Judgment at Nuremberg
Judgment at Nuremberg is a 1961 American courtroom drama film directed by Stanley Kramer, written by Abby Mann and starring Spencer Tracy, Burt Lancaster, Richard Widmark, Maximilian Schell, Werner Klemperer, Marlene Dietrich, Judy Garland, William Shatner, Montgomery Clift. Set in Nuremberg in 1948, the film depicts a fictionalized version of the Judges' Trial of 1947, one of the twelve U. S. military tribunals during the Subsequent Nuremberg trials. The film centers on a military tribunal led by Chief Trial Judge Dan Haywood, before which four German judges and prosecutors stand accused of crimes against humanity for their involvement in atrocities committed under the Nazi regime; the film deals with non-combatant war crimes against a civilian population, the Holocaust, examines the post-World War II geopolitical complexity of the actual Nuremberg Trials. An earlier version of the story was broadcast as a television episode of Playhouse 90. Schell and Klemperer played the same roles in both productions.
In 2013, Judgment at Nuremberg was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Judgment at Nuremberg centers on a military tribunal convened in Nuremberg, Germany, in which four German judges and prosecutors stand accused of crimes against humanity for their involvement in atrocities committed under the Nazi regime. Judge Dan Haywood is the Chief Trial Judge of a three-judge panel that will hear and decide the case against the defendants. Haywood begins his examination by trying to learn how the defendant Ernst Janning could have sentenced so many people to death. Janning, it is revealed, is a well-educated and internationally respected jurist and legal scholar. Haywood seeks to understand how the German people could have turned blind eyes and deaf ears to the crimes of the Nazi regime. In doing so, he befriends the widow of a German general, executed by the Allies, he talks with a number of Germans.
Other characters the judge meets are US Army Captain Byers, assigned to the American party hearing the cases, Irene Hoffmann, afraid to provide testimony that may bolster the prosecution's case against the judges. German defense attorney Hans Rolfe argues that the defendants were not the only ones to aid, or at least turn blind eyes to, the Nazi regime, he suggests that the United States has committed acts just as bad or worse as those the Nazis perpetrated. He raises several points in these arguments, such as: US Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.'s support for the first eugenics practices. Janning, decides to take the stand for the prosecution, stating that he is guilty of the crime he is accused of: condemning to death a Jewish man of "blood defilement" charges—namely, that the man slept with a 16-year-old Gentile girl—when he knew there was no evidence to support such a verdict. During his testimony, he explains that well-meaning people like himself went along with Hitler's anti-Semitic racism policies out of a sense of patriotism though they knew it was wrong, because of the effects of the post-World War I Versailles Treaty.
Haywood must weigh ideals of justice. The trial takes place against the background of the Berlin Blockade, there is pressure to let the German defendants off so as to gain German support in the then-early and growing Cold War against the Soviet Union. In the course of the movie, it becomes apparent as to why the three other defendants supported the Nazi regime: one was afraid, one was following orders, one believed in Nazism. All four defendants are sentenced to life in prison. Haywood visits Janning in his cell. Janning affirms to Haywood that, "By all, right in this world, your verdict was a just one," but asks him to believe that, regarding the mass murder of innocents, "I never knew that it would come to that." Judge Haywood replies, "Herr Janning, it came to that the first time you sentenced a man to death you knew to be innocent." Haywood departs. The film's events relate principally to actions committed by the German state against its own racial, social and eugenic groupings within its borders "in the name of the law", that began with Hitler's rise to power in 1933.
The plot development and thematic treatment question the legitimacy of the social and alleged legal foundations of these actions. The real Judges' Trial focused on 16 judges and prosecutors who served before and during the Nazi regime in Germany and who either passively or in a combination of both and enforced laws that led to judicial acts of sexual sterilization and to the imprisonment and execution of people for their religions, racial or ethnic identities, political beliefs and physical handicaps or disabilities. A key thread in the film's plot involves a
Inherit the Wind (play)
Inherit the Wind is an American play by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee, which debuted in 1955; the story fictionalizes the 1925 Scopes "Monkey" Trial as a means to discuss the then-contemporary McCarthy trials. The debate over creationism versus evolution has contemporary resonance, as evidenced by the play's numerous revivals and screen adaptations decades after its initial theatrical run. Inherit the Wind is a fictionalized account of the 1925 Scopes "Monkey" Trial, which resulted in John T. Scopes' conviction for teaching Charles Darwin's theory of evolution to a high school science class, contrary to a Tennessee state law; the role of Matthew Harrison Brady is intended to reflect the personality and beliefs of William Jennings Bryan, while that of Henry Drummond is intended to be similar to that of Clarence Darrow. Bryan and Darrow close friends, opposed one another at the Scopes trial; the character of E. K. Hornbeck is modeled on that of H. L. Mencken, who covered the trial for The Baltimore Sun, the character of Bertram Cates corresponds to Scopes.
