Leeuwarden is a city and municipality in Friesland in the Netherlands. It is the provincial seat of the States of Friesland; the municipality has a population of 122,293. The region has been continuously inhabited since the 10th century, it came to be known as Leeuwarden in the early 9th century AD and was granted city privileges in 1435. It is the main economic hub of Friesland, situated in a water-rich environment. Leeuwarden is a former royal residence and has a historic city center, many relevant buildings, a large shopping center with squares and restaurants. Leeuwarden was awarded the title European Capital of Culture for 2018; the Elfstedentocht, an ice skating tour passing the eleven cities of Friesland and finished in Leeuwarden. The following towns and villages within the municipality have populations in excess of 1,000 people: Leeuwarden, Grou, Wergea, Jirnsum and Wirdum; the municipality is governed by the mayor Sybrand van Haersma Buma and a coalition of the Labour Party, Christian Democratic Appeal, GreenLeft.
The name "Leeuwarden" first came into use for Nijehove, the most important of the three villages which in the early 9th century merged into Leeuwarden. There is much uncertainty about the origin of the city's name. Historian and archivist Wopke Eekhoff summed up a total of over 200 different spelling variants, of which Leeuwarden and Ljouwert are still in use; the second part of the name is explained: Warden, West Frisian/Dutch/Low German for an artificial dwelling-hill, is a designation of terps, reflecting the historical situation. The first part of the name, means lion in modern standard Dutch; this interpretation corresponds with the coat of arms adopted by the city, which features a heraldic lion. However, modern standard Dutch was not used in this region in the Middle Ages, when the city was called Lintarwrde; some scholars argue that the name of the city is derived from leeu-, a corruption of luw- or from lee-. Sheltered landing place or harbour could be the original meaning; this suits the watery province of Friesland and the position of the original three villages at the end of an important estuary called Middelzee.
The name is similar to that of the French commune Lewarde, located in the Nord Department, an Flemish-speaking area annexed to France in the 17th century. Western Flemish was related to Frisian and to Saxon up to the 11th century; the oldest remains of houses date back to the 2nd century AD in the Roman era and were discovered during an excavation near the Oldehove. Inhabited continuously since the 10th century, the city's first reference as a population center is in German sources from 1285, records exist of city privileges granted in 1435. Situated along the Middelzee, it was an active center of maritime trade; the waterway silted-up in the 13th century. The Grote of Jacobijnerkerk is the oldest building in the city; the 15th century was the period of the two opposing Frisian factional parties Vetkopers and Schieringers. The bastions and a moat were built in the period 1481-1494. In 1747 William IV, Prince of Orange was the last stadtholder residing in the Stadhouderlijk Hof. In the first half of the 19th century the fortifications were demolished.
The Jewish community of Leeuwarden was one of the earliest in the Netherlands aside from Amsterdam, was first mentioned in 1645. By 1670, the city council granted a man referred to as "Jacob the Jew" permission to build a Jewish cemetery, meaning that there were enough Jews living there to require a cemetery and other communal institutions. Land for ` The Jodenkerkhof' was purchased near the Oldehove tower; the first synagogue in the city was built in the 17th century as well, was used by the city's Catholics who were not allowed to build a house of worship of their own because of the Protestant city authorities. The Jewish community enjoyed good relations with authorities in the 18th century and continued to expand throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak population of 1,236 in 1860. In 1901 the city's population was 32,203. After occupation by German forces, the Royal Canadian Dragoons disobeyed direct orders on 15 April 1945 and charged into the defended city, driving out German forces by the end of the next day.
The anniversary of the liberation is celebrated by the Dragoons and the city, who fly each other's flags on the day. Kneppelfreed was an incident on 16 November 1951 in front of the courthouse at Wilhelminaplein, when the police used batons against Frisian language activists during a protest against the exclusive use of Dutch in the courts. A committee of inquiry recommended that the Frisian language should receive legal status as a minority language. On 19 October 2013, a fire broke out in a clothes shop on a busy pedestrian street; the fire started late in the afternoon and burned through the night, destroying five shops and eleven flats. The only casualty was a 24-year-old man, living in one of the flats; the birthplace of Mata Hari was at first thought to be destroyed, but survived, albeit with considerable smoke and water damage. The coat of arms of Leeuwarden is the official symbol of the municipality, it consists of a blue escutcheon, a golden lion, a crown. The fact that Leeuwarden carries a lion in its seal seems logical
The gens Acutia was a minor plebeian family at Ancient Rome. Members of this gens are mentioned from the early Republic to imperial times; the first of the Acutii to achieve prominence was Marcus Acutius, tribune of the plebs in 401 BC. The nomen Acutius is derived from the Latin adjective sharp or intelligent; the main praenomina of the Acutii were Marcus, Lucius and Gaius, four of the most common names throughout Roman history. A number of other praenomina received occasional use. Salvius, an Oscan praenomen, occurs once. Rufus, which occurs, may have been a cognomen rather than a praenomen, although it was used as a praenomen in Cisalpine Gaul; the earliest Acutii are found without a cognomen. Nerva, the surname of Quintus Acutius, consul in AD 100, is derived from nervus, sinewy; this list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Marcus Acutius, tribune of the plebs in 401 BC, was co-opted by his colleagues, in violation of the lex Trebonia. Lucius Acutius L. l.
