The diplomatic corps or corps diplomatique is the collective body of foreign diplomats accredited to a particular country or body. The diplomatic corps may, in contexts, refer to the collection of accredited heads of mission who represent their countries in another state or country. As a body, they usually only assemble to attend state functions like a coronation, national day or State Opening of Parliament, depending on local custom. They may assemble in the royal or presidential palace to give their own head of states New Year greeting to the head of state of the country in which they are based. The term is confused with the collective body of diplomats from a particular country—the proper term for which is diplomatic service. The diplomatic corps is not always given any recognition by its host country. Diplomatic vehicles in most countries have distinctive diplomatic license plates, often with the prefix or suffix CD, the abbreviation for the French corps diplomatique. In some countries, the ambassador to a country is given the title Dean, or Doyen.
In New Zealand, for example, the dean takes precedence over figures such as the deputy minister and former governors-general. The Congress of Vienna and the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations provided that any country may choose to give nuncios a different precedence than other ambassadors, the Apostolic Nuncio to the Philippines still holds this rank due to long-standing custom despite the predominantly Catholic country having formally no official religion. The only persons who have a rank at court are the Cardinals. He acts as such during royal cermonial at court, during Te Deum, annual reception, the diplomatic corps may cooperate amongst itself on a number of matters, including certain dealings with the host government. In this sense, the dean has the role of representing the entire corps for matters that affect the corps as a whole. Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps Consular corps United States Deans of the Diplomatic Corps,1893 To Present
Nuncio is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, and is the head of the mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature. The Holy See is legally distinct from the Vatican City or the Catholic Church, a nuncio is usually an archbishop. A papal nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary. A nuncio performs the functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, the representative of the Holy See in some situations is called a Delegate or, in the case of the United Nations, Permanent Observer. In the Holy See hierarchy, these usually rank equally to a nuncio, in addition, the nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy See and the Church in that particular nation, supervising the diocesan episcopate and has an important role in the selection of bishops.
The name nuncio is derived from the ancient Latin word, before 1829, Internuncio was the title applied instead to the ad interim head of a mission when one Nuncio had left office and his replacement had not yet assumed it. A legate a latere is a papal representative or a representative for a special purpose. Apostolic delegates have the ecclesiastical rank as nuncios, but have no formal diplomatic status. Archbishop Pio Laghi, for example, was first apostolic delegate, pro-nuncio, to the United States during the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Apostolic delegates are sent to regions such as the West Indies and the islands of the Pacific. Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any change of class shall not affect his precedence and this article is without prejudice to any practice accepted by the receiving State regarding the precedence of the representative of the Holy See. A Holy See Representative is accredited to an organisation where other states dispatch a Permanent Representative
North German Confederation
The North German Confederation was a confederation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants. It was the first modern German nation state and the basis for the German Empire, after several unsuccessful proposals from several sides to reform the German Confederation, the North German major power Prussia left the German Confederation with some allies. It came to war between states on one hand and southern states led by Austria on the other. After a quick decision in the Austro-Prussian War of July 1866, Prussia, at first, it was a military alliance between independent states, the so-called August Alliance, but the states already had the intention to form a federation or confederation with a constitution. The North German Confederation is historically important for the economic and judicial unification of Germany, many of its laws were taken over by the German Empire, the North German Confederation continues as the German nation state which still exists today.
On January 1,1871, the received a new constitution that gave it the name German Empire. In 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon, the German princes. The sovereignty remained with the individual German states, there were several attempts to create a modern nation state, most prominently in the Revolution of 1848. A major issue in the struggle was the rivalry between Austria, the principal power in Germany, and the ascending Prussia. The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 demonstrated the superiority of Prussia, led by its ingenious. The alliance had 15 members then, with 80 percent of the living in Prussia. A notable exclave of the North German Confederation was the Prussian territory of Hohenzollern in the south, hesse-Darmstadt was part of the new Confederation only with its northern part. A South German Confederation, as mentioned in the Peace of Prague, from the beginning the alliance was supposed to become a nation state with a federal constitution. On 15 December 1866, Bismarck presented a proposal to the representatives of the allied governments and their complaints did not seriously alter the proposal.
