward who created the lake that surrounds the castle. A barbican spanning three islands was built and a gloriette with apartments for the king and queen was added. In the Late Middle Ages, the growth of the royal household meant fewer residences could accommodate the monarchy when they visited; as a result, expenditure on royal residences in south east England decreased except for the Tower of London and Windsor Castle. The activity at Leeds Castle during the reign of Edward I was a notable exception to this pattern; the castle was captured on 31 October 1321 by the forces of Edward II from Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere, wife of the castle's constable, Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, who had left her in charge during his absence. The King had besieged Leeds after she had refused Edward's consort Isabella of France admittance in her husband's absence.

Lady Badlesmere was kept prisoner in the Tower of London until November 1322. After Edward II died in 1327 his widow took over Leeds Castle as her primary residence. Richard II's first wife, Anne of Bohemia, spent the winter of 1381 at the castle on her way to be married to the king. In 1395, Richard received the French chronicler Jean Froissart there, as described in Froissart's Chronicles. Henry VIII transformed the castle in 1519 for Catherine of Aragon. A painting commemorating his meeting with Francis I of France still hangs there. In 1552 Leeds Castle was granted to Sir Anthony St Leger of Ulcombe, whose grandfather Ralph I St Leger, of Ulcombe, Sheriff of Kent in 1467/8, had been Constable of Leeds Castle; the castle escaped destruction during the English Civil War because its owner, Sir Cheney Culpeper, sided with the Parliamentarians. The castle was used as a prison during the war. Other members of the Culpeper family had sided with the Royalists, John, 1st Lord Culpeper, having been granted more than 5,000,000 acres of land in Virginia in reward for assisting the escape of the king's son, the Prince of Wales.

This legacy was to prove vital for the castle's fortunes. Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron was born at the castle in 1693 and settled in North America to oversee the Culpeper estates, cementing an ongoing connection between the castle and America. There is a commemorative sundial at the castle telling the time in Belvoir, Virginia and a corresponding sundial in America. Fairfax was the great grandson of Thomas Fairfax who led the parliamentarian attack at the nearby Battle of Maidstone in 1648 and whose doublet worn during the battle is on display. Robert Fairfax owned the castle for 46 years until 1793. Sale of the family estates in Virginia released a large sum of money that allowed extensive repair and the remodelling of the castle in a Tudor style, completed in 1823, that resulted in the appearance today; the last private owner of the castle was the Hon. Olive, Lady Baillie, daughter of Almeric Paget, 1st Baron Queenborough and his first wife, Pauline Payne Whitney, an American heiress.

Lady Baillie bought the castle in 1926 for £180,000. She redecorated the interior, first working with the French architect and designer Armand-Albert Rateau, who oversaw exterior alterations and added interior features such as a 16th-century-style carved-oak staircase with the Paris decorator Stéphane Boudin. During the early part of World War II the castle was used as a hospital where Lady Baillie and her daughters hosted burned Commonwealth airmen as part of their recovery. Survivors remembered the experience with fondness. Upon her death in 1974, Lady Baillie left the castle to the Leeds Castle Foundation, a private charitable trust whose aim is to preserve the castle and grounds for the benefit of the public. An estimated £1.4 million was invested and a further £400,000 was retrieved from the sale of the furniture to make improvements to the Castle and attract paying corporate conferences. However, it was understood that it could not support the ongoing costs of running the Estate, so in 1975 the gardens were opened to the public, the following year the Castle was made available to visitors.

On 17 July 1978, the castle was the site of a meeting between the Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohammed Ibrahim Karmel and Israeli Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan and Cyrus Vance of the US in preparatio

List of Kentucky railroads

The following railroads operate in the U. S. state of Kentucky. BNSF Railway Canadian National Railway through subsidiary Illinois Central Railroad CSX Transportation including subsidiary Carrollton Railroad Operates the Glasgow Railway Fredonia Valley Railroad Kentucky and Tennessee Railway KWT Railway Louisville and Indiana Railroad Louisville Riverport Railroad Norfolk Southern Railway including subsidiary Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway Paducah and Illinois Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway R. J. Corman Railroad/Bardstown Line R. J. Corman Railroad/Central Kentucky Lines R. J. Corman Railroad/Memphis Line Tennken Railroad Transkentucky Transportation Railroad West Tennessee Railroad Cando Contracting Centrus Energy JRL Coal Respondek Railroad R. J. Corman Railroad Switching Amtrak - Amtrak has stations at Ashland, South Portsmouth - South Shore and Fulton. There is an Amtrak bus route connecting Louisville to Indianapolis. Blue Grass Traction Company Camden Interstate Railway Central Kentucky Traction Company Georgetown and Lexington Traction Company Louisville Railway Louisville and Pewee Valley Electric Railway Louisville and Eastern Railroad Louisville and Interurban Railroad Louisville and Northern Railway and Lighting Company Ohio Valley Electric Railway List of United States railroads Association of American Railroads, Railroad Service in Kentucky.