However, the playwrights state in a note at the opening of the play that it is not meant to be a historical account, there are numerous instances where events were altered or invented. For instance, the characters of the preacher and his daughter were fictional, the townspeople were not hostile towards those who had come to Dayton for the trial, Bryan offered to pay Scopes' fine if he was convicted. Bryan did die shortly after the trial, but it happened five days in his sleep. Political commentator Steve Benen said of the play's inaccuracies: "Scopes issued no plea for empathy, there was no fiancee and the real Scopes was never arrested. In fact, the popular film, nominated for four Academy Awards and has helped shape the American understanding of the'Scopes Monkey Trial' for decades is an inadequate reflection of history." Lawrence explained in a 1996 interview that the drama's purpose was to criticize the then-current state of McCarthyism. The play was intended to defend intellectual freedom.
According to Lawrence, "we used the teaching of evolution as a parable, a metaphor for any kind of mind control It's not about science versus religion. It's about the right to think." The play's title comes from Proverbs 11:29, which in the King James Bible reads: He that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind: and the fool shall be servant to the wise of heart. In Act Two, Scene One, Brady admonishes Reverend Brown with this Bible quote for alienating his daughter when he gives a fiery sermon against Cates. Matthew Harrison Brady, a three-time presidential candidate and nationally known attorney, he is a Populist and still a dynamic public speaker though he is in his late 60s or early 70s. Henry Drummond, another nationally known attorney, once Brady's closest friend and political confidant, he is about the same age as Brady. Bertram "Bert" Cates, a Hillsboro high school teacher in his 20s who has taught the theory of evolution in violation of a state law banning its teaching in classrooms.
E. K. Hornbeck, a reporter for the fictional Baltimore Herald newspaper, he is young, sarcastic and opposed to religious belief. Rachel Brown, the Rev. Brown's daughter, she is the colleague/romantic interest of Bertram Cates. Her loyalties are torn between her father and Cates, she is manipulated by others. Reverend Jeremiah Brown, a fundamentalist Protestant Christian preacher of indeterminate denomination who believes in Biblical literalism, he is widowed, Rachel's father. The Judge, a local county court judge, subtly sympathetic to Rev. Brown's views. Howard Blair, a 13-year-old high school student, in Bertram Cates' class. Melinda Loomis, a 12-year-old girl who believes in the Bible. Tom Davenport, the local district attorney who prosecutes Bertram Cates; the Mayor, the top elected official of Hillsboro, supportive of the Rev. Brown but deeply political and concerned about the economic future of his town. There are a number of minor speaking roles; these include a bailiff at the Hillsboro courthouse.
The play takes place in the small town of Hillsboro, in an unnamed state in the central part of the United States. Scenes take place either in the courtroom, it takes place in the summertime "not too long ago". The play begins with local high school student Howard Blair looking for worms in front of the Hillsboro courthouse. Melinda appears, they have a discussion about evolution which helps inform the audience about the claims of evolution, they exit. Rachel convinces Meeker, the bailiff, to bring Bertram Cates out of his prison cell so that Rachel and Bert can talk. Meeker does so. Bert and Rachel's conversation tells the audience about. Rachel and Bert are in love, hug. Meeker comes in as they are hugging, saying he needs to sweep. Rachel exits. Meeker tells Bert. Meeker talks about a time when he was a young man, saw Mathew Harrison Brady during one of his failed presidential campaigns. Bert's lawyer is not revealed. Bert and Meeker exit. Reverend Jerem
The People vs. Larry Flynt
The People vs. Larry Flynt is a 1996 American biographical drama film directed by Miloš Forman and starring Woody Harrelson, Courtney Love, Edward Norton, it chronicles the rise of pornographic magazine publisher and editor Larry Flynt and his subsequent clash with religious institutions and the law. The film, written by Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski, spans about 35 years of Flynt's life, from his impoverished upbringing in Kentucky to his court battle with Reverend Jerry Falwell, is based in part on the U. S. Supreme Court case Hustler Magazine v. Falwell. Though not a financial success, the film was lauded by critics, garnered Woody Harrelson, Courtney Love, Edward Norton and director Miloš Forman multiple accolades and award nominations. Woody Harrelson was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor and Miloš Forman for an Academy Award for Best Director at the 69th Academy Awards, but both lost. In 1952, 10-year-old Larry Flynt is selling moonshine in Kentucky. Twenty years Flynt and his younger brother, run the Hustler Go-Go club in Cincinnati.
