Leeds Town Hall is a 19th century municipal building on The Headrow, West Yorkshire, England. Planned to include law courts, a council chamber, offices, a public hall, a suite of ceremonial rooms, it was built between 1853 and 1858 to a design by the architect Cuthbert Brodrick. With the building of the Civic Hall in 1933, some of these functions were relocated, after the construction of the Leeds Crown Court in 1993, the Town Hall now serves as a concert and wedding venue, its offices still used by some council departments, it was designated a Grade I listed building in 1951. Imagined as a "municipal palace" to demonstrate the power and success of Victorian Leeds, opened by Queen Victoria in a lavish ceremony in 1858, it is one of the largest town halls in the United Kingdom. With a height of 225 feet it was the tallest building in Leeds from 1858 until 1966, when it lost the title to the Park Plaza Hotel, which stands 8 metres taller at 77 metres; as of 2020 it is the thirteenth-tallest building in Leeds.
The distinctive baroque clock tower, which serves as a landmark and a symbol of Leeds, was not part of the initial design but was added by Brodrick in 1856 as the civic leaders sought to make an grander statement. The building cost much more than the original estimates due to rising prices and constant additions to its design throughout construction. See also: Media related to Architectural elements at Leeds Town Hall at Wikimedia Commons The Town Hall is classical in style but baroque in imaginative power and drama, it stands squarely at the top of a flight of steps on a mound made specially for the purpose of increasing its prominent position. The south, principal facade to The Headrow has a recessed portico of ten huge Corinthian columns. There is an immense frieze and rising above it all, the domed clock tower, 225 ft high, not in the original design; the three other sides of the building are similar to the south front, except that the columns and pilasters which surround them are near to the walls, the spaces between them have two tiers of circular-headed windows.
The principal entrance is a 32 ft -high archway under the south portico, which contains three ornamented wrought iron doors. The smaller, day-to-day entrance is to the east; the Victoria Hall – the Great Hall – rises to 92 ft 6 in inside the parallelogram of surrounding rooms and corridors and the enclosing colonnades. It is lined with marble-effect columns with gilt capitals and bases, with painted mottoes around the walls: "Good Will towards Men", "Trial by Jury", "Forward" among them; the decoration was by the decorator John Crace, combined with the cut-glass chandeliers and the then-largest organ in Europe, led one writer to say that it was "the best place in Britain to see what it looked like on the inside of a wedding cake". The frescoes adorning the domed ceiling of the vestibule were the first attempt to embellish a provincial edifice with high art. In the centre of the vestibule stands a white marble statue of Queen Victoria, by Matthew Noble, 8 ft high and was presented to the Council as the gift of the then-Mayor Sir Peter Fairbairn.
The Town Hall provided accommodation for municipal departments, a courtroom, police station, a venue for concerts and civic events. It still has a role as a council office; the principal performance space, the richly decorated Victoria Hall, is a venue for orchestral concerts. As a Victorian show of pride, much detailed carved decoration is present on the building, all in Rawdon Hill millstone grit; the Town Hall has a rusticated base, giant columns and fluted pilasters with the Corinthian order, a parapet with vases, detailing to the tower and ventilation turrets. The sculptor credited for the general carving work on the building is Catherine Mawer, who lived in Oxford Place close by, her nephew William Ingle was responsible for the huge Corinthian capitals and the ornamental turrets on the roof. On the west side, the eleven large keystones carved with giant masks were being worked on by her husband Robert Mawer, between 1853 and 1854, when he died. Catherine Mawer and William Ingle completed other general carving.
Thomas Whiteley, the stonemason associated with Robert Mawer worked on the building. The carving of the tympanum above the south entrance, the sole contribution by the prolific Victorian sculptor John Thomas, represents Progress and Commerce; the four Portland stone lions on plinths along the frontage, an 1867 addition by the sculptor William Day Keyworth Jr, contrast with the sandstone of the building itself, were modelled at London Zoo. Until 1813, the seat of Leeds Corporation was the Moot Hall of 1618, on Briggate, used for judicial purposes. Leeds went through a period of rapid growth in the first half of the 19th century and by the mid-19th century it became apparent that the court house was no longer large enough for the functions it performed; the neighbouring "wool capital of the world", took the lead in trying to elevate industrial Yorkshire towns with stately, grand architecture by building St George's Hall in 1851–53. It was a new status symbol, as there was perpetual competition between Leeds and Bradford, calls grew within Leeds for a new town hall.
