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A legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history. Narratives in this genre may demonstrate human values, possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. Legend, for its active and passive participants, includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility," but may include miracles. Legends may be transformed over time, in order to keep them fresh and realistic. Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being believed by the participants, but never being resolutely doubted; the Brothers Grimm defined legend as folktale grounded. A modern folklorist's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R. Tangherlini in 1990: Legend is a short episodic, traditional ecotypified historicized narrative performed in a conversational mode, reflecting on a psychological level a symbolic representation of folk belief and collective experiences and serving as a reaffirmation of held values of the group to whose tradition it belongs.

Legend is a loanword from Old French that entered English usage circa 1340. The Old French noun legende derives from the Medieval Latin legenda. In its early English-language usage, the word indicated a narrative of an event; the word legendary was a noun meaning a collection or corpus of legends. This word changed to legendry, legendary became the adjectival form. By 1613, English-speaking Protestants began to use the word when they wished to imply that an event was fictitious. Thus, legend gained its modern connotations of "undocumented" and "spurious", which distinguish it from the meaning of chronicle. In 1866, Jacob Grimm described the fairy tale as "poetic, legend historic." Early scholars such as Karl Wehrhan Friedrich Ranke and Will Erich Peuckert followed Grimm's example in focussing on the literary narrative, an approach, enriched after the 1960s, by addressing questions of performance and the anthropological and psychological insights provided in considering legends' social context.

Questions of categorising legends, in hopes of compiling a content-based series of categories on the line of the Aarne–Thompson folktale index, provoked a search for a broader new synthesis. In an early attempt at defining some basic questions operative in examining folk tales, Friedrich Ranke in 1925 characterised the folk legend as "a popular narrative with an objectively untrue imaginary content" a dismissive position, subsequently abandoned. Compared to the structured folktale, legend is comparatively amorphous, Helmut de Boor noted in 1928; the narrative content of legend is in realistic mode, rather than the wry irony of folktale. In Einleitung in der Geschichtswissenschaft, Ernst Bernheim asserted that a legend is a longstanding rumour. Gordon Allport credited the staying-power of some rumours to the persistent cultural state-of-mind that they embody and capsulise; when Willian Jansen suggested that legends that disappear were "short-term legends" and the persistent ones be termed "long-term legends", the distinction between legend and rumour was obliterated, Tangherlini concluded.

In the narrow Christian sense, legenda were hagiographical accounts collected in a legendary. Because saints' lives are included in many miracle stories, legend, in a wider sense, came to refer to any story, set in a historical context but that contains supernatural, divine or fantastic elements. Hippolyte Delehaye distinguished legend from myth: "The legend, on the other hand, has, of necessity, some historical or topographical connection, it refers imaginary events to some real personage, or it localizes romantic stories in some definite spot."From the moment a legend is retold as fiction, its authentic legendary qualities begin to fade and recede: in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Washington Irving transformed a local Hudson River Valley legend into a literary anecdote with "Gothic" overtones, which tended to diminish its character as genuine legend. Stories that exceed the boundaries of "realism" are called "fables". For example, the talking animal formula of Aesop identifies his brief stories as fables, not legends.

The parable of the Prodigal Son would be a legend if it were told as having happened to a specific son of a historical father. If it included a donkey that gave sage advice to the Prodigal Son it would be a fable. Legend may be transmitted orally, passed on person-to-person, or, in the original sense, through written text. Jacob de Voragine's Legenda Aurea or "The Golden Legend" comprises a series of vitae or instructive biographical narratives, tied to the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church, they are presented as lives of the saints, but the profusion of miraculous happenings and above all their uncritical context are characteristics of hagiography. The Legenda was intended to inspire extemporized homilies and sermons appropriate to the saint of the day. Urban legends are a modern genre of folklore, rooted in local popular culture comprising fictional stories that are presented as true, with macabre or humorous elements; these legends can be used for entertainment purposes, as well as semi-serious explanations for seemingly-mysterious events, such as disappearances and strange objects


Hispanopithecus is a genus of apes that inhabited Europe during the Miocene epoch. It was first identified in a 1944 paper by J. F. Villalta and M. Crusafont in Notas y Comunicaciones del Instituto Geologico y Minero de España. Anthropologists disagree as to whether Hispanopithecus belongs to the subfamily Ponginae or Homininae; the genus contains two known species: Hispanopithecus crusafonti. The fossils have been dated to between 9.5 million years ago. Postcranial features exhibit morphological features; the structure of the cortical bone at the proximal and distal ends of the femur the neck of the femoral head, indicate an orthograde body plan. Recovered vertebrae indicate a short and deep thorax support the orthograde posture for climbing and feeding in an arboreal environment; the longer forelimbs and dorsally situated scapulae provide a broad range of motion which would enable suspensory below-branch behavior and proficiency in reaching food during foraging. The humeral-ulnar joint allowed for flexion of the forearm.