With profits down, Flynt decides to publish a newsletter for the club, the first Hustler magazine, with nude pictures of women working at the club. The newsletter soon becomes a full-fledged magazine. After Hustler publishes nude pictures of former first lady Jackie Kennedy Onassis, sales take off. Flynt becomes smitten with a stripper who works at one of his clubs. With Althea and Jimmy's help, Flynt makes a fortune from sales of Hustler. With his success comes enemies - as he finds himself a hated figure of anti-pornography activists, he argues with the activists, saying that "murder is illegal, but if you take a picture of it, you may get your name in a magazine or maybe win a Pulitzer Prize. However, sex is legal, but if you take a picture of that act, you can go to jail." He becomes involved in several prominent court cases, befriends a young lawyer, Alan Isaacman. In 1975, Flynt loses a smut-peddling court decision in Cincinnati but is released from jail soon afterwards on a technicality.
Ruth Carter Stapleton, a Christian activist and sister of President Jimmy Carter, seeks out Flynt and urges him to give his life to Jesus. Flynt seems moved and starts letting his newfound religion influence everything in his life, including Hustler content. In 1978, during another trial in Georgia and Isaacman are both shot by a man with a rifle while they walk outside a courthouse. Isaacman recovers, but Flynt is paralyzed from the waist down and uses a wheelchair for the rest of his life. Wishing he was dead, Flynt renounces God; because of the emotional and physical pain, he moves to Beverly Hills and spirals down into depression and drug use. During this time, Althea becomes addicted to painkillers and morphine. In 1983, Flynt undergoes surgery to deaden several nerves in his back damaged by the bullet wounds, as a result, feels rejuvenated, he returns to an active role with the publication, which, in his absence, had been run by Althea and Jimmy. Flynt is soon in court again for leaking videos relating to the John DeLorean entrapment case, during his courtroom antics, he fires Isaacman throws an orange at the judge.
He wears an American flag as an adult diaper along with an army helmet, wears T-shirts with provocative messages such as "I Wish I Was Black" and "Fuck This Court." After spitting water at the judge Flynt is sent to a psychiatric ward, where he sinks into depression again. Flynt publishes a satirical parody ad in which Jerry Falwell tells of a sexual encounter with his mother. Falwell sues for emotional distress. Flynt countersues for copyright infringement; the case goes to trial in December 1984, but the decision is mixed, as Flynt is found guilty of inflicting emotional distress but not libel. By that time, Althea has contracted HIV, which proceeds to AIDS; some time in 1987, Flynt finds her dead in the bathtub, having drowned. Flynt presses Isaacman to appeal the Falwell decision to the Supreme Court of the United States. Isaacman refuses. Flynt pleads with him, saying that he "wants to be remembered for something meaningful". Isaacman agrees and argues the "emotional distress" decision in front of the Supreme Court, in the case Hustler Magazine v. Falwell in 1988.
With Flynt sitting silently in the courtroom, the court overturns the original verdict in a unanimous decision. After the trial, Flynt is alone in his bedroom watching old videotapes of a healthy Althea. Both Bill Murray and Tom Hanks were considered for the role of Flynt; the People vs. Larry Flynt received positive reviews. On Metacritic the film has a score of 79 out of 100 based on reviews from 24 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews"; the film was a hit in limited releases. Based on a $35 million budget, the film grossed a domestic total of $20,300,385; the film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2008: AFI's 10 Top 10: Nominated Courtroom Drama Film The People vs. Larry Flynt on IMDb The People vs. Larry Flynt at the TCM Movie Database The People vs. Larry Flynt at Box Office Mojo The People vs. Larry Flynt at Rotten Tomatoes The People vs. Larry Flynt at Metacritic
Marshall is a 2017 American biographical legal drama film directed by Reginald Hudlin and written by Michael and Jacob Koskoff. It stars Chadwick Boseman as Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Supreme Court Justice, focuses on one of the first cases of his career, the State of Connecticut v. Joseph Spell, it stars Josh Gad, Kate Hudson, Dan Stevens, Sterling K. Brown, James Cromwell. Principal photography began in Los Angeles in mid-December 2015; the film premiered at Howard University on September 20, 2017, was released in the United States by Open Road Films on October 13, 2017. It grossed just $10 million against a $12 million budget. At the 90th Academy Awards, it received a nomination for Best Original Song for "Stand Up for Something". In 1940, Thurgood Marshall is an NAACP lawyer traveling the country defending people of color who are wrongly accused of crimes because of racial prejudice. Upon his return to his New York office, he is sent to Bridgeport, Connecticut, to defend Joseph Spell, a chauffeur accused of rape by his white employer, Eleanor Strubing, in a case that has gripped the newspapers.