The physician and social reformer Dr John Deakin Heaton became a major advocate and campaigner for a town hall, having visited Europe and enviously remarked on the "famous old cities whose Town Halls are the permanent glory
The coppery brushtail possum is a species of marsupial possum in the family Phalangeridae. Coppery brushtails are found within the Atherton Tablelands area of Queensland, in northeastern Australia; these mammals inhabit rainforest ecosystems. Though they have a restricted distribution, they are locally common; this population is considered a subspecies of T. vulpecula. Coppery brushtail possums have a typical length of 400-490 mmm and weigh 1200-1800 g, with males being larger and heavier than females. Like the common brushtail possum, coppery brushtails are nocturnal, live in dens, which are tree hollows. At night, they still spend half of their time resting to conserve energy, the other half in foraging. In feeding experiments, in selecting their food, these possums may tend to select a mix of plant materials with detoxification requirements that are correlated or independent, rather than contradictory, thus maximizing their ability to process harmful plant byproducts. Dominance among individuals tends to place females above males, larger over smaller individuals
Bunting is a form of animal behavior found in cats, in which the animal butts or rubs their head against other things, including people. Bunting as a behaviour can be viewed as a variation of scent rubbing; this is when an animal a carnivore, will rub its back on a scent such as prey or the urine of an animal of the same species. Evolutionarily speaking, scent rubbing is the oldest form of scent communication and bunting is a derivative of this behaviour. Rolling in the scent of another animal was an adaptation to camouflage the scent of a predator or outside male in order to get closer to mates. Bunting is considered to be a form of territorial scent-marking behaviour, where the cat rubs the scent glands on their cheeks and forehead on the object being marked. After a display of aggression, a cat will begin bunting objects in that immediate area as a form of territorial display toward a rival cat. Bunting and allorubbing are part of feral cat behavior within colonies. An elaborate ritual which can take several minutes, two cats will rub along the side and tail of the other cat.
This behaviour in domestic cats involves a system of hierarchy and may have evolved as a way to channel aggression where the costs of a conflict is too high. Cats use bunting as a way to familiarize themselves to their environment and the pheromones secreted work to ease the cat's anxieties about an unfamiliar area. Bunting is a normal animal behavior, should be distinguished from head pressing, abnormal and a sign of illness; the practice of bunting stems from the behaviour that arises when kittens are young and seek stimulation from their mother by rubbing and kneading. This behaviour is not only found in cats, it has been found in other carnivorous mammals and some ungulates. Bunting in ungulates may have a role in the weaning of young; when a juvenile is nursing from its mother, it will bunt the udder with its head. This is to stimulate milk production or "let down" and causes some pain to the mother when the bunting movement is performed. Over time, there is an increase in the number of times.
This causes the mother to react in an attempt to prevent further pain. This reaction of the mother can be any form of defensive behaviour from a nipping bite, moving away from the young, or a jab of her horns. Bunting in domesticated and wild cat species has olfactory roots and has a range of uses which include, but are not limited to, mother-young association bonds, greeting/welcoming of kin, diffusing potential aggression in social environments, distributing scent on areas to cultivate familiarity. Bunting behaviour is a display of aggression in cattle; when two cattle are rivaling each other, they will use bunting as a form of defense. Cattle will attempt to bunt the rival cattle with the goal of bunting their head under the hind legs of the animal; this occurs when one cattle shows submission during the final moments of a feud, this specific behavior is calling clinching. The behaviour of bunting within cattle is first observable in calves; as a form of play fighting, a young calf will bunt the flank of its mother.
A newborn calf will bunt this stimulates milk flow. It has been found that when calves are taken from their mothers and raised artificially, the calf will attempt to bunt the artificial teat when milk is not being produced quick enough; as seen in cattle, horse foals will bunt the mother's udder. Another example of bunting is; the dam will proceed to bunt the foal with her head, non-aggressively, to prevent further discomfort. Many foals will play fight with one another; the foal will push its head against another foal's body in an attempt to knock the other off-balance. Horses will rub the bottom or sides of their jaw onto others; this self-grooming social interaction can have a calming effect for the horses involved, dominant horses are more to initiate the behavior. To domesticated cats, lions use bunting as a form of greeting and territorial marking. Lions will greet each other with this head bunting behavior when returning to a pride after a hunt. In the early stages of life, cubs procure stimulation from their mother as she cleans them by rubbing and licking them.
This behaviour carries throughout their lives and bunting remains a primal source of interaction between adults as it stimulates a familiar interaction between kin. Cat communication Social grooming