On 7 February 1867, the proposal of the governments was ready. It was the not to impose the new constitution but to stipulate it together with a representation of the people. To this end a parliament was elected on 12 February and this Konstituierender Reichstag accepted the constitution, with relatively minor changes, on 16 April 1867. Then, the state parliaments adopted it, the first North German Reichstag was elected, the only one during the existence of the North German Confederation
Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. It is situated 50 kilometres north-northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, the town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, when it hosted the court of the House of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance it has qualified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Modern times have brought a renewal of industrial activity, Ferrara is on the main rail line from Bologna to Padua and Venice, and has branches to Ravenna, Poggio Rusco and Codigoro. Ferrara appears first in a document of the Lombard king Desiderius of 753 AD, Desiderius pledged a Lombard ducatus ferrariae in 757 to Pope Stephen II. Obizzo II dEste was proclaimed ruler of Ferrara five hundred years later. He became seignior of nearby Modena in 1288 and of Reggio in 1289, in 1452 the Este rulers were created Dukes of Modena and Reggio, and in 1471 Ferrara became a duchy. In 1597, when Alfonso II died without heirs, the House of Este lost Ferrara to the Papal States.
Ferrara remained a part of the Papal States from 1598 to 1859, with an interruption during the Napoleonic period, in 1859 it became part of the Kingdom of Italy. A fortress was constructed by Pope Paul V on the site of the castle called Castel Tedaldo, at the south-west angle of the town, all of the fortress was dismantled following the birth of the Kingdom of Italy and the bricks used for new constructions all over the town. On August 23,1944, the Ferrara synthetic rubber plant was a target of Strategic bombing during World War II, the town is still surrounded by more than 9 kilometres of ancient walls, mainly built in the 15th and 16th-centuries. Along with those of Lucca, they are the best preserved Renaissance walls in Italy, the imposing brick Castello Estense sited in the very centre of the town is iconic of Ferrara. The castle, erected in 1385, is surrounded by a moat, the pavilions on the top of the towers date from the 16th-century refurbishment. The City Hall, renovated in the 18th century, was the residence of the Este family.
Close by it is the former Cathedral of San Giorgio, The Romanesque lower part of the main façade, according to a now lost inscription the church had been commissioned by Guglielmo I of Adelardi. The sculpture of the portal was signed by a Nicholaus. The upper part of the main façade, with arcades of pointed arches, dates from the 13th century, the recumbent lions guarding the entrance are copies of the originals, now in the narthex of the church. An elaborate 13th-century relief depicting the Last Judgement is found in the story of the porch
Australia and Canadas federal governments were represented by high commissions, as are all Commonwealth national governments today. In the 18th and 19th centuries, a number of British colonies appointed agents in Great Britain. Eventually, agents-general were appointed by some colonies to represent their commercial and they were appointed, and their expenses and salaries provided, by the governments of the colonies they represented. Starting in 1886, Quebec and the federal Canadian government appointed agents-general to Paris, the first, Hector Fabre, was dispatched by the province of Quebec but was asked by the federal government to represent all of Canada. Canadian provinces have appointed agent-generals to other countries and major cities, following a military coup in Nigeria in 1966, the federal system was abolished, and the posts of the agents-general of Nigerian regions in London were subsumed in the Nigerian High Commission. The majority of Australian states continue to have agents-general in London, the New South Wales Office in London was one of several overseas offices established to represent various states interests in London.