Dasius, a freedman buried at Fundi in Latium, in the latter part of the first century BC, or the first half of the first century AD. Publius Acutius P. l. Pamphilus, a freedman named in an inscription from Suasa in Umbria, dating to the Augustan era. Quintus Acutius Faienanus, governor of Lusitania shortly after the establishment of the province, between 19 and 1 BC. Gaius Acutius C. f. buried at Corona in Venetia and Histria, together with his wife, Turpilia Tertia, in the first half of the first century AD. Acutia, the wife of Publius Vitellius, whose nephew Aulus Vitellius became emperor in AD 69. Lucius Acutius L. f. Rufus, a magistrate at Pompeii in Campania. Tiberius Acutius Ti. l. Adauctus, a freedman, was a soldier stationed at Pompeii between AD 60 and 79. Tiberius Acutius Barbula, a soldier stationed at Pompeii between AD 60 and 79. Tiberius Acutius Paterculus, a soldier stationed at Pompeii between AD 60 and 79. Tiberius Acutius Ti. f. Spendon, a freeborn native of the region, was a soldier stationed at Pompeii between AD 60 and 79.
Quintus Acutius Nerva, consul suffectus in AD 100. Lucius Acutius L. f. Primus, an eques, one of the duumviri jure dicundo at Brixia in Venetia and Histria, some time between the accession of Trajan and AD 150. Marcus Acutius Valentinus, the husband of Rasinia Lucifera, father of Marcus Acutius Valentinus, a boy buried at Rome toward the end of the first century, or the beginning of the second. Lucius Acutius Marcellus, client of Gaius Saenius Verus, an eques and one of the duumviri jure dicundo for Laurentum, according to an inscription from Altinum in Venetia and Histria, dating to the late first century, or the early second. Marcus Acutius M. f. Valentinus, the son of Marcus Acutius Valentinus and Rasinia Lucifera, buried at Rome toward the end of the first century, or the beginning of the second, aged eleven years, one month, eighteen days. Marcus Acutius Justus, named in an inscription from Lambaesis, dating to AD 98. Marcus Acutius M. l. Eutychus, a freedman named in an inscription from Rome, dating to AD 106.
Gaius Acutius, named in an inscription from Philae in Egypt, dating to AD 116. Acutia Q. f. Sabina, buried at Augusta Bagienniorum in Liguria, in a tomb built by Quintus Vequasius Fortunatus, dating to the first half of the second century. Marcus Acutius, made an offering to Jupiter Optimus Maximus at Carnuntum in Pannonia Superior, some time in the second century. Acutia Prepusa, named in an inscription from Industria in Liguria, dating to the second century. Acutia Charis, built a tomb at Rome for her slave, Sergia Chreste, aged six, some time in the second or early third century. Lucius Acutius Trypho, the son of Artemidorus, was a rhetorician, named in an inscription from Pisaurum in Umbria, dating to the second century. Marcus Acutius Ingenuus, a scout named in an inscription from Lambaesis, dating to AD 186. Acutius Quintinus, a veteran named in an inscription from Apulum in Dacia, dating to AD 191. Publius Acutius Lucretianus, dedicated a second or third century monument at Aquileia in Venetia and Histria to his son, Publius Acutius Martialis, a veteran soldier.
Acutia Ursula, built a tomb at Tridentum in Venetia and Histria for her husband, Marcus Aurelius Sextinius, one of the Seviri Augustales, dating to the second or third century. Publius Acutius P. f. Martialis, a veteran soldier buried at Aquileia, toward the end of the second century or in the first half of the third, with a monument from his father, Publius Acutius Lucretianus. Acutia Restituta, buried at Rome, aged twenty-five, in a tomb dedicated by her husband, Julius Hypnus, dating to the second half of the second century, or the first half of the third. Acutia Matrona, the wife of Gaius Longinius Severinus, mother of Longinius Avitus, buried in a family sepulchre at Emona in Pannonia Superior, toward the end of the second century, or in the first half of the third. Acutia Ursa, together with Acutius Ursus, in AD 220 made an offering to the gods at Mogontiacum in Germania Superior. Acutius Ursus, together with Acutia Ursa, in AD 220 made an offering to the gods at Mogontiacum. Marcus Acutius Hilarus, a soldier in the century of Aelius Torquatus, in the fifth cohort of the vigiles at Rome, at the beginning of the third century.
