Eucla National Park
Eucla National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 1,238 kilometres east of Perth. The southern edge of the park borders a section of the Great Australian Bight. Other notable features of the park include Wilson Delisser sandhills; the area is composed of typical of the southern coast. Wildflowers such as Cockie's Tongue, with its distinctive red, pink or yellow flowers are common throughout the park. A rare plant species of senecio, native to the limestone cliff area is known to exist in the park. Access to the area is via the Eyre Highway found on the northern border of the park. No facilities are available for visitors in the park and no sealed roads exist within the park, only 4WD tracks. No camping is permitted within the park, the nearest camping facilities are at Eucla and the Border Village. Historical ruins such as the Eucla Telegraph station and the original Eucla township can be found at the western end of the park. Both are buried by encroaching sand dunes. Protected areas of Western Australia
Western grey kangaroo
The western grey kangaroo referred to as a black-faced kangaroo, mallee kangaroo, sooty kangaroo, is a large and common kangaroo found across the entire southern part of Australia, from just south of Shark Bay to coastal South Australia, Western Australia, western Victoria, the entire Murray–Darling basin in New South Wales and Queensland. Long known to the Aboriginal Australians, for Europeans, the western grey kangaroo was the centre of a great deal of sometimes comical taxonomic confusion for 200 years, it was first noted by European explorers when Matthew Flinders landed on Kangaroo Island in 1802. Flinders assumed that they were eastern grey kangaroos. In 1803, French explorers captured several Kangaroo Island western grey kangaroos and shipped them to Paris, where they lived in the Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes for some years. Researchers at the Paris Museum of Natural History recognised that these animals were indeed distinct from the eastern grey kangaroo and formally described the species as Macropus fuliginosus in 1817.
For reasons that remain unclear, the species was incorrectly described as native to Tasmania. There the matter rested for over 100 years, it was not until 1917 that researchers realised that the "forester kangaroo" of Tasmania was in fact Macropus giganteus, the same eastern grey kangaroo that was, still is, widespread in the southeastern part of the mainland. By 1971, it was understood that the Kangaroo Island kangaroo belonged to the same species as the kangaroos of southern and Western Australia, that this population extended through much of the eastern part of the continent as well. For a time, three subspecies were described, one on Kangaroo Island; the current classification scheme emerged in the 1990s. The western grey kangaroo is not found in the north or the southeast of Australia, the eastern grey does not extend beyond the New South Wales–South Australia border, but the two species are both common in the Murray–Darling basin area, they never interbreed in the wild, although it has proved possible to produce hybrids between eastern grey females and western grey males in captivity.
There are two subspecies of the western grey kangaroo: Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, endemic to Kangaroo Island, South Australia Macropus fuliginosus melanops, which has a range of different forms that intergrade clinally from west to east. The western grey kangaroo is one of the largest macropods in Australia, it weighs 28–54 kg and its length is 0.84–1.1 m with a 0.80–1.0 m tail, standing 1.3 m tall. It exhibits sexual dimorphism with the male up to twice the size of female, it has coarse fur with colour ranging from pale grey to brown. This species is difficult to distinguish from the eastern grey kangaroo. However, the western grey kangaroo has darker grey-brown fur, darker colouration around the head, sometimes has a blackish patch around the elbow, it feeds at night on grasses but on leafy shrubs and low trees. It has a nickname "stinker"; the kangaroo lives in groups of up to 15. The males compete for females during the breeding season. During these "boxing" contests, they try to push each other over.
Only the dominant male in the group mates. The gestation period is 30–31 days, after which, the incompletely developed fetus attaches to the teat in the pouch for 130–150 days. Western grey kangaroo is related to eastern grey kangaroo, their distribution overlaps extensively in the Murray–Darling basin. However, the two species interbreed only in the wild. Although hybridisation occurs in both directions in the overlap zone between the two species in the wild, this does not seem to be the case with captive animals. Although interbreeding between the two species does occur in captive animals, viable offspring are only produced when the mating pair consists of a female eastern grey kangaroo and a male western grey kangaroo; this is an example of unidirectional hybridisation
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert
Busselton is a city in the South West region of Western Australia. At June 2017 Census Busselton had an estimated urban population of 38,289. Busselton has grown by an average of 3.5% in each of the five years to 2015. Founded in 1832 by the Bussell family, Busselton is 220 km south-west of Perth, the capital of Western Australia. Busselton has been voted Western Australia's top tourist town in 1995, 1996, 2005; the new Busselton skatepark was built December, 2015. It competitions; the early history of European exploration of the Busselton area focused on the French expedition of 1801 which brought Nicholas Baudin, with his ships the Géographe and Naturaliste, to the coast of Western Australia. Baudin named Geographe Bay and Cape Naturaliste after his vessels, named the river Vasse after a sailor, Thomas Vasse, lost as he went overboard and was believed to have drowned. Busselton was one of the earliest settlements in Western Australia, it was first settled by the Bussell family, who relocated there from their location on the Blackwood River after John Garrett Bussell discovered superior farm land in the area.