The robust carpals and metacarpals with dorsally extended articular surfaces provide strong indication of palmigrade quadrupedalism in above-branch locomotion. The proximal phalanges are curved and long when compared to other great apes and most resembling the structure of extant orangutans; the length and curvature of the manual phalanges indicates the'double-locking' mechanism similar to orangutans and enable a powerful grip around slender branches. The body mass estimates of recovered specimens provides strong evidence of sexual dimorphism; the males have been estimated to weigh 40 kilograms and possess prominent canine teeth. The females have been estimated to weigh 22–25 kilograms and possess reduced canine teeth; the dental formula of Hispanopithecus, common to great apes, is with the Y5 occlusal surface present on the lower molars. Analysis of the microwear of the teeth of Hispanopithecus indicate a morphological preference for softer foods, including fruits and young leaves.

A combination of surface scratches and pitting are indicative of a mixed diet, lacking many hard foods like nuts and seeds except in times of soft food scarcity and lacking wear patterns common with heavy folivore diets. Linear hypoplasia is common, which would suggest episodes of malnutrition stress during dental development, indicating the need for fall-back foods in the diet when preferred foods are unavailable. Evidence suggests that the environment of Hispanopithecus on the Iberian Peninsula was tropical to subtropical with marsh-like features. Flora of the period is preserved as samples of evergreen laurels, palms and marsh herbs in wet areas and diverse leguminous trees and shrubs in lowland dry areas. Figs have been preserved in the stratographic layer which contained hominid teeth, which would have been available year-round in the Middle Miocene; the climate changed in the Late Miocene to a cooler, less tropical environment. This would have brought seasonal change which would have impacted the available food sources of Hispanopithecus contributing to extinction near this time.


2009–10 Calgary Flames season

The 2009–10 Calgary Flames season was the 30th season for the Calgary Flames, the 38th for the Flames franchise in the National Hockey League. The Flames entered the season with a new head coach; the year opened with the 2009 NHL Entry Draft on June 26–27, as the Flames selected defenceman Tim Erixon with their first selection. 2009 marked the debut of the Flames' new American Hockey League affiliate, the Abbotsford Heat, as the franchise has relocated from the Quad Cities to the British Columbia city. While the Flames led the Northwest Division early in the season, an extended slump left them in the eighth and final playoff position by the Olympic break; as a result, General Manager Darryl Sutter completed several trades in a bid to improve the team's fortunes. Dion Phaneuf was one of seven roster players sent to other teams between January 31 and the March 3 trade deadline; the 2010 Winter Olympic tournament interrupted the season during February. Jarome Iginla won his second Olympic gold medal with Team Canada, while Miikka Kiprusoff and Niklas Hagman won bronze medals with the Finnish team.

Iginla and Daymond Langkow each played their 1,000th games in February. The Flames continued to struggle after the Olympic break; the result was disappointing for the organization, led to media and fan speculation regarding the futures of Sutter and Iginla in Calgary. The Flames entered the 2009–10 campaign with a new head coach after Brent Sutter was named the 18th coach in franchise history, his assistants were promoted from within the organization: former Quad City Flames coach Ryan McGill and Calgary Hitmen coach Dave Lowry joined Sutter's staff along with former player Jamie McLennan, who became the team's new goaltender coach. Sutter had spent the previous two seasons as the coach of the New Jersey Devils, but resigned the position over a desire to return closer to his home in Red Deer, Alberta, he joined his brother Darryl. Preceding the release of the season schedule, rampant speculation that the Flames were in negotiations to host a second outdoor game for the 2010 NHL Winter Classic were confirmed.

The additional game, suggested by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, would have taken place at McMahon Stadium, though negotiations were not successful and the league scheduled only one outdoor game for New Year's Day. Training camp had been dominated by the comeback attempt of Theoren Fleury at age 41. Fleury had last played in the NHL in 2003 as a member of the Chicago Blackhawks before his career was halted by drug and alcohol addictions. Fleury, under NHL suspension over his addictions since he last played, was reinstated by the league prior to the opening of camp and subsequently signed a tryout offer, he appeared in the Flames' second pre-season game, against the New York Islanders, drawing a loud ovation from the fans. He scored the only shootout goal to lead the Flames to a 5–4 victory before acknowledging the Saddledome crowd as it chanted "Theo! Theo! Theo!"Fleury played four exhibition games, scoring four points, before being released by the Flames. General manager Darryl Sutter expressed his pride in Fleury's attempt and commended his effort, but decided he was not one of the top six wingers in camp, which Sutter and Fleury had agreed was a condition of the tryout continuing.

On September 28, 2009, Fleury announced his retirement. He thanked the Flames for allowing him to attempt the comeback, expressed satisfaction at how his career ended; the game against the Islanders featured a devastating open-ice hit by Dion Phaneuf on New York's Kyle Okposo that saw the young forward taken off on a stretcher and sent to hospital with a concussion. The hit led Pascal Morency to leave his team's bench to engage Phaneuf as a melee broke out in the aftermath of the check; the league suspended Morency ten games for leaving the bench. The Flames were expected to battle the Vancouver Canucks for top spot in the Northwest Division; the two teams met to open a 5 -- 3 victory for Calgary. It was the first time Calgary won a season opening game in seven years, only the second since 1993; the Flames won their next three, including two against their arch-rivals, the Edmonton Oilers to open the season at 4–0 for the first time since 1993–94. Following a loss to the Dallas Stars, the Flames faced the Chicago Blackhawks, after scoring five goals in just five minutes, 29 seconds in the first period, went on to give up six consecutive goals to lose the game 6–5 in overtime.