Acutius Fortunatus, a soldier named in an inscription from Tunes in Africa Proconsularis, dating to AD 230. Acutia, daughter of Ant, buried at Rome, aged thirteen. Acutius, buried at Rome, aged thirty. Acutia, buried her husband, Felix, at Rome, on the eighth day before the ides of November, or November 6. Acutia, the wife of Aulus Venusius, mother of Aulus Venusius Constans, one of the duumviri jure dicundo at Clusium. Acutius, named in an inscription from Carthage in Africa Procons
Jim Beloff is an American musician. He is a leading proponent of the ukulele. After working in the music industry in Los Angeles, he discovered the ukulele and became an advocate of the instrument, he established publisher of the Jumpin' Jim's ukulele songbook series. Beloff's songbooks and instructional books, DVDs and promotion and marketing of his family's Fluke and Flea ukuleles have contributed to the popularity of the instrument, he is a singer-songwriter and has recorded several solo CDs as well as two with his wife, Liz. Jim Beloff is a graduate of Hampshire College. After working on 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, a short lived Broadway musical by Alan Jay Lerner and Leonard Bernstein, Beloff composed several children's musicals that were produced in New York City. For a while he worked selling advertising space for Ziff-Davis computer publications, he changed companies to Billboard Magazine and became associate publisher. He and his wife Liz Maihock Beloff moved to Los Angeles where they become regulars at the monthly Rose Bowl Flea Market.
Having admired his father-in-law's skills on the ukulele, he purchased a used Martin tenor ukulele at the market and fell in love with the instrument. Many credit Beloff with being the driving force behind the recent resurgence of the ukulele. Not finding any current music available for the ukulele, Beloff discovered a dealers' cache of unused music from decades earlier. With this reference material he and his wife, published Jumpin' Jim's Ukulele Favorites in 1992, its success spawned a series of music books for the ukulele. Beloff expanded into DVDs as well, quitting his job at Billboard, he and his wife created Flea Market Music, Inc; the rise in popularity of the ukulele, the company's sales, have continued to grow with over 600,000 Jumpin' Jim's books in print. The company offers over two dozen music books covering many genres. Beloff's 1997 book The Ukulele: A Visual History lays out the history of the instrument with dozens of photographs of ukuleles and ukulele related memorabilia. George Harrison liked the book so much.
Beloff has written a concerto for ukulele and symphony orchestra entitled "Uke Can't Be Serious." It debuted with The Wallingford Symphony Orchestra in 1999, conducted by Phil Ventre, has been performed since. The concerto was played by Beloff and the Choate Rosemary Hall Orchestra in Germany and Austria in June, 2016. Finding the availability of good ukuleles to be rather limited, Beloff was interested in developing an inexpensive, quality instrument; this inspired Dale Webb, an engineer, to design the Fluke and Flea ukuleles. In 1999 Webb and his wife, Phyllis formed The Magic Fluke Company; the instruments are made of lightweight, injection molded thermoplastic. The instruments are durable while providing quality sound; the flat bottoms of the designs allow them to stand without any other support. The company has sold over 55,000 instruments since the first prototype. Located in Sheffield, they use American made parts and materials to produce their instruments using environmentally responsible methods.
The newest addition to the line is the Firefly, a banjolele available with both Soprano or Concert sized neck. In addition, the company now produces an electric ukulele, called the Fluke SB, an electric bass uke, called the Timber, a violin/fiddle, called the Cricket. In 1995, Beloff produced the first annual UKEtopia concert at McCabe's Guitar Shop in Santa Monica, California; the concert was a showcase for special guest ukulele players. Among the notable performances in the 1999 concert was Bill Lyle Ritz trading jazz licks; the 5th UKEtopia featured such performers as Ian Whitcomb, Janet Klein, Peter Brooke Turner of the Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain as well as the traditional finale of Beloff and his wife leading the audience in song and ukulele playing. The 10th UKEtopia included two song sets from "Mr. Ukulele," Dan "Soybean" Sawyer, Fred Sokolow and "King Kukulele," and was summarized by Tom Teicholz in The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Beloff and his wife, Elizabeth "Liz" Maihock live in Connecticut.
They continue to travel to promote the ukulele and their products, visiting ukulele festivals, giving performances and conducting workshops throughout the US and Canada. Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-7935-2050-3 Jumpin' Jim's Ukulele Tips'N' Tunes: A Beginner's Method & Songbook, Flea Market Music, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7935-3377-0 Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-7935-5796-7 Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-7935-9486-3 Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-634-00934-1 Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-634-00631-9 Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-634-01850-3 Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-634-03425-1 Jumpin' Jim's Ukulele Masters: Lyle Ritz, Flea Market Music, Inc. ISBN 978-0-634-02764-2 Jumpin' Jim's Ukulele Masters: Lyle Ritz Solos: 15 Chord Solos Arranged by the Ukulele Jazz Master, Flea Market Music, Inc. ISBN 978-0-634-04658-2 Jumpin' Jim's Ukulele Masters: Herb Ohta, Flea Market Music, Inc.
ISBN 978-0-634-03863-1 Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-634-04618-6 Jumpin' Jim's Flea Market Music, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-634-06218-6 The Ukulele: A Visual History, Backbeat