The Bussells moved to the area in 1834, establishing a cattle station which they named Cattle Chosen, which became one of the most prosperous stations in the colony, as a result, nearly all of the settlers at Augusta relocated to the area within a few years. A number of settlers established themselves at Wonnerup, a contingent of troops was stationed there under Lieutenant Henry Bunbury, it was intended to locate the townsite at Wonnerup, but the area was low-lying and marshy, Bunbury considered it unsuitable for a townsite. The present area was recommended by the Surveyor General, John Septimus Roe; the present name of Busselton derives from the Bussell family. It was first used in June 1835; the Bussells, who were not consulted about the name, preferred the name Capel after a relative in England, Capel Carter, but the name Busselton was retained. A town named Capel was established to the north of Busselton. Being in close proximity to the tall timber country, Busselton soon established itself as a leading port.
In 1850, timber was being exported and the small town prospered. Jetties for this purpose were built at Wonnerup and Quindalup. Of these, only the Busselton Jetty remains. During World War II, 476 Busselton-born men signed up for service; the names of the fallen are displayed on the town's war memorial alongside those of World War I in St Marys Park. During the war, Busselton was home to an Air Force training base. A Royal Australian Air Force P-51 Mustang fighter was given the nickname Busselton in honour of the people of Busselton and their support of War Loan fundraising activities. Western Australia's first railway line was built just north of Busselton at Lockville in 1871, the original engine known as the Ballarat engine is on display near the tourist bureau; the owned line was used for the transport of timber to the Wonnerup jetty across the Ballarat bridge, converted to a pedestrian bridge and removed in 2004 to allow for the replacement of the nearby Vasse Floodgates. From about 1927 to 1957, Busselton was on the Western Australian Government Railways railway line running from Bunbury to Flinders Bay.
Following the closure in the 1950s of the Flinders Bay branch, most of the old line formation was changed in ownership. The railway line connected onto the Busselton Jetty and was not closed on the jetty until the 1970s; the connection with Bunbury was closed in the late 1980s. Busselton has a town bus service run with three routes. South West Coach Lines and Transwa provide coach services for connections to other south west towns and Perth. Virgin Australia Regional Airlines has provided a weekend service to Busselton from Perth with flights being 45 minutes in duration. There were three return flights a week using Fokker 50 aircraft, it is the northernmost Australian coastal town with a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Residents and visitors enjoy moderate temperatures, with a typical maximum temperature of 22 °C and a minimum of 11 °C; the summers are hot, with an average daily maximum of 28 °C with cooling afternoon sea breezes, a winter that delivers cooler temperatures. The annual average rainfall for Busselton is 864 mm, with the wettest period being from May to September.
According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the shire had a permanent resident population of 25,950 in 2004 with the town of Busselton accounting for 67% or 17,400 of the total. The shire's permanent population is expected to continue to increase to about 34,000 in 2011 and 46,000 in 2021. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, during the year 2004/2005, Busselton's growth rate for the 12-month period was 6.5%, bringing 1700 new residents to the shire and increasing the population to an estimated 27,546. In 2012, Busselton gained city status. Busselton's growth over the past decade has been centred along the shores of Geographe Bay; the heavy coastal development has led to a shortage of beachside blocks. Many sites of interest are in the Busselton region. Busselton Beach is known for white sands. Busselton is home to the longest wooden jetty in
Greater Beedelup National Park
Greater Beedelup National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 277 km south of Perth. It is situated on the Vasse Highway some 10 km west of Pemberton; the park is lush and damp due to an abundance of water. Gazetted in 1910, the park was declared an A Class Reserve in 1915; the Pemberton National Parks Board has been responsible for management of the park since 1957. Controlled burns occur within the park and some clear felling operations have been conducted in selected areas that used to be State Forests but have been regenerated since; the park is karri forest, with mixed areas of jarrah and marri. The loamy soil supports large colonies of moss and plants such as the swamp peppermint, karri hazel, myrtle wattle and lemonscented Darwinia all of which thrive in the damp conditions; some of the forest is an excellent example of uncut old-growth forest. Some of the upland areas are sandy and support communities of heath vegetation. Other plants of interest in the area include Crowea dentata, Crowea augustifolia and Choretrum lateriflorum.