The London Office was established after the appointment of the first Agent-General on 1 May 1787, after 1932, the Agent-Generals Office was abolished and replaced by the New South Wales Government Offices, London. The Agent-Generals Office was re-established in 1937, in September 1992, the position of NSW Agent-General in London was abolished by the Fahey government. It was replaced by the NSW Government Trade and Investment Office, which had no diplomatic function, Sir Peter Roylance Delamothe, 1971–1973 N C Sweeney, 1973–1974 Hon. Sir Philip Oakley Fysh, KCMG, 1899–1901 Sir Andrew Clarke,1901 Hon. Alfred Dobson, CMG, 1901–1908 Sir John McCall, KCMG, Kt. 1909–1919 Alfred Henry Ashbolt, 1919–1924 Lieut. -Colonel R. Eccles Snowden, 1924–1930 Darcy W. Addison, CMG, ISO, MVO, 1930–1931 Herbert W. Ely, ISO, 1931–1937 Hon. Sir Claude Ernest Weymouth James, Kt, 1937–1950 Sir Eric E. von Bibra, Kt, Sir Alfred J White, Kt 1959–1971 Royce R. Neville, 1971–1978 Hon. William A. Edward Horne Wittenoom,1889 -1901 Hon.
Septimus Burt KC, 1891–1892 Hon. Sir Hal Colebatch, 1923–1927 Hon. William Angwin, 1927–1933 Hon, Sir Hal Colebatch, 1933–1939 Hon. Michael Troy, 1939–1947 Hon. William Kitson, 1947–1952 Hon. James Dimmitt, 1953–1957 Hon. Ernest Hoar, 1957–1965 Hon. Smart A. H. Hart Garde B, gardom Anthony John McMillan R. Frederick W. Sims G. C. Noxon vacant James S. P. Armstrong Allan Rowan-Legg Ward Cornell W, in 1936, legislation was passed by the government of Maurice Duplessis closing all Quebec government offices abroad. The government of Adélard Godbout repealed the legislation and opened an office in New York City in 1940, when Duplessis returned to power in 1944, his government retained the New York City office and its agent-general but opened no others. In 1971, the title of agent-general was officially changed to delegate-general although previous title is often used. In addition, there are the equivalent of Honorary consuls, titled antennes, in Atlanta, Houston, Seoul, volume 2, Coming of Age, 1946–1968
In diplomatic usage, protecting power refers to a relationship that is initiated when a sovereign state does not have diplomatic representation in another country. A country may, in lieu of sending its own representative to the receiving state. The third state is responsible for looking after the states diplomatic property. It is common for protecting powers to be appointed when two countries break off relations with each other. The institution of protecting power dates back to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and was formalized in the Geneva Convention of 1929, Protecting powers are authorized in all four of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. In addition, the International Red Cross may itself be appointed a protecting power under Protocol I, the practice of selecting a protecting power in time of peace was formalized in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. The protecting power is appointed by the state and must be acceptable to the host state. It must therefore maintain diplomatic relations with both states, in time of war, the Geneva Conventions require that the protecting power be a neutral country.
The specific responsibilities and arrangements are agreed between the power, the sending state, and the host country. In a comprehensive mandate, the protecting power carries out most diplomatic functions on behalf of the protected state and this is necessary when relations are so hostile that the sparring nations have no diplomatic or consular staff posted on each others territory. For example, Sweden carries out limited consular functions for the United States, Canada, in other cases, the two nations have broken diplomatic relations, but are willing to exchange personnel on an informal basis. The protecting power serves as the mechanism for facilitating this exchange, the original embassy remains staffed by nationals of the protected state but is formally termed an interests section of the protecting power. For example, the Cuban Interests Section was staffed by Cubans and occupied the old Cuban embassy in Washington, D. C. there is no requirement that the same protecting power be selected by both countries, although this is convenient for the purposes of communication.