In Bridgeport, insurance lawyer Sam Friedman is assigned by his brother to get Marshall admitted to the local bar, against his will. At the hearing, Judge Foster, a friend of the father of prosecutor Lorin Willis, agrees to admit Marshall, but forbids Marshall from speaking during the trial, forcing Friedman to be Spell's lead counsel. Marshall must guide Friedman through notes, such as when he advises Friedman to allow a woman of Southern white descent into the jury because of her assertive and questioning personality. Spell swears to Marshall that he never had any sexual contact with Strubing and leads the lawyers to a patrolman who stopped Spell that night while he was driving Strubing's car. Marshall and Friedman investigate Strubing's story that Spell tied her up in the back seat of her car after raping her and drove to a bridge to throw her over, they wonder. Spell is interested in a plea bargain offered by Willis, but Marshall talks him out of it. On at trial, though, a doctor testifies to finding pieces of skin underneath Strubing's fingernails, as well as bruises.
Strubing herself testifies that she was tied in the back seat when the patrolman pulled Spell over. With this information and Friedman confront Spell, who admits that he was lying about not having sexual contact with Strubing. At trial, Spell testifies that Strubing's husband inflicted the bruises through repeated acts of spousal abuse; that night, he went to see Strubing for an advance on his salary, finding a distraught Strubing wanting to have sex with him. Spell consents, the two have several sexual encounters that night. Strubing panics about being found out and being pregnant. Spell tries to drive her to a doctor, but Strubing has to hide in the back seat when the patrolman questions him. A hysterical Strubing tries to kill herself; when Spell tries to stop her, she jumps off the bridge. But she survives and flags down a motorist making up a desperate story about rape; when Willis asks why Spell didn't tell the truth to begin with, Spell talks about how black men get tortured and lynched in his native Louisiana for having sex with white women.
Over Willis's objections, Judge Foster allows Spell's statement to stand. Before the verdict, Marshall has to leave for a case in Mississippi. A desperate Willis offers Spell a much lighter plea bargain, but Spell feels emboldened enough to turn it down; the night before Marshall leaves, he and Friedman prepare the closing statement that Friedman delivers on his own. The Southern white woman has now become the jury forewoman, she delivers a "not guilty" verdict. Friedman breaks the news over the phone to Marshall, who moves on to his next case. Closing credits note that Friedman went on to work in many civil rights cases, while Marshall himself has an illustrious career as the American Civil Rights Movement's principal legal strategist and the first African-American Justice to the Supreme Court of the United States. Chadwick Boseman as Thurgood Marshall, the future first African-American Supreme Court Justice. Josh Gad as Sam Friedman, an insurance lawyer who teams with Marshall. Kate Hudson as Eleanor Strubing Dan Stevens as Lorin Willis James Cromwell as Judge Foster Sterling K. Brown as Joseph Spell, the man accused of rape and attempted murder that Marshall defends in court.
Keesha Sharp as Vivien "Buster" Burey, Thurgood's wife John Magaro as Irwin Friedman Roger Guenveur Smith as Walter Francis White Ahna O'Reilly as Mrs. Richmond Jeremy Bobb as John Strubing Derrick Baskin as Tad Lancaster Jeffrey DeMunn as Dr. Sayer Andra Day as Minton's Singer Sophia Bush as Jennifer Jussie Smollett as Langston Hughes Chilli as Zora Neale Hurston Barrett Doss as Bertha Lancaster Zanete Shadwick as Irene Lancaster Brendan Burke as Captain Burke Marina Squerciati as Stella Friedman Principal photography began in Los Angeles in mid-December 2015, before moving to Buffalo in early 2016, including shoots at Buffalo City Hall, the Buffalo Central Terminal, Daemen College, Orchard Park and Niagara Falls. Reginald Hudlin directed the film from his son Jacob Koskoff's script. Chinese company Super Hero Films financed the film, produced by Paula Wagner through her Chestnut Ridge Productions, along with Hudlin, Jonathan Sanger; the film had its world premiere at Howard University on September 20, 2017, was released in the United States on October 13, 2017.