Some rare fauna are thought to inhabit the area including the Woylie and the Tammar. Its major attraction is the Beedelup Falls, which are in full flow during spring. A suspension bridge, built in 1995, offers passage across Beedelup Brook and good views of the falls. Another feature of the park is the walk through karri tree, a 400-year-old tree with a large man-made hole cut through at the base large enough for a person to stand in; the park is named after Beedelup brook, named in 1875. It is thought the name Beedelup is derived from the Noongar word Beejalup meaning place of rest or place of sleep. An admission fee applies for this camping is not permitted. A signed walking trail around Beedelup falls, a rest area, picnic area and toilets are available for use by visitors. Protected areas of Western Australia
Beelu National Park
Beelu National Park is a national park east of Perth, Western Australia. Lying south of Mundaring, Western Australia, west of the Mundaring Weir Road, it is part of the group of parks known as the Parks of the Darling Range; the park was named Mundaring National Park. Mundaring National Park was established and gazetted in 1995 as part of the Protecting Out Old Growth Forests policy of the State Government; the park was renamed in 2008 as an acknowledgement of the traditional owners of the area. The word Beelu is derived from the Noongar word for stream; the Beelu people were the original peoples of the area whose district was bounded by the Helena and Canning Rivers. The park contains an abundance of native flora including Jarrah, Zamia, Bull Banksia and Grass tree; the park contains toilets, wood barbecues, picnic tables and a variety of hiking and mountain biking trails. An information centre, the Perth Hills National Parks Centre is located within the park and is open between 10.00am and 4.00pm to offer advice and refreshments to visitors.
A lookout is located South Ledge with a view over Lake CY O'Connor. The largest Oak Tree in Western Australia is found in Fred Jacby Park. Two campsites are available to use within the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Mitchell, Samille What's in a name? Parks of the Darling Range Landscope Volume 24 number 2, pp. 40–46
Cape Le Grand National Park
Cape Le Grand National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 631 km south-east of Perth and 56 km east of Esperance. The park covers an area of 31,801 hectares The area is an ancient landscape, above sea level for well over 200 million years and remained unglaciated; as a result, the area is home to many primitive relict species. Established in 1966, the park is managed by the Department of Wildlife; the name Le Grand is from one of the officers on L'Espérance, one of the ships in the 1792 expedition of Bruni d'Entrecasteaux. The area has been traversed for thousands of years by Aboriginal peoples who most used the granite outcrops for shelter and to made use of the abundant natural resources; the first recorded non-indigenous visitors was in 1792 when French expedition ships commanded by Admiral D'Entrecasteaux navigated the Recherche Archipelago. The cape was named in honour of an officer on L'Esperance who climbed the tall ships mast during a storm to identify a safe place to wait it out.
British explorer Matthew Flinders dropped anchor in Lucky Bay in 1802. Rossiter Bay is named after the captain of the French Whaling ship Mississippi who saved explorer Edward John Eyre and his Aboriginal companion Wylie from starvation after they had completed their famed crossing of the Nullarbor Plain in 1841. Less notable accounts exist of whalers and pirates using the bays and isles for their trade over the past few hundred years. Cape Le Grand was established as a national park in 1966; the granite shoreline and white sand beaches are picturesque features of the area. The park is a used for fishing, off-roading and hiking. Beaches within the Park include those at Lucky Bay, Rossiter Bay, Hellfire Bay, Le Grand Beach, Thistle Cove; the islands and waters to the south of the park are known as the Recherche Archipelago Nature Reserve, another protected area of the Recherche Archipelago and nearby coastal regions. The Cape Arid National Park is located to the east; the south-west section of the Park is dominated by rock outcrops of gneiss and granite.
These form a distinctive chain of peaks including Mount Le Grand, Frenchman Peak and Mississippi Hill. Further inland, the park comprises heath-covered sandplain, interspersed with swamps and pools of fresh water; the sandplains support dense stands of banksias. Other flora that can be found around the park include Melaleucas, sheoaks, Christmas tree and grass trees. Wildflower blooms peak in the austral spring, lasting until October and species such as blue china orchid Cyanicula gemmata, Diuris corymbosa, Hakea laurina, Thysanotus sparteus and Thelymitra macrophylla are represented within the park. Fauna that are found within the park include bandicoots, pygmy honey possums, ring tailed possums and western grey kangaroos; some of the relict species with gondwanan links that are found within the park include legless lizards, like the common scaly-foot Pygopus lepidopodus, Delma fraseri, Delma australis and Aprasia striolata. The ancient, although non-gondwanan, blind snake Ramphotyphlops australis is found within the park.
Endemic frogs found within the area include the |quacking frog Crinia georgiana, the banjo frog Limnodynastes dorsalis and the humming frog Neobatrachus pelobatoides. Facilities include toilets, campsites, sheltered areas, walk-trails, information bays and water tanks. Two full-time rangers are resident within the park. Bookings cannot be made for the 15 sites at Cape Le Grand Campground. It's a ` first come' arrangement. During busy holiday periods there is a ` camp host' couple. Protected areas of Western Australia Cape Le Grand National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage Lucky Bay, a beach near the park