Each may appoint a different protecting power, provided that the choice is acceptable to the other state, there is no requirement that a country select only one protecting power in the receiving country. During the Second World War, Japan appointed Spain, the protecting power relationship originated in the Franco-Prussian War, when the belligerents expelled each others diplomats and placed restrictions on enemy aliens. This made it necessary for belligerents to appoint protecting powers to represent their interests in enemy countries, the energetic efforts of Elihu B. Washburne, the American Minister to France, set a precedent for the actions of protecting powers in war. The institution of protecting power became customary in international law but was not formalized until the Geneva Convention of 1929, the lack of formalization led to disputes over the rights and responsibilities of the protecting power
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. The structure of the French government during the Second Empire was little changed from the First, but Emperor Napoleon III stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government. He had so often, while in prison or in exile and his answer was to organize a system of government based on the principles of the Napoleonic Idea. This meant that the emperor, the elect of the people as the representative of the democracy, ruled supreme. He himself drew power and legitimacy from his role as representative of the great Napoleon I of France, the anti-parliamentary French Constitution of 1852 instituted by Napoleon III on 14 January 1852, was largely a repetition of that of 1848. All executive power was entrusted to the emperor, who, as head of state, was responsible to the people. The people of the Empire, lacking democratic rights, were to rely on the benevolence of the rather than on the benevolence of politicians.
He was to nominate the members of the council of state, whose duty it was to prepare the laws, and of the senate, a body permanently established as a constituent part of the empire. One innovation was made, that the Legislative Body was elected by universal suffrage and this new political change was rapidly followed by the same consequence as had attended that of Brumaire. The press was subjected to a system of cautionnements and avertissements, in order to counteract the opposition of individuals, a surveillance of suspects was instituted. In the same way public instruction was strictly supervised, the teaching of philosophy was suppressed in the lycées, for seven years France had no democratic life. The Empire governed by a series of plebiscites, up to 1857 the Opposition did not exist, from till 1860 it was reduced to five members, Darimon, Émile Ollivier, Hénon, Jules Favre and Ernest Picard. On 2 December 1851 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who had been elected President of the Republic and he thus became sole ruler of France, and re-established universal suffrage, previously abolished by the Assembly.
His decisions and the extension of his mandate for 10 years were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. A new constitution was enacted in January 1852 which made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, however, he was not content with merely being an authoritarian president. Almost as soon as he signed the new document into law, in response to officially-inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support. As with the December 1851 referendum, most of the yes votes were manufactured out of thin air, the empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, and the Prince-President became Napoléon III, Emperor of the French. The constitution concentrated so much power in his hands that the only changes were to replace the word president with the word emperor
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925. The state ruled by the dynasty was known as the Sublime State of Iran. The Qajar family took control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Irans integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan and Armenia. The Qajar rulers were members of the Karagöz or Black-Eye sect of the Qajars, Qajars first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qizilbash tribes that supported the Safavids. The Safavids left Arran to local Turkic khans, and, in 1554 Ganja was governed by Shahverdi Soltan Ziyadoglu Qajar, Qajars filled a number of diplomatic missions and governorships in the 16–17th centuries for the Safavids. The Qajars were resettled by Shah Abbas I throughout Iran, the great number of them settled in Astarabad near the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea, and it would be this branch of Qajars that would rise to power.
The immediate ancestor of the Qajar dynasty, Shah Qoli Khan of the Quvanlu of Ganja and his son, Fath Ali Khan was a renowned military commander during the rule of the Safavid shahs Sultan Husayn and Tahmasp II. He was killed on the orders of Shah Nader Shah in 1726, Fath Ali Khans son Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar was the father of Mohammad Khan Qajar and Hossein Qoli Khan, father of Baba Khan, the future Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. Mohammad Hasan Khan was killed on the orders of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty, like virtually every dynasty that ruled Persia since the 11th century, the Qajars came to power with the backing of Turkic tribal forces, while using educated Persians in their bureaucracy. In 1779 following the death of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty, Mohammad Khan Qajar, Mohammad Khan was known as one of the cruelest kings, even by the standards of 18th century Iran. In his quest for power, he razed cities, massacred entire populations, the Qajar armies at that time were mostly composed of Turkomans and Georgian slaves.