Retrieved May 9, 2005. Hilton, George W.. American Narrow Gauge Railroads. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2369-9. Kentucky and Tennessee: a complete guide to their railroads and distances, connections north and south. Louisville: H. E. Mead, 1867, OL 24157680M

Jack Binion

Jack Benny Binion is an American businessman. Binion is the son of casino magnate Benny Binion and worked for his father at Binion's Horseshoe, a casino and hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada. Binion became president of the Horseshoe in 1963 at the age of 26, his fame grew following his 1970 hosting of the first World Series of Poker at the Horseshoe which became the largest set of poker tournaments in the world. Held, Binion's Horseshoe became renowned as one of Nevada's most successful casino operations. In 1998, following a protracted legal battle for control of the Horseshoe among Benny Binion's heirs, Binion sold his interest in Binion's Horseshoe to his sister, Becky Behnen, while retaining a token 1% interest in the operation so that he could lawfully retain his Nevada Gaming License, he acquired the rights to the Horseshoe brand outside of Nevada. Binion went on to form Horseshoe Gaming Holding Corporation which developed and operated several riverboat casinos under the Horseshoe name. Binion continued to promote the casinos for Harrah's Entertainment following his sale of the company in 2004 to Harrah's.

As of 2008, Binion's name appears on the "Jack Binion's Steakhouse" at Horseshoe Tunica and Horseshoe Hammond and several of the Horseshoe-branded casinos still carry slot machines bearing Binion's likeness called "Who Wants To Be A Binionaire?" that originated before the Harrah's acquisition. While running Horseshoe Gaming, Binion started the World Poker Open which at one time was a major feeder tournament for the World Series of Poker. Binion was inducted into the American Gaming Association's Gaming Hall of Fame on June 11, 2004; the following year on July 6, 2005 the World Series of Poker, inducted him into the Poker Hall of Fame. In July 2006, Binion became chairman of Wynn Resorts, his responsibilities included opening the Wynn Macau. He has remained with Wynn Resorts in a consulting role. Las Vegas Sun


Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar, better known by his regnal title al-Muʿtazz bi-ʾllāh was the Abbasid caliph from 866 to 869, during a period of extreme internal instability within the Abbasid Caliphate, known as the "Anarchy at Samarra". Named as the second in line of three heirs of his father al-Mutawakkil, al-Mu'tazz was forced to renounce his rights after the accession of his brother al-Muntasir, was thrown in prison as a dangerous rival during the reign of his cousin al-Musta'in, he was released and raised to the caliphate in January 866, during the civil war between al-Musta'in and the Turkish military of Samarra. Al-Mu'tazz was capable and determined to reassert the authority of the caliph over the Turkish military, but had only limited success. Aided by the vizier Ahmad ibn Isra'il, he managed to remove and kill the leading Turkish generals, Wasif al-Turki and Bugha al-Saghir, but the decline of the Tahirids in Baghdad deprived him of their role as a counterweight to the Turks. Faced with the assertive Turkish commander Salih ibn Wasif, unable to find money to satisfy the demands of his troops, he was deposed and died of ill treatment a few days on 16 July 869.

His reign marks the apogee of the decline of the Caliphate's central authority, the climax of centrifugal tendencies, expressed through the emergence of the autonomous dynasties of the Tulunids in Egypt and the Saffarids in the East, Alid uprisings in Hejaz and Tabaristan, the first stirrings of the great Zanj Rebellion in lower Iraq. The future al-Mu'tazz was born to the Caliph al-Mutawakkil from his favourite slave concubine, Qabiha. In 849, al-Mutawakkil arranged for his succession, by appointing three of his sons as heirs and assigning them the governance and proceeds of the empire's provinces: the eldest, al-Muntasir, was named first heir, received Egypt, the Jazira, the proceeds of the rents in the capital, Samarra. However, over time the favour of al-Mutawakkil shifted towards al-Mu'tazz. Encouraged by his favourite advisor, al-Fath ibn Khaqan, the vizier Ubayd Allah ibn Yahya ibn Khaqan, the Caliph began contemplating naming al-Mu'tazz as his first heir, excluding al-Muntasir from the succession.

The rivalry between the two princes reflected tensions in the political sphere, as al-Mu'tazz's succession appears to have been backed by the traditional Abbasid elites as well, while al-Muntasir was backed by the Turkish and Maghariba guard troops. In October 861, the Turkish commanders began a plot to assassinate the Caliph, they were soon joined, or at least tacitly supported, by al-Muntasir, whose relations with his father deteriorated rapidly. On 5 December, al-Muntasir was bypassed in favour of al-Mu'tazz for leading the ritual Friday prayer at the end of Ramadan, at the end of which his father's advisor al-Fath and the vizier Ubayd Allah demonstratively kissed his hands and feet, before accompanying him on the return to the palace; as a result, on the night of 10/11 December, the Turks killed al-Mutawakkil and al-Fath, al-Muntasir became caliph. Al-Muntasir sent for his brothers to come and give the oath of allegiance to him. Thus, when the vizier Ubayd Allah, upon being informed of al-Mutawakkil's death, went to the house of al-Mu'tazz, he did not find him there.