The six-goal outburst by Chicago tied an NHL record for the largest comeback in league history. Despite a 4–1–1 start to the season, the loss prompted coach Sutter to question the players' mental toughness. Although they felt they were not playing up to their expectations, the Flames tied a franchise record for the best start to the season, going 7–2–1 after ten games; the Flames were embroiled in a national controversy in early November after it was revealed the team had secured a private clinic from Alberta Health Services to have all players and their families inoculated against the H1N1 flu pandemic at the same time as many Albertans were growing frustrated with how the province was running public clinics. The controversy polarized the public and the media within individual newspapers; the Calgary Sun's Michael Platt accused the "millionaire hockey players" of taking vaccinations from "shivering children", while Eric Francis defended the club by pointing to the millions of dollars and hundreds of hours of volunteer time the team gives to the medical community.

The Flames defended their actions, stating they completed an agreeme

Irvington, Illinois

Irvington is a village in Washington County, United States. The population was 659 at the 2010 census. Irvington was named for Washington Irving. Irvington is located at 38°26′19″N 89°9′40″W. According to the 2010 census, Irvington has a total area of 1.036 square miles, of which 1.03 square miles is land and 0.006 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 736 people, 282 households, 208 families residing in the village; the population density was 878.6 people per square mile. There were 310 housing units at an average density of 370.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.42% White, 0.41% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.54% of the population. There were 282 households out of which 38.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.03. In the village, the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $41,875, the median income for a family was $51,250. Males had a median income of $37,422 versus $22,632 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,541. About 7.5% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. June C. Smith, Chief Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court, was born in Irvington

Idol Drama Operation Team

Idol Drama Operation Team was a 2017 South Korean web variety program. The program was presented through Naver TVCast and Naver V App every Monday and Friday at 11am KST. Starting June 10, 2017, it aired on KBS World; the show invited seven girl group members to create their own Korean drama series by becoming accredited scriptwriters as well as acting in the series as fictional versions of themselves. The drama they worked on was named Let's Only Walk an autobiographical drama; the first episode of the drama debuted on June 26, 2017, at 11am KST through Naver TVCast and Naver V App. It aired daily for 8 episodes until July 3, 2017. On July 4, 2017, each member's full performances for The Five was revealed. Girls Next Door, the group produced through the show made their official debut on Music Bank on July 14, 2017. Moonbyul as Moon Byul-yi the leader of the group Seulgi as Kang Seul-gi Kim So-hee as Kim So-hee D.ana as Jo Eun-ae YooA as Yoo Shi-ah Sujeong as Ryu Su-jeong Jeon So-mi as Jeon So-mi Jang Won-young as IM Entertainment's Director Jang, judge of The Five Also the acting coach of the 7 girl group members before filming of the drama Jeon So-min as Jeon So-min, a 1st generation idol, senior of Girls Next Door Shin Hyun-joon as the PD of Music Bank Baek A-yeon as Baek A-yeon, the other 1st place nominee on Music Bank Snuper, Sonamoo, MASC, Victon and Momoland as performers on Music Bank Kim Jong-min as jokbal delivery man Im Won-hee as IM Entertainment's CEO Im, judge of The Five Kwon Oh-joong as friend of Director Jang Bae Yoon-jeong as the dance teacher for Girls Next Door, judge of The Five Jun Hyun-moo as the MC of The Five Gaeko and Choiza as rap teachers for Moon Byul-yi Kim Chung-ha as Kim Chung-ha, artist of another company Kim Geun-soo as the CEO of Chung-ha's company Sung Byung-sook as So-hee's grandmother Jung Jin-young as Girls Next Door's senior, former IM Entertainment trainee Also the songwriter/producer for Deep Blue Eyes Hyerim as the recorder of the viral Girls Next Door fancam Kangnam and Nahyun as the MCs of Music Bank The episode title is based on each girl's original group popular title track

Owen Township, Clinton County, Indiana

Owen Township is one of fourteen townships in Clinton County, Indiana. As of the 2010 census, its population was 930 and it contained 334 housing units; the township was named for Robert Dale Owen of New Harmony. Included in Jackson Township, Owen was organized as a separate township in March, 1843, it lost a one mile strip along its southern border to Union Township, created in 1889, leaving Owen a five mile by five mile square. The first settlers in the area were Elihu Short, Samuel Gray, John Temple and John Miller in 1828. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of all land. Cambria Ellis Geetingsville Moran Sedalia Democrat Township, Carroll County Burlington Township, Carroll County Warren Township Michigan Township Union Township Ross Township Indiana State Road 26 Indiana State Road 75 Cemeteries: Mount Hope Old Chaney...and more United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files U. S. Board on Geographic Names Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana