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Leet known as eleet or leetspeak, is a system of modified spellings used on the Internet. It uses character replacements in ways that play on the similarity of their glyphs via reflection or other resemblance. Additionally, it modifies certain words based on a system of alternate meanings. There are linguistic varieties in different online communities; the term "leet" is derived from the word elite, used as an adjective to describe formidable prowess or accomplishment in the fields of online gaming and computer hacking. The leet lexicon includes spellings of the word as l33t. Leet originated within bulletin board systems in the 1980s, where having "elite" status on a BBS allowed a user access to file folders and special chat rooms; the Cult of the Dead Cow hacker collective has been credited with the original coining of the term, in their text-files of that era. One theory is that it was developed to defeat text filters created by BBS or Internet Relay Chat system operators for message boards to discourage the discussion of forbidden topics, like cracking and hacking.

Creative misspellings and ASCII-art-derived words were a way to attempt to indicate one was knowledgeable about the culture of computer users. Once the reserve of hackers and script kiddies, leet has since entered the mainstream, it is now used to mock newbies known colloquially as noobs, or newcomers, on web sites, or in gaming communities. Some consider emoticons and ASCII art, like smiley faces, to be leet, while others maintain that leet consists of only symbolic word encryption. More obscure forms of leet, involving the use of symbol combinations and no letters or numbers, continue to be used for its original purpose of encrypted communication, it is sometimes used as a script language. Variants of leet have been used for censorship purposes for many years. Leet symbols the number 1337, are Internet memes that have spilled over into popular culture. Signs that show the numbers "1337" are popular motifs for pictures and shared across the Internet. One of the hallmarks of leet is its unique approach to orthography, using substitutions of other characters, letters or otherwise, to represent a letter or letters in a word.

For more-casual use of leet, the primary strategy is to use homoglyphs, symbols that resemble the letters for which they stand. The choice of symbol is not fixed—anything the reader can make sense of is valid. However, this practice is not extensively used in regular leet. Another use for Leet orthographic substitutions is the creation of paraphrased passwords. Limitations imposed by websites on password length and the characters permitted require less extensive forms of Leet when used in this application; some examples of leet include a term for the stereotypical newbie. Text rendered in leet is characterized by distinctive, recurring forms. -xor suffix The meaning of this suffix is parallel with the English -er and -or suffixes in that it derives agent nouns from a verb stem. It is realized in two different forms: -xor and -zor, respectively. For example, the first may be seen in the second in pwnzor. Additionally, this nominalization may be inflected with all of the suffixes of regular English verbs.

The letter'o' is replaced with the numeral 0. -age suffix Derivation of a noun from a verb stem is possible by attaching -age to the base form of any verb. Attested derivations are pwnage and speakage. However, leet provides exceptions; these nouns are used with a form of "to be" rather than "to have," e.g. "that was pwnage" rather than "he has pwnage". Either is a more emphatic way of expressing the simpler "he pwns," but the former implies that the person is embodying the trait rather than possessing it. -ness suffix Derivation of a noun from an adjective stem is done by attaching -ness to any adjective. This is the same as the English form, except it is used much more in Leet. Nouns such as lulzness and leetness are derivations using this suffix. Words ending in -ed When forming a past participle ending in -ed, the Leet user may replace the -e with an apostrophe, as was common in poetry of previous centuries. Sometimes, the apostrophe is removed as well; the word ending may be substituted by -t.

Use of the -& suffix Words ending in -and, -anned, -ant, or a similar sound can sometimes be spelled with an ampersand to express the ending sound. This is most used with the word banned. An alternate form of "B&" is "B7", as the ampersand is typed with the "7" key in the standard US keyboard layout, it is seen in the phrase "IBB7", which indicates that the poster believes that a previous poster will soon be banned from the site, channel, or board on which they are both post

Delaware Sängerbund

The Delaware Sängerbund is a German-American club located near Newark, Delaware. The club has close to 1000 members who meet at the club house in Delaware. Besides an active chorus, the club sponsors a Bavarian folk dancing group, a Ladies' Auxiliary in charge of food preparation, youth soccer teams, a teenage group, a genealogy group, German language classes for both adults and children; the Delaware Sängerbund was founded in March 1853 by 16 German men as a singing society. It soon became an important social club for the members and their families and newly arriving immigrants; the club was located at 205 East Sixth Street in Wilmington, known as the "German Hall", from 1883 until 1965, when urban development made a move necessary. The society has been in continuous existence since 1853, making it one of the oldest clubs in Delaware; the Delaware Sängerbund and the German community of Wilmington held the first "Volksfest" in September 1883 in the Schuetzen Park of Wilmington located in the area of Wawaset Park.

It was held there for the next several years. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the society, the Delaware Sängerbund organized another Volksfest, this time at the new Brandywine Springs Park; the festivals continued annually until 1912. When the Delaware Sängerbund celebrated its 125th anniversary in 1978 with a large tent to accommodate all the guests, the idea of having an annual festival was reborn, the first Oktoberfest in the Munich style was held in 1979. Since the Delaware Sängerbund Oktoberfest has become a much anticipated tradition in Delaware; the Delaware Sängerbund shares its German heritage and traditions with the public at two annual events: The "Oktoberfest" held on the third weekend in September and the "Christkindlmarkt" held on the second Saturday in November. The Delaware Sängerbund Oktoberfest is named after the known festival held each year in Munich, Bavaria. There, the first Oktoberfest was celebrated as a wedding festival of the Bavarian crown prince Ludwig on October 12, 1810.

In years, the festival commemorating the wedding grew larger and longer, first in the city countrywide. To ensure milder weather for all the outdoor activities, the beginning of the sixteen-day-long celebrations was moved into September, only the last weekend falling into October; the name "Oktoberfest" remained with the fair. Each year on the third weekend in September, the Delaware Sängerbund recreates the atmosphere of the Oktoberfest for the people of Delaware and the surrounding states. More than 15,000 visitors come to the large tent erected on the club grounds to enjoy dancing to German brass bands, sample homemade potato salad and sauerkraut, watch performances of "Schuhplattler" dances by the Enzian Volkstanzgruppe. Unlimited amusement rides for children are included in the entrance fee; the custom of bringing whole villages and towns together for a festival is much older than the Oktoberfest associated with Munich. Throughout Germany, people celebrate a "Volksfest" to commemorate the founding of a town, a church dedication or an historic event.

Oktoberfest celebrations Volksfest H. Cox and T. Gilgenast, "Delaware Saengerbund: 1853-2003", Cedar Tree Publishing, Oct. 2002

Tablet of Shamash

The Tablet of Shamash is a stone tablet recovered from the ancient Babylonian city of Sippar in southern Iraq in 1881. It is dated to the reign of King Nabu-apla-iddina ca. 888 – 855 BC. The tablet was discovered during excavations by Hormuzd Rassam between 1878 and 1883; the tablet was broken into two large and six small pieces. By the time of King Nabopolassar, between 625 and 605 BC, it had broken into four parts and been repaired; the terracotta coffer contained two clay impressions of the tablets presentation scene. The coffer was sealed under an asphalt temple floor, it has been suggested that the coffer contained a second tablet as well as a third clay impression. It was encased in a clay cast or "squeeze" that created impressions when placed over the face of the stone and protected it; this indicates that the tablet was an item of reverence stored due to newer traditions. The tablet has serrated edges like a saw; the bas-relief on the top of the obverse shows Shamash, the Sun God, beneath symbols of the Sun and star.

The God is depicted in a seated position, wearing a horned headdress, holding the rod-and-ring symbol in his right hand. There is another large sun disk in front of him on an altar, suspended from above by two figures. Of the three other figures on the left, the central one is dressed in the same fashion as Shamash and is assumed to be the Babylonian king Nabu-apla-iddina receiving the symbols of deity; the bas relief can be superimposed with two orders of golden rectangles, though ancient knowledge of the golden ratio before Pythagoras is considered unlikely. The scene contains three inscriptions; the first, at the head of the tablet reads: Above the sun god a second inscription describes the position of the depicted moon and star as being over against the heavenly ocean, on which the scene sits: The final inscription in the scene reads: The cuneiform text beneath the stele is divided into fifteen passages, blending prose and rhetorical elements in the fashion typical of Mesopotamian royal inscriptions.

It tells how Sippar and the Ebabbar temple of Shamash had fallen into disrepair with the loss of the statue of the God. This cult image is temporarily replaced with the solar disk. Similar iconographic and prosaic parallels have been evidenced from Mesopotamian and Jewish sources where the king who restores the cult is seen like a deity passing on divine symbols; the remainder of the text records the gifts of the royal grant, similar to a kudurru and discusses the practices of the temple, priestly rules, dress codes and regulations

Maurice Ewing (surgeon)

Maurice Rossie Ewing, CBE, FRCSEd, FRCS, FRACS was a Scottish surgeon, the first professor of surgery at the University of Melbourne, Australia. His department established an early programme of renal transplantation in Australia, he was born on 6 July 1912 at 53 Dudley Crescent, the youngest of the four sons of Annabel and Thomas Miller Ewing, master mariner and a captain with the Northern Lighthouse Board. He was educated at Daniel Stewart's College, Edinburgh where he was captain and dux of the school and a member of the school rugby 1st XV, he won the Creighton scholarship to University of Edinburgh Medical School and qualified with an MB ChB in 1935, winning the Ettles scholarship as the most distinguished scholar of his year, the Mouan scholarship in the practice of physic. He was house surgeon to Sir David Wilkie in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. After surgical posts at Royal Leicester Infirmary he returned to Edinburgh as a demonstrator in anatomy and physiology. After obtaining the FRCSEd in 1939, he was appointed surgeon to the Surgical Outpatient Department of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh.

During World War II he served as a Surgeon Lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, based at the naval hospital in Bighi, Malta. From 1947 he worked with Professor Ian Aird as senior lecturer at the Postgraduate Medical School at Hammersmith Hospital. During his time in London he was a Hunterian lecturer and won a travelling fellowship to Scandinavia, he was awarded a British Empire fellowship to Memorial Hospital, New York, where he worked with the leading head and neck surgeon Dr Hayes Marti n. In 1955 he was appointed as first occupant of the new James Stewart chair of surgery at University of Melbourne; the chair which he took in Melbourne was based at the Alfred Hospital the Royal Melbourne Hospital, with the establishment of Monash University. He was responsible for surgical teaching at St Vincent's Hospital and Prince Henry's Hospital. At the Royal Melbourne he established a renal transplant program under the direction of the nephrologists Professor Priscilla Kincaid-Smith and Dr Vernon Marshall.

Peter Morris set up a tissue typing laboratory and a research laboratory in transplantation immunology in Ewing's department to support this service. Ewing's s other clinical interests were in head and neck cancer, parenteral nutrition and peripheral vascular disease, he introduced the practice of using sheepskins under the patient to reduce the incidence of pressure sores. He was active in promoting seatbelt legislation; the wearing of seatbelts in cars was made compulsory in the State of Victoria in 1970, a world first. He was appointed a CBE in that year. Following retirement from the University of Melbourne, he spent six months in Kuala Lumpur developing the academic surgical unit of the University of Malaya. Ewing married Phyllis Edith Parnall, whom he had met in Malta where she was a Volunteer Air Detachment nurse, they had one daughter and two sons Hamish and Alastair

Soldier, Ask Not

Soldier, Ask Not is a science fiction novel by American writer Gordon R. Dickson, published in 1967 by Dell Publishing company, it is the title of a short story, appeared in the October, 1964 issue of Galaxy Science Fiction magazine. The shorter work constitutes about one third of the novel, it is part of Dickson's Childe Cycle series, in which mankind has reached the stars and divided into specialized splinter groups. It takes place at the same time as Dorsai!, a few characters appear in both books. Themes from the rest of the cycle are echoed here the actions of a key person, like Paul Formain, Cletus Grahame and Donal Graeme in the other novels, who can drastically affect history due to his ability to analyze and influence the behavior of others. Unlike the other protagonists, Tam Olyn is no hero. In the late 23rd century, humanity has settled fifteen younger worlds around nine stars, including Earth's solar system. Although Old Earth remains populated by the traditional variety of "full-spectrum" people, the younger worlds have developed "splinter" cultures, taking divergent paths and developing specialized cultures.

Most notable of these are: the Exotics, philosophers and psychologists. Other worlds have specialized in different ways, in the sciences, agriculture or commerce; the primary medium of interplanetary trade is in personal service contracts. The worlds are divided into the "loose" worlds, where individuals maintain some control over their contracts, the "tight" worlds, where personal contracts may be bought and sold regardless of the wishes of the individual worker; the title refers to a hymn sung by soldiers of the Friendly worlds. The first lines are "Soldier, ask not, now or where to war your banners go". Tam Olyn is an ambitious, angry young man. Orphaned at a young age, raised by a nihilist uncle, he cares little for others, with the possible exception of his younger sister, Eileen. Following his graduation from school, he is ready to launch his career as a journalist among the stars. In a prelude to the main events of the novel, he and Eileen visit the Final Encyclopedia, a centuries-long project to try to collect and catalog all knowledge.

While standing at the center of the index room, Tam is identified as a one-in-a-billion person who can hear the voices of humanity while there. The dying director of the Encyclopedia wants him to stay on and succeed him, but an Exotic, Padma from the planet Mara, reads him as having no identity with others, no empathy, no soul, he cannot help the Encyclopedia. His sister has become engaged to Jamethon Black, a young mercenary from the Friendly world of Harmony. Despite the fact that Black seems a decent young man, Tam callously manipulates his sister into breaking the engagement. Shortly, he leaves Earth. In the following five years, he advances in his profession, while his sister emigrates to Cassida, marries a young engineer there. While covering a war on New Earth, he finds his sister's husband, drafted, attempts to keep him out of harm's way by using him as an assistant; the plan backfires. His brother-in-law, along with several other prisoners, is slaughtered by a fanatic Friendly soldier, in violation of the laws of war.

Despite the fanatic's execution for his war crime, Tam chooses to blame the entire Friendly culture, sets out to destroy them. Tam has the ability to analyze people and situations, manipulate them expertly. Padma observes his actions, tries to put a brake on his behavior, but he will not be stopped. By manipulating events, he creates a situation for the Friendlies that may result in their destruction as a viable culture. In the culmination of events, he arrives to cover a war on the planet of St. Marie, a small agrarian world in the same system as Mara and Kultis, the Exotic planets.. On one side are the mercenary forces hired by the Exotics, led by the identical Dorsai twin brothers and Kensie Graeme; the twins, who appear in a number of other stories, are opposites in every way. Kensie is warm, loved by all, a great leader of men. Ian is cold as ice, a great tactician, he is respected and feared. On the other side are a group of Friendlies, misled into supporting an abortive local revolution; the Friendlies are led by Jamethon Black.

The Friendlies outnumbered. Tam has manipulated the situation so that not only will the Friendlies lose, but their ability to hire out their soldiers will be crippled leading to the end of their viability as a culture, he believes he can link the Friendlies to assassins hired locally, against all the accepted rules of war. He tries to recruit Kensie Graeme in a scheme to expose this, but Kensie refuses and insists on prosecuting the campaign his own way. Padma is on St. Marie, he continues to try to dissuade Tam from his quest. He explains that people from the Splinter cultures are not insane fanatics as Tam sees them, but rather a new kind of human where all the components of the human spirit are unified in a single direction, he gives Tam a copy of a secret communication between Jamethon's superiors that appears to abandon hope of them winning, leave them to be destroyed, further to conceal this from the troops. Tam shows this to Jamethon, who interprets it a different way based on his faith.

The result is a shootout between Kensie Graeme, Jamethon and a few of his lieutenants a

Tom Bodett

Thomas Edward Bodett is an American author, voice actor, radio personality as a host and panelist for a number of shows that air on National Public Radio. Since 1986, he has been the spokesman for the motel chain Motel 6, ending commercials with the phrase, "I'm Tom Bodett for Motel 6, we'll leave the light on for you." Thomas Edward Bodett was born on February 23, 1955, in Champaign and raised in Sturgis, Michigan. As of 2013, he resided in Dummerston, where he is a member of the town's board of selectmen. In 1986, Bodett was building houses in Homer and contributing to NPR's All Things Considered. A creative director at the Richards Group ad agency heard him on NPR and hired him to record a commercial for Motel 6. Bodett ad-libbed the famous line "We'll leave the light on for you" and has been the chain's spokesperson since; the director David Fowler hired him because Bodett "sound like the kind of person who stays there." Fowler said he thought, "Gosh, if I only had an account for a national budget motel brand with a sense of humor and humility, I could make a heck of an advertising campaign with this guy."In 2005, Motel 6 began using Bodett for their wake-up calls.

The chain hoped to bring a more personal touch to people's day by using their spokesperson's voice. Bodett was featured on the first Motel 6 podcast, released for the holidays. In November 2015, a new marketing campaign featuring Bodett's voice premiered, highlighted by TV and radio commercials touting the investment in and renovation of Motel 6 properties nationwide. From 1993 to 1994, Bodett was the spokesperson for Jamesway department stores in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and recorded radio commercials for it. A discount chain, Jamesway filed Chapter 7 bankruptcy in the fall of 1995 and closed at the end of the year; as a broadcaster, Bodett hosted The End of the Road and Bodett & Company. In 1999, Bodett started The Loose Leaf Book Company, a radio program that centered on author and book interviews and dramatizations; as of 2013, he is a contributor to The Bob Edwards Show on XMPR and a member of the stable of panelists on Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!, a National Public Radio news quiz show.

In 2015, he was interviewed as a guest on Episode 301 of Public Radio International's Live Wire Radio. Bodett hosted the public television program Travels on America's Historic Trails, did the voice-over for "Mime Time" and the "Good Idea/Bad Idea" segments featuring Mr. Skullhead on Animaniacs, had a brief cameo in Pinky and the Brain, narrated the direct-to-video Animaniacs movie Wakko's Wish. Bodett was a regular columnist for the webzine Mr. Showbiz. Bodett was used as a humorous referential non-playable character in the Dungeons and Dragons podcast series The Adventure Zone. In the graphic novel under the same name, an uncanny likeness of Bodett can be seen interacting with the series' main characters. In 1999, Bodett published his first children's book, Williwaw! As Far As You Can Go Without a Passport, ISBN 0-201-10661-2 Small Comforts, ISBN 0-201-13417-9 The End of the Road, ISBN 0-688-08701-9 The Big Garage on Clear Shot, ISBN 0-688-09525-9 The Free Fall of Webster Cummings, ISBN 0-7868-6209-2 America's Historic Trails, ISBN 0-912333-00-6 Williwaw!, ISBN 0-375-80687-3 Norman Tuttle on the Last Frontier, ISBN 0-679-89031-9" Last Decent Parking Place in North America", ISBN 055345272X Audio Cassette - 1991 by Random House Audio Song, Tom Bodett by Mark David Manders Official website Tom Bodett on IMDb