By 1794, Mohammad Khan had eliminated all his rivals, including Lotf Ali Khan and he reestablished Persian control over the territories in the entire Caucasus. Agha Mohammad established his capital at Tehran, a village near the ruins of the ancient city of Rayy, in 1796, he was formally crowned as shah. In 1797, Mohammad Khan Qajar was assassinated in Shusha, the capital of Karabakh Khanate, between 1747 and 1795, Erekle was, therefore, by the turn of events in Iran following the ongoing turmoil there, able to maintain Georgias autonomy through the Zand period. In 1783, Heraclius placed his kingdom under the protection of the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Georgievsk. In the last few decades of the 18th century, Georgia had become an important element in Russo-Iranian relations than some provinces in northern mainland Persia. On top of that, having another port on the Georgian coast of the Black Sea would be ideal, the consequences of these events came a few years later, when a new Iranian dynasty under the Qajars, emerged victorious in the protracted power struggle in Persia
In practice, a diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the office of a countrys diplomatic representatives in the capital city of another country. As well as being a mission to the country in which it is situated. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies, a permanent diplomatic mission is typically known as an Embassy, and the head of the mission is known as an Ambassador, or High Commissioner. Therefore, the Embassy operates in the Chancery, European Union missions abroad are known as EU delegations. Some countries have more particular naming for their missions and staff, under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, Libyas missions used the name peoples bureau and the head of the mission was a secretary. Missions between Commonwealth countries are known as commissions and their heads are High Commissioners. This is because Ambassadors are exchanged between foreign countries, but since the beginning of the Commonwealth, member countries have maintained that they are not foreign to one another.
An ambassador represents one head of state to another and a letters of credence are addressed by one head of state to another. Until India became a republic on 26 January 1950, all members of the Commonwealth had the head of state. In the past a diplomatic mission headed by an official was known as a legation. Since the ranks of envoy and minister resident are effectively obsolete, a consulate is similar to, but not the same as a diplomatic office, but with focus on dealing with individual persons and businesses, as defined by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. A consulate or consulate general is generally a representative of the embassy in locales outside of the capital city. For instance, the United Kingdom has its Embassy of the United Kingdom in Washington, D. C. but maintains seven consulates-general, the person in charge of a consulate or consulate-general is known as a consul or consul-general, respectively. Similar services may be provided at the embassy in what is called a consular section.
In cases of dispute, it is common for a country to recall its head of mission as a sign of its displeasure, a chargé daffaires ad interim heads the mission during the interim between the end of one chief of missions term and the beginning of another. Contrary to popular belief, most diplomatic missions do not enjoy full extraterritorial status, the premises of diplomatic missions usually remain under the jurisdiction of the host state while being afforded special privileges by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Diplomats themselves still retain full diplomatic immunity, and the host country may not enter the premises of the mission without permission of the represented country, international rules designate an attack on an embassy as an attack on the country it represents. The term extraterritoriality is often applied to missions, but normally only in this broader sense
An Apostolic Nunciature is a top-level diplomatic mission of the Holy See, equivalent to an embassy, however, it does not issue visas nor does it have consulates. The head of the Apostolic Nunciature is called a nuncio, an ecclesiastical diplomatic title, papal representatives to other intergovernmental organizations are known as permanent observers or delegates. In several countries that have relations with the Holy See. The nuncio is first in the order of precedence among all the diplomats accredited to the country, most countries that concede priority to the nuncio are officially Catholic, but some are not. In addition, the nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy See and the Church in that nation, supervising the diocesan episcopate. The nuncio has an important role in the selection of bishops, of the entities having established diplomatic relations with, there is no representative only to the Order of Malta. There are sixteen countries with whom the Holy See does not have relations, nine of these are Muslim, Saudi Arabia, Comoros, the Maldives, Mauritania and Somalia.
These are the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Peoples Republic of China, the remaining four are Bhutan, South Sudan, and Tuvalu. Apostolic delegates are titular archbishops but have no diplomatic status