In the United States and Canada, Marshall was released alongside Happy Death Day, The Forei
Jack Kevorkian was an American pathologist and euthanasia proponent. He is best known for publicly championing a terminal patient's right to die by physician-assisted suicide, he was portrayed in the media with the name of "Dr. Death". There was support for his cause, he helped set the platform for reform, he said, "Dying is not a crime". In 1999, Kevorkian was tried for his direct role in a case of voluntary euthanasia, he was served 8 years of a 10-to-25-year prison sentence. He was released on parole on June 1, 2007, on condition he would not offer advice nor participate nor be present in the act of any type of suicide involving euthanasia to any other person. Kevorkian was born in Michigan, on May 26, 1928, to Armenian immigrants, his father, was born in the village of Passen, near Erzurum, his mother, was born in the village of Govdun, near Sivas. His father left Armenia in the Ottoman Empire and made his way to Pontiac in 1912, where he found work at an automobile foundry. Satenig fled the Armenian Genocide of 1915, finding refuge with relatives in Paris, reuniting with her brother in Pontiac.
Levon and Satenig met through the Armenian community in their city, where they married and began their family. The couple had a daughter, Margaret, in 1926, followed by son Jack – and, their third and last child, Flora. Kevorkian graduated from Pontiac Central High School with honors in 1945, at the age of 17. In 1952, he graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor. Kevorkian completed residency training in anatomical and clinical pathology and conducted research on blood transfusion. Over a period of decades, Kevorkian developed several controversial ideas related to death. In a 1959 journal article, he wrote: I propose that a prisoner condemned to death by due process of law be allowed to submit, by his own free choice, to medical experimentation under complete anaesthesia as a form of execution in lieu of conventional methods prescribed by law. Senior doctors at the University of Michigan, Kevorkian's employer, opposed his proposal and Kevorkian chose to leave the University rather than stop advocating his ideas.
He gained little support for his plan. He returned to the idea of using death row inmates for medical purposes after the Supreme Court's 1976 decision in Gregg v. Georgia re-instituted the death penalty, he advocated harvesting the organs from inmates after the death penalty was carried out for transplant into sick patients, but failed to gain the cooperation of prison officials. As a pathologist at Pontiac General Hospital, Kevorkian experimented with transfusing blood from the deceased into live patients, he drew blood from corpses brought into the hospital and transferred it into the bodies of hospital staff members. Kevorkian thought that the U. S. military might be interested in using this technique to help wounded soldiers during a battle, but the Pentagon was not interested. In the 1980s, Kevorkian wrote a series of articles for the German journal Medicine and Law that laid out his thinking on the ethics of euthanasia. In 1987, Kevorkian started advertising in Detroit newspapers as a physician consultant for "death counseling".
His first public assisted suicide, of Janet Adkins, a 54-year-old woman diagnosed in 1989 with Alzheimer's disease, took place in 1990. Charges of murder were dropped on December 13, 1990, as there were, at that time, no laws in Michigan regarding assisted suicide. In 1991, the State of Michigan revoked Kevorkian's medical license and made it clear that given his actions, he was no longer permitted to practice medicine or to work with patients. According to his lawyer Geoffrey Fieger, Kevorkian assisted in the deaths of 130 terminally ill people between 1990 and 1998. In each of these cases, the individuals themselves took the final action which resulted in their own deaths. Kevorkian assisted only by attaching the individual to a euthanasia device that he had devised and constructed; the individual pushed a button which released the drugs or chemicals that would end his or her own life. Two deaths were assisted by means of a device. Kevorkian called the device a "Thanatron". Other people were assisted by a device which employed a gas mask fed by a canister of carbon monoxide, which Kevorkian called the "Mercitron".
