The Leeward Islands are a group of islands situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean. Starting with the Virgin Islands east of Puerto Rico, they extend southeast to Guadeloupe and its dependencies. In English, the term Leeward Islands refers to the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles chain; the more southerly part of this chain, starting with Dominica, is called the Windward Islands. Dominica was considered part of the Leeward Islands, but was transferred from the British Leeward Islands to the British Windward Islands in 1940; the name of this island group, Leeward Islands, dates from previous centuries, when sailing ships were the sole form of transportation across the Atlantic Ocean. In sailing terminology, "windward" means towards the source of the wind, while "leeward" is the opposite direction. In the West Indies, the prevailing winds, known as the trade winds, blow out of the northeast. Therefore, an island to the northwest, such as Puerto Rico, would be leeward of an island to the southeast, such as Antigua, conversely, Antigua would be windward of Puerto Rico, but leeward of Guadeloupe and Martinique.
The early Spanish colonizers called Puerto Rico and the islands to the west Sotavento, meaning leeward. The islands to the south and east of Puerto Rico were called Islas de Barlovento, meaning "windward islands"; when the British gained control of many of the Lesser Antilles, they designated Antigua and the islands to the north as the "Leeward Islands". Guadeloupe and the islands to the south were designated as the "Windward Islands". On, all islands north of Martinique became known as the Leeward Islands. In 1940 Dominica was transferred to the British Windward Islands, is now considered to be part of the Windward Islands; however in modern usage in languages other than English, Spanish and Dutch, all of the Lesser Antilles from the Virgin Islands to Trinidad and Tobago are known as the Windward Islands. The islands along the Venezuelan coast, known in English as the Leeward Antilles, in languages other than English are known as the Leeward Islands; the islands are affected by active volcanism and notable eruptions have occurred in Montserrat in the 1990s and in 2009 to 2010.
At 1467 m, the highest point is La Grande Soufrière in Guadeloupe. The Caribs, after whom the Caribbean is named, are believed to have migrated from the Orinoco River area in Venezuela in South America to settle in the Caribbean islands about 1200 AD, according to carbon dating. Over the century leading up to Columbus' arrival in the Caribbean archipelago in 1492, the Caribs displaced the Maipurean-speaking Taínos, who settled the island chains earlier in history, by warfare and assimilation; the islands were among the first parts of the Americas to fall under the control of the Spanish Empire. European contact commenced with Christopher Columbus's second voyage; the Leeward Islands became a British colony in 1671. In 1699, prior to the War of the Spanish Succession, Christopher Codrington became the governor of the Leeward Islands; the war lasted from 1701 to 1714. Daniel Parke II was the British governor of the Leeward Islands from 1706 to 1710, he was assassinated during a mutiny triggered by his self-enriching enforcement of Stuart imperialism.
Although comparatively much smaller than the surrounding islands in the Caribbean, the Leeward Islands posed the most significant rebellion to the British Stamp Act. In 1816 the colony was dissolved, with its last governor being James Leith. In 1833, the colony was reformed. From 1833 until 1871, the Governor of Antigua performed the duties of the Governor of the Leeward Islands. Today the Islands are governed by a number of colonial administrations. From the northwest to the southeast, the islands are: Puerto Rican Virgin Islands: Vieques, Culebra U. S. Virgin Islands: St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix, Water Island British Virgin Islands: Jost Van Dyke, Virgin Gorda, Anegada Anguilla Saint Martin/Sint Maarten Saint-Barthélemy Saba Sint Eustatius Saint Kitts Nevis Barbuda Antigua Redonda Montserrat Guadeloupe La Désirade Îles des Saintes Marie-Galante Antilles British Leeward Islands Leeward Antilles Leeward Islands cricket team Windward Islands Digital Library of the Caribbean−dloc.org: "The Leeward Islands Gazette"—freely−openly available, with full page images and searchable text Digital Library of the Caribbean−dloc.org: "Antigua and Virgin Islands Gazette"—openly−freely available, with searchable text and full page images
This article talks about transportation in the Bahamas, a North American archipelagic state in the Atlantic Ocean. 2,718 kilometres of road in the Bahamas is classified as highway. Of these 1,560 kilometres are paved. Drivers drive on the left. Marinas and harbours are plentiful on The Bahamas islands, making aquatic travel an easy way to navigate between the islands group. Boat travel can be the only way to reach some of the smaller islands. Travelers entering the island will need to clear customs first, but boatsmen can enter any of the following ports of entry and harbours in The Bahamas: Abaco Islands: Green Turtle Cay, Marsh Harbour, Spanish Cay, Treasure Cay, or Walker's Cay Berry Islands: Chub Cay and Great Harbour Cay Bimini: Alice Town Cat Cays: Hawksnest Marina Eleuthera: Governor's Harbour, Harbour Island, Rock Sound, or Spanish Wells Exuma: George Town Grand Bahama Island: Freeport Harbour, Lucayan Marina Village and Port Lucaya, or Old Bahama Bay at West End Inagua: Matthew Town Long Island: Stella Maris Airport Mayaguana: Abraham's Bay Nassau/New Providence Island: Any marina San Salvador: Cockburn TownFacilities catering to large passenger cruise ships are located on Grand Bahama Island and New Providence.
The Lucayan Harbour Cruise Facility in Freeport and Nassau harbour's Prince George Wharf are built to handle multiple modern cruise ships at one time. Additionally, several major cruise line corporations have each purchased an uninhabited island which they now operate as private island destinations available to their respective ships; these include Great Stirrup Cay, owned by Norwegian Cruise Line, Little Stirrup Cay otherwise known as Royal Caribbean International's "Coco Cay", Carnival Corporation's Little San Salvador Island or "Half Moon Cay", Castaway Cay, of Disney Cruise Line. Of these, only Castaway Cay offers ships an actual pier for docking; the others use tender boats to service ships anchored off shore. Total: 1,440 By type: bulk carrier 335, container ship 53, general cargo 98, oil tanker 284, other 670 The Bahamas are one of the world's top five flag of convenience shipping registries; the main airports on the islands are Lynden Pindling International Airport on New Providence, Grand Bahama International Airport on Grand Bahama Island, Marsh Harbour International Airport on Abaco Island.
Out of 62 airports in all, 23 have paved runways, of which there are two that are over 3,047 meters long. Airports with paved runways: total: 23 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 6 Airports with unpaved runways: total: 39 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 22 Bahamasair is the national flag carrier airline of the Bahamas. A heliport is located on Paradise Island, as well as other smaller islands, such as the various cruise line private islands. There are no railways in the Bahamas. Transportation in the Bahamas Road Traffic Department of the Bahamas
Zuzanna Janin, is a Polish visual artist and former teenage actor. Janin works in Warsaw and London. Janin has created sculpture, installation and performatives, her work was shown in the Museum of Chicago. She is an visual artist and participated in numerous shows in Europe and worldwide i.e. Pompidou Metz, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, Whitechapel London, Hoffmann Sammlung Berlin, Galerie Progr Bern, she took part in Sonbeek'92, Sydney Biennale 1992, Istambul Biennal 1992, Liverpool Biennale 1996, Fokus Lodz Biennale 2010 and 54th Venice Art Biennale 2011. Janin had a solo screening at Kunstverein Salzburg. Scholz Galerie Berlin, her work includes the sculpture of cotton candy "Sweet Girl, Sweet Boy", an installation made out of car models "Dreaming of Speed & Adventure", the video installation "All that Music!" made of 6 simultaneous HD videos showing teenagers playing at home or the video-performance "Fight", which portrays her fighting a never-ending-box-mach with a Polish heavy-weight world champion.
The work is included i.e. in the Collection of Sammlung Hoffmann Berlin. In 2005, until 2012, Zuzanna Janin opened her studio in Warsaw for exhibition and event creating together with art historian and curator Agnieszka Rayzacher independent space in Warsaw called lokal_30. In 2012 lokal_30 changed the location into bigger space and is now operating as contemporary art gallery lokal_30, directed by Agnieszka Rayzacher. In 2009-2010, Janin started working on the first series of video installations Majka from the Movie; the video series is composed of non-narrative episodes based on the 1970s Polish television series Szaleństwo Majki Skowron. Majka, a teenage girl vagabonds through a kaleidoscope of cinema and television frames from the 70s till present. Majka from the Movie is in the collections i.e. MAM Rio, National Museum Warsaw, Museum of Modern Art Warsaw, Hoffmann Sammlung Berlin. In 2013, she realized the first part of project "A Trip to Fear" after her a trip to prison colony to deep Russia - a sort of research expedition, poetic trip and family archeological excavations, based on discovery of photograph of the three orphaned children from the 19th century – unfolds in the realm of modern-day Russia, linking the binds between personal and universal memory.
Parallel to her trip and video projects the artist works on the sculptures and installations: "Pasygraphy. SOLARIS", "All my Videos", "Volvo 240, Transformed Into 4Drones", "Seven Fathers". In 2014-2018 she have done series of sculptures dealing with the problems of today, f.ex. violence, refugees problem and planet destruction: SHAME, Cyber-Violence, In Bed with M. Sleeping Blue, Red from Shame, Black Like Me, ROOMS and sculptures Anthropocene from epoxy resin, her sculptures was shown in a series of solo presentation in i.e.: TOP Photographic Museum Tokyo. She was nominated to the prize Paszporty Polityki in 1999, 2000, 2001 for her solo shows at CCA Warsaw, Foksal Gallery Warsaw and Zacheta National Gallery Warsaw, she was awarded the prize of "The Best Artist" on Art Vilnius'16 for her solo show "Volvo 240 Transformed Into 4 Drones" on special shows presentation. Her sculpture presented in a public space Home Transformed Into Sphere was shown in the Open City Festival awarded "The Best Event of 2017".
In 2018 she was awarded by WO among "50 Brave Women 2018". The artist is a member of the group of women experienced domestic violence SURWIWALKI / SURVIVORS, established at the Women's Rights Center in Warsaw. Janin was collaborated with a numerous artists and writers including Olga Tokarczuk who wrote a text for her first catalogue, she plays a role of Natalia Rosińska Siłaczka in a Polish film on "SIŁACZKi / Strong Women" directed by Marta Dzido and Piotr Śliwowski, about the history of the first Polish Feminists fighting for Women's Right in 1918 in Poland. Janin's mother who survived a transport to Auschwitz, was famous Polish painter Maria Anto Zunanna Janin was married to P. Baranowski and M. Bałka, her children are: Ignacy Bałka. "At the Venice Biennale", e-flux.com "Tajemnica Majki Skowron", wysokieobcasy.pl "Zuzanna Janin at Foksal Gallery. Home Transformed Into Geometric Solids" blouinartinfo.com "The art of showing unseen abuse -- an interview with artist Zuzanna Janin" newsmavens.com