The murder of al-Mutawakkil began the tumultuous period known as "Anarchy at Samarra", which lasted until 870 and brought the Abbasid Caliphate to the brink of collapse. Pressured by the Turkish commanders Wasif al-Turki and Bugha al-Saghir, both al-Mu'tazz and al-Mu'ayyad renounced their places in the succession on 27 April 862. However, al-Muntasir died in June 862, without having named any new heir; the Turks now strengthened their hold over the government, selected a cousin of al-Muntasir, al-Musta'in, as the new caliph. The new caliph was immediately faced with a large riot in Samarra in support of al-Mu'tazz; the riot was down by the Maghariba and Ushrusaniyya regiments, but casualties on both sides were heavy. Al-Musta'in, worried that al-Mu'tazz or al-Mua'yyad could press their claims to the caliphate, first attempted to buy them off by offering them an annual subsidy of 80,000 gold dinars. Shortly after, their properties were confiscated—according to al-Tabari, that of al-Mu'tazz was valued at ten million dirhams—and imprisoned under the auspices of Bugha al-Saghir in one of the rooms of the Jawsaq Palace.

Rivalries between the Turkish leaders led to a split in 865, when al-Musta'in, Wasif and Bugha left Samarra for Baghdad, where they arrived on 5/6 February 865. There they were joined by many of their followers, allied with the city's Tahirid governor, Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir, who began fortifying the city; the bulk of the Turks, remained in Samarra. Their position threatened by this coalition, they proclaimed him caliph. On 24 February, al-Mu'tazz placed his brother Abu Ahmad in charge of the army, sent him to lay siege to Baghdad. Abu Ahmad played a leading role in the siege, which created a close and lasting relationship with the Turkish military, that would allow him to emer

Bolgatanga Municipal District

The Bolgatanga Municipal District is one of the 15 districts in the Upper East Region of north Ghana. The capital is the town Bolgatanga, which serves as the capital of the Upper East Region; the climate is tropical with a rainy season from May to October and a dry season with no rainfall from November to April. Temperatures range between a maximum of at least 12 °C in December; the natural vegetation of the district consists of tree savanna, with baobab, acacia trees. The low vegetation dried by the sun; the inhabitants of the district belong predominantly to different peoples of Northern Ghana. The town of Bolgatanga, has a cosmopolitan character. Here are mixed not only different peoples of the north, but members of the major ethnic groups including the Grune and kanjegah peoples. Hausa and Moshi people; the majority of the population in the 1990s lived, in spite of the urban structure of the district, from agriculture, 19% commercial, 12% industry handicrafts, just 7.4% were employed in public services.

There are some jobs in the mining and construction and in the form of some metal-working companies, repair shops, painting companies etc. but these represent a small minority. The capital in the district is Bolgatanga; some Towns and Villages in the district include: Tindonsobulugu Tindonmolgo Daporetindongo Yarigabisi Zuarungu Dachio Gambibigo-Azuabisi Kumbosigo Sherigu Dorungu-Agobgabis Pobaga Atulbabisi Tanzui Kumbangre Bolga-Soe Bukere Sokabisi Yikine Sumbrungu Zaare "Districts of Ghana". Statoids. Bolgatanga Municipality

Empire Builders (radio program)

Empire Builders is an American old-time radio Western. It was broadcast on NBC-Blue from January 14, 1929, to June 22, 1931; the reference book Radio Rides the Range: A Reference Guide to Western Drama on the Air commented, "This may have been the first western drama on radio. The 30-minute weekly episodes "managed to combine romance and music in one program, along with gritty adventure and occasional bitter violence," featuring both real people from history and fictional characters. Episodes' eras ranged from the mid-1700s to the 1930s; because the show was sponsored by Great Northern Railway, locales of the stories were in an area comprising California, Montana and Washington state, the states served by the Great Northern Railway. A narrator introduced each episode, his "chuckles and characteristic colloquialisms" were regular features of the program; as an example of the fare heard on Empire Builders, a two-part program that began on February 18, 1929, related the adventures experienced and the obstacles overcome during the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Among the difficulties included in the program was "the incident at Great Falls, where a cloudburst swelled the river and swept their encampment from the banks like so many flies." Virginia Gardner and Bob McGimsey starred in the original version of the program, when it originated at WJZ in New York City. When origination changed to Chicago, Don Ameche, Bernardine Flynn, Harvey Hayes starred; the supporting cast included Obed "Dad" Pickard, Lucille Husting, Bob White. Ameche and Flynn, both from the University of Wisconsin, were selected for the Chicago cast from hundreds of actors and actresses who auditioned for the program. Others who were heard on the program included Jack Daly. Ted Pearson was the announcer, Don Bernard was the director, Josef Koestner conducted the orchestra. Edward H. Bierstadt was a writer. Wyllis Cooper was continuity editor. Log of episodes of Empire Builders from Jerry Haendiges Vintage Radio Logs Log of episodes of Empire Builders from Old Time Radio Researchers Group Log of episodes of Empire Builders from radioGOLDINdex Scripts of episodes of Empire Builders from The Generic Radio Workshop Vintage Radio Script Library "Armistice Day Reunion" episode of Empire Builders from the Internet Archive Episodes of Empire Builders from Old Time Radio Researchers Group