According to a report by the Detroit Free Press, 60% of the patients who died with Kevorkian's help were not terminally ill, at least 13 had not complained of pain. The report further asserted that Kevorkian's counseling was too brief and lacked a psychiatric exam in at least 19 cases, 5 of which involved people with histories of depression, though Kevorkian was sometimes alerted that the patient was unhappy for reasons other than their medical condition; the report stated that Kevorkian failed to refer at least 17 patients to a pain specialist after they complained of chronic pain, sometimes failed to obtain a complete medical record for his patients, with at least three autopsies of suicides Kevorkian had assisted with showing the person who committed suicide to
The Scopes Trial, formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was an American legal case in July 1925 in which a substitute high school teacher, John T. Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which had made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school; the trial was deliberately staged in order to attract publicity to the small town of Dayton, where it was held. Scopes was unsure whether he had actually taught evolution, but he purposely incriminated himself so that the case could have a defendant. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100; the trial served its purpose of drawing intense national publicity, as national reporters flocked to Dayton to cover the big-name lawyers who had agreed to represent each side. William Jennings Bryan, three-time presidential candidate, argued for the prosecution, while Clarence Darrow, the famed defense attorney, spoke for Scopes; the trial publicized the Fundamentalist–Modernist controversy, which set Modernists, who said evolution was not inconsistent with religion, against Fundamentalists, who said the word of God as revealed in the Bible took priority over all human knowledge.
The case was thus seen as both a theological contest and a trial on whether modern science should be taught in schools. State Representative John W. Butler, a Tennessee farmer and head of the World Christian Fundamentals Association, lobbied state legislatures to pass anti-evolution laws, he succeeded when the Butler Act was passed in Tennessee, on March 25, 1925. Butler stated, "I didn't know anything about evolution... I'd read in the papers that boys and girls were coming home from school and telling their fathers and mothers that the Bible was all nonsense." Tennessee governor Austin Peay signed the law to gain support among rural legislators, but believed the law would neither be enforced nor interfere with education in Tennessee schools. William Jennings Bryan thanked Peay enthusiastically for the bill: "The Christian parents of the state owe you a debt of gratitude for saving their children from the poisonous influence of an unproven hypothesis."In response, the American Civil Liberties Union financed a test case in which John Scopes, a Tennessee high school science teacher, agreed to be tried for violating the Act.
Scopes, who had substituted for the regular biology teacher, was charged on May 5, 1925, with teaching evolution from a chapter in George William Hunter's textbook, Civic Biology: Presented in Problems, which described the theory of evolution and eugenics. The two sides brought in the biggest legal names in the nation, William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution and Clarence Darrow for the defense, the trial was followed on radio transmissions throughout the United States; the American Civil Liberties Union offered to defend anyone accused of teaching the theory of evolution in defiance of the Butler Act. On April 5, 1925, George Rappleyea, local manager for the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company, arranged a meeting with county superintendent of schools Walter White and local attorney Sue K. Hicks at Robinson's Drug Store, convincing them that the controversy of such a trial would give Dayton much needed publicity. According to Robinson, Rappleyea said, ``, the law is not enforced. If you win, it will be enforced.
If I win, the law will be repealed. We're game, aren't we?" The men summoned 24-year-old John T. Scopes, a Dayton high school science and math teacher; the group asked Scopes to admit to teaching the theory of evolution. Rappleyea pointed out that, while the Butler Act prohibited the teaching of the theory of evolution, the state required teachers to use a textbook that explicitly described and endorsed the theory of evolution, that teachers were, therefore required to break the law. Scopes mentioned that while he couldn't remember whether he had taught evolution in class, he had, gone through the evolution chart and chapter with the class. Scopes added to the group: "If you can prove that I've taught evolution and that I can qualify as a defendant I'll be willing to stand trial."Scopes urged students to testify against him and coached them in their answers. He was indicted on May 25. Judge John T. Raulston accelerated the convening of the grand jury and "... all but instructed the grand jury to indict Scopes, despite the meager evidence against him and the reported stories questioning whether the willing defendant had taught evolution in the classroom".
Scopes was charged with having taught from the chapter on evolution to an high-school class in violation of the Butler Act and nominally arrested, though he was never detained. Paul Patterson, owner of The Baltimore Sun, put up $500 in bail for Scopes; the original prosecutors were Herbert E. and Sue K. Hicks, two brothers who were local attorneys and friends of Scopes, but the prosecution was led by Tom Stewart, a graduate of Cumberland School of Law, who became a U. S. Senator. Stewart was aided by Dayton attorney Gordon McKenzie, who supported the anti-evolution bill on religious grounds, described evolution as "detrimental to our morality" and an assault on "the citadel of our Christian religion". Hoping to attract major press coverage, George Rappleyea went so far as to write to the British novelist H. G. Wells asking him to join the defense team. Wells replied that he had no legal training in Britain, let alone in America, declined the offer. John R. Neal